Norwich Guildhall

Norwich Guildhall


Norwich Guildhall - Sejarah


Bahagian selatan Norwich guildhall.
Pintu di hujung barat pada awalnya merupakan pintu masuk ke menara barat daya.
Foto & salinan S. Alsford

Permulaan membina guildhall baru, pada tahun 1407, harus difahami dalam konteks perubahan perlembagaan yang dihasilkan dari piagam kerajaan 1404, menggabungkan wilayah, memberikan status daerah, menggantikan walikota dan sheriff untuk mantan eksekutif balival, dan memberi walikota dan empat rakannya yang mempunyai kuasa Hakim-hakim Perdamaian. Ini mengikuti masa ketika kelas pemerintah menggabungkan kekuatannya, dengan beberapa tentangan dari tempat lain dalam masyarakat, dan mendahului periode pertengkaran yang lebih sengit terhadap konstitusi (lihat halaman "Sejarah Norwich abad pertengahan: Pembahagian kepentingan".

Pada suatu titik dalam beberapa bulan setelah pemberian piagam itu, sebuah resolusi menetapkan badan 80 warga negara untuk berpartisipasi dalam perhimpunan, nampaknya bagi pihak dan sebagai pengganti masyarakat luas. Sebelum ini sebuah jawatankuasa pemilihan telah dipilih untuk bertindak untuk masyarakat dalam memilih bailif sekarang, 80 daripadanya bertindak untuk masyarakat tetapi kuasa mereka dibatasi untuk membuat pencalonan & # 150 keputusan akhir terletak pada walikota dan dewan, dalam gaya London. Ini tidak sesuai dengan masyarakat.

Dalam perselisihan yang terjadi, ada keluhan tentang penggantian piagam kerajaan (1380), dalam pemberian kuasa untuk membuat undang-undang kecil, oleh masyarakat oleh dewan bandar (mewakili masyarakat) sebagai ejen untuk memberikan persetujuan kepada mana-mana pihak undang-undang kecil tersebut. Patriciate menyerang balas dengan cuba merujuk kepada masyarakat, sebagai entiti perlembagaan, yang dikeluarkan dari piagam kota. Penyelesaian perselisihan memperkenalkan prosedur yang lebih rumit untuk memilih pelbagai pegawai pada masa yang sama anggota dewan atasan diberi status keahlian seumur hidup dan gelaran aldermen yang bermartabat, dan tidak lagi berpura-pura mereka mewakili masyarakat, peranan ini jatuh ke badan yang lebih besar (dikurangkan menjadi 60) kini tegas ditubuhkan sebagai dewan yang lebih rendah.


Gerbang timur Norild guildhall.
Menara jam adalah hiasan tahun 1850.
Foto & salinan S. Alsford

Pembinaan rumah baru untuk pemerintahan sivik mencerminkan cita-cita kelas pemerintah untuk memiliki kawalan tadbir urus yang lebih lengkap dan tidak dapat ditandingi. Pengenalan nama baru & # 150 walikota, aldermen, wad, guildhall & # 150 mencadangkan peniruan London. Pada masa yang sama, dewan bandar baru merupakan simbol status dipertingkat borough yang diperbadankan. Telah dikemukakan bahawa skala guildhall, yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya di luar London, mungkin berutang sesuatu pada contoh "dewan-dewan kota besar yang menghiasi kota-kota kain kaya dari Negara-negara Rendah, dengan mana Norfolk mempunyai hubungan perdagangan yang erat" [I. Dunn dan H. Sutermeister, The Norwich Guildhall, City of Norwich, ca.1978].

The Guildhall menggantikan dewan yang lebih tua, Tolbooth, di tapaknya yang landai di sebelah utara pasar dengan struktur yang kurang mengagumkan, dari segi saiz dan bahan binaan, Tolbooth telah bertugas untuk pentadbiran kehakiman dan kewangan, tetapi majelis pilihan raya harus diadakan di sebuah kapel besar di lokasi lain. Perubahan pada awal abad kelima belas, meningkatkan kuasa kehakiman pegawai bandar dan jumlah pengadilan yang berbeza, serta menggantikan perhimpunan yang popular dengan dewan dua tingkat yang cukup besar, pasti menjadi faktor dalam keputusan untuk menghabiskan bangunan baru . Bangunan itu akan menampung gaol yang lebih besar daripada pendahulunya, serta arkib bandar dan perbendaharaan, semua fungsi menuntut struktur yang kukuh dan tahan lama. Fungsi asal Tolbooth, sebagai titik pengumpulan tol barang yang dibawa ke pasar dan mungkin bayaran lesen untuk gerai, dipindahkan selepas itu & # 150 jika tidak lebih awal & # 150 ke Murage Loft, bangunan lain di pasar, awalnya untuk mengumpulkan tol khas untuk menuju ke bangunan dinding.


Bahagian utara Norwich guildhall.
Dua rentang yang terpisah, mungkin meniru gereja dan gereja, dapat dibuat.
Foto & salinan S. Alsford

Bangunan teras siap pada tahun 1412, berkat pengenaan cukai tempatan khas tiga kali dalam tempoh pembinaan, dan kesan pekerja (nampaknya tidak dibayar, kecuali tukang kayu, tukang batu dan pengrajin mahir lain), dengan pekerjaan kadang-kadang bermula dari subuh hingga senja. Sumbangan dan permintaan oleh warganegara juga menyumbang kepada biaya yang pasti besar, dibandingkan dengan pendapatan tahunan yang merupakan bagian dari anggaran kota biasa. Peningkatan atap, dilapisi dengan timah, pada tahun 1412 memungkinkan bangunan itu mulai digunakan, pertama untuk menempatkan tahanan di gaol di ruang bawah tanah berkubah. Bangku untuk mahkamah walikota sedang dipasang dalam tempoh yang sama.

Kerja terus dilakukan untuk meningkatkan, meningkatkan, dan membina tambahan ke Guildhall sepanjang abad ini. Sebuah serambi bertingkat dibina pada tahun 1420-an, walaupun ini dibina semula pada tahun 1723 dan sekali lagi pada zaman Victoria sebenarnya seluruh kawasan di sebelah selatan (lihat foto di atas) adalah pasca abad pertengahan. Bangunan ini dibina dengan bahan yang sama dengan gereja-gereja abad pertengahan Norwich: runtuhan batu api dengan menghadap batu api yang diikat dan pengisian serpihan batu api. Kastil di sekitar bumbung ditunjukkan dalam ilustrasi terawal dan mungkin abad pertengahan. Sebilangan besar tingkap mungkin berkaca, dan sebahagiannya mengandungi gambar kaca patri, yang sedikit terselamat. Kesan bangunan itu semestinya dan bertujuan untuk menimbulkan rasa kagum dan rasa hormat pada warga.

Gerbang timur dihiasi dengan cara yang serupa dengan guildhall Lynn: corak kotak-kotak yang menggunakan batu api bertentangan dengan batu karang mungkin ia melambangkan pejabat perakaunan bandar (pegawai). Tingkapnya adalah satu-satunya yang selamat dari pengubahsuaian zaman Victoria, persenjataan di bawahnya adalah penambahan abad keenam belas. Lebih jauh ke bawah, di permukaan tanah di mana air pancut Victoria kini diletakkan di dinding, awalnya mungkin merupakan pintu masuk ke dalam ruang bawah tanah. Ilustrasi awal bangunan menunjukkan apa yang kelihatan seperti pintu masuk atau tingkap yang dilarang ke ruang bawah tanah. Di sebalik tembok ini, para pendiri mendirikan gerai, di mana warganegara dapat membeli perkhidmatan mereka, beberapa berkaitan dengan membuat salinan rekod rasmi. Di hujung bangunan yang bertentangan (barat) berdiri dua menara, satu menara perbendaharaan, yang runtuh pada awal Tudor, dan yang kedua masih bertahan hingga abad kelapan belas.

Luas yang lebih besar (barat) memiliki di tingkat atas ruang pertemuan untuk dewan penuh, dua tingkat tinggi, yang juga berfungsi sebagai mahkamah sheriff sebuah bilik persendirian digabungkan di satu hujung. Jangkauan yang lebih kecil, nampaknya dibangun di atas pondasi Tolbooth, bertempat di tingkat atas ruang yang lebih kecil di mana dewan aldermen dalaman bertemu, dua kali ganda sebagai mahkamah walikota. Di tingkat bawah terdapat penjara untuk lelaki dan wanita sebuah kapel kecil di beranda melayani keperluan tahanan. Ruang bawah tanah di ruang bawah tanah adalah untuk penjenayah yang lebih berbahaya.


  1. 1 Reka bentuk Belanda dapat memberi inspirasi kepada perubahan bulatan bahaya
  2. 2 Dua restoran Norfolk di lima & # 39secret & # 39 tempat makan di pantai Inggeris
  3. 3 Putera William, George dan Charlotte memulakan perlumbaan di Sandringham
  1. 4 Keadaan langka membunuh & # 39amazing & # 39 pemandu lori
  2. 5 & ​​# 39Lebih seperti Mac & # 39 - Jadi bilakah kita akan mendapat sinar matahari kembali?
  3. 6 Jualan mesin menandakan sejarah pertanian 100 tahun terakhir keluarga & # 39
  4. 7 Anda boleh berlari, Mr Hancock, tetapi anda tidak boleh bersembunyi
  5. 8 Farke mengenai keadaan kontraknya di City
  6. 9 Kedai kaktus yang menjual tanaman bernilai £ 95 dibuka di kotak telefon Norwich
  7. 10 Amaran mengenai penipuan rakaman panggilan sejuk & Amazon # 39 di Norfolk

• Pada hari Khamis 20 November jam 6 petang Frank Meeres akan membicarakan Pembunuhan dan Kesalahan: Norwich Guildhall dan Penjenayah Kota.

Bergabung dengan sejarawan dan arkib Frank untuk ceramah mengenai sejarah bangunan dan bahagiannya dalam perbicaraan beberapa penjenayah yang paling terkenal di bandar ini. Ahli bidaah, pembunuh dan pencuri semuanya diadili atas kejahatan mereka di Guildhall. Ketahui mengenai hukuman yang dijatuhkan kerana pencurian dua botol, kisah tragis Jane Sellers muda dan bagaimana ia digunakan semasa malapetaka.

• Pada hari Khamis 27 November jam 6 petang Maurice Morson akan bercakap mengenai Norwich Murders.

Siapakah Martha Sheward dan mengapa jenazahnya dikuburkan di bawah Guildhall? Apa percubaan yang berlaku? Dan siapa pembunuh yang ditangkap di luar oleh Ketua Konstabel?

Dalam ceramahnya, Maurice, seorang bekas pegawai polis bandar yang kemudian menjadi ketua Norfolk CID dan kini menjadi pengarang yang berwibawa, akan mendedahkan beberapa pembunuhan mengerikan yang telah berlaku di bandar ini.

• Tiket untuk kedua-dua ceramah berharga £ 5. Untuk maklumat lebih lanjut pergi ke www.heritagecity.org

Menjadi Penyokong

Akhbar ini telah menjadi bahagian utama kehidupan masyarakat selama bertahun-tahun. Industri kami menghadapi masa ujian, sebab itulah kami meminta sokongan anda. Setiap sumbangan akan membantu kita terus menghasilkan jurnalisme tempatan yang memberikan perbezaan yang dapat diukur kepada masyarakat kita.


Garis masa Norwich

Baca tentang beberapa tarikh Norwich & rsquos yang paling penting dalam sejarah, termasuk ketika Norwich Castle, Norwich Cathedral dan bangunan bersejarah dan penting yang lain dibina. Ketika Kematian Hitam sampai di Norwich, Kett & rsquos Pemberontakan dan ketika kebakaran dahsyat melanda kota. Lihat tarikh penting dalam sejarah untuk Jarrold Department Store, Colman & rsquos Mustard, The University of East Anglia, Lapangan Terbang Antarabangsa Norwich dan Kelab Bola Sepak Norwich City.

Norwich adalah penempatan Anglo-Saxon kecil, di utara sungai Wensum dengan pudina sendiri. Pada abad ke-10 Norwich berkembang pesat ke tebing selatan sungai

Orang Denmark membakar Norwich - dengan bangunan yang terbuat dari kayu dan jerami, ini mudah. Namun, Norwich dibina semula dan tidak lama kemudian mula berkembang

Orang Norman memulakan kerja di kastil Norwich

Pada masa Buku Domesday, Norwich mempunyai penduduk sekitar 6,000 orang dan merupakan salah satu bandar terbesar di England. Industri utama adalah pembuatan bulu

Uskup mengalihkan tempat duduknya dari Thetford ke Norwich

Kerja mula membina katedral baru dari batu api dan mortar

Norwich memberikan piagam bandar oleh Richard I, sebuah dokumen yang memberikan hak tertentu kepada rakyat

Rumah Sakit Besar diasaskan oleh Uskup Walter de Suffield dengan waris asal adalah sarjana miskin, orang miskin dan penderita lapar dan penderita tua

Semasa perang saudara, Norwich dipecat oleh baron pemberontak, tetapi ia segera pulih

Terdapat rusuhan di Norwich - dengan perselisihan antara lelaki beragama dan warga Norwich mengenai tugas, sempadan dan hak

Katedral dikuduskan di hadapan Edward I

Pada tahun 1278 Cow Tower dibina untuk mengumpulkan tol

Norwich mempunyai penduduk sekitar 10,000 dan industri utamanya ialah pembuatan bulu. Pada masa ini juga terdapat industri kulit yang penting

Wabak / Kematian Hitam sampai ke Norwich

Bridewell dibina dan digunakan sebagai penjara antara tahun 1583 dan 1828

Semasa pemberontak Peasants Revolt menangkap Norwich. Namun, mereka tidak menahan Norwich untuk waktu yang lama, dengan Uskup mengumpulkan pasukan yang pemberontak berundur ke Walsham Utara di mana mereka dikalahkan

Norwich diberi piagam baru dan memperoleh walikota dan dua sheriff

Guildhall dibina antara tahun 1407 dan 1413 dan berfungsi sebagai pusat pemerintahan kota dari awal abad ke-15. Pada tahun 1938 ia digantikan oleh Dewan Bandaraya yang baru dibina

Erpingham Gate, pintu gerbang batu api dan batu yang megah didirikan tepat di seberang bahagian depan katedral barat sekitar tahun 1420 dan disumbangkan oleh Sir Thomas Erpingham

Sir Peter Mancroft dibina antara 1430 - 1455 - gereja terbesar di Norwich

Pada tahun 1463 Katedral Norwich & puncak rsquos disambar petir dan bumbung nadi musnah. Pada tahun 1480 sebuah menara baru dibina

Norwich mengalami kebakaran yang teruk, dengan dua kebakaran lagi pada tahun 1507. Dengan kebanyakan bangunan yang terbuat dari kayu dan jerami, kebakaran adalah bahaya yang berterusan

Pemberontakan Kett & rsquos di Norfolk adalah semasa pemerintahan Edward VI. Marah dengan perlakuan pemilik tanah, banyak petani memberontak dan memulai pemberontakan di Wymondham, memusnahkan pagar yang dipasang oleh pemilik tanah kaya. Diketuai oleh petani Robert Kett, pemberontak menyerbu Norwich pada 29 Julai dan merebut bandar itu. Pemberontak dikalahkan pada percubaan kedua, kali ini oleh tentera di bawah pimpinan Earl of Warwick pada Pertempuran Dussindale. Kett dan banyak pemberontak ditangkap dan digantung

Penenun datang ke Norwich dari sekarang Belanda dan Belgia, melarikan diri dari penganiayaan agama, membawa kenari mereka bersama mereka. Penduduk tempatan segera memilih memelihara burung ini sebagai hobi dan menjelang abad ke-18 Norwich menjadi terkenal dengan burung kenari. Di sinilah Kelab Bola Sepak Bandar Norwich mendapat nama samarannya, Canaries

Wabak wabak membunuh sekitar sepertiga penduduk Norwich & rsquos

Penduduk Norwich adalah sekitar 25,000, walaupun wabak wabak pada tahun 1625 dan 1665

Hospital Bethel, untuk pesakit mental, dibina

Akhbar pertama di Norwich diterbitkan pada tahun 1721

Direka oleh arkitek Thomas Ivory, Assembly House dibina. Ia menjadi pusat hiburan untuk perhimpunan, konsert dan tarian, yang diadakan untuk lelaki Norwich

Bank pertama ditubuhkan di Norwich dan pada tahun 1775 keluarga tempatan, John dan Henry Gurney, memulakan sebuah bank yang masih bertahan hingga kini sebagai sebahagian daripada Barclays

Hospital Norfolk dan Norwich ditubuhkan

Norwich mempunyai populasi 36,000 orang

Theatre Royal diubah suai oleh William Wilkins, seorang pembina dan arkitek tempatan

Sekumpulan lelaki yang dipanggil Pesuruhjaya Peningkatan dibentuk untuk membuka, membersihkan dan menerangi jalan-jalan di Norwich

Jeremiah Colman mendirikan Colman & rsquos of Norwich pada tahun 1814, di kilang Stoke Holy Cross di Sungai Tas, empat batu di selatan Norwich

Cacar membunuh 530 orang di Norwich

Jarrold & amp Sons Ltd ditubuhkan pada tahun 1770 di Woodbridge, Suffolk dan berpindah ke Norwich pada tahun 1823

Pasukan polis pertama Norwich & rsquos dibentuk

Kereta api Norwich dibuka pada tahun 1844

Majlis membina bekalan air tulen

Perpustakaan awam pertama dibuka di Norwich

Rangkaian pembetung dibina

Sekolah Tinggi Norwich untuk kanak-kanak perempuan ditubuhkan

Pelepasan kumuh bermula di Norwich

Stesen kereta api Norwich City dibuka

Kerja membina Katedral Roman Katolik di Norwich bermula

HM Prison Norwich ditubuhkan, dan tahanan dipindahkan dari Castle ke penjara baru

City College Norwich ditubuhkan

Norwich Castle dibuka sebagai muzium

Royal Arcade, direka dan dibina oleh arkitek kelahiran Dereham, George Skipper dibina

Trem elektrik berjalan di Norwich & # 45 yang merangkumi lebih dari 17 batu

Penduduk di Norwich adalah 111,733

Kelab Bola Sepak Norwich City dibentuk dan lagu-lagu ikonik mereka & # 39On The Ball, City & # 39, yang secara meluas dianggap sebagai lagu bola sepak tertua di dunia dan masih dinyanyikan hari ini, dianggap juga berasal dari sekitar tahun 1902

Norwich City Football Club berpindah ke The Nest, lubang kapur yang tidak digunakan

Pawagam pertama Norwich & rsquos dibuka. Dikenali sebagai TDL atau Theater de Luxe, ia adalah "istana bergambar" pertama di bandar ini

Pada tahun 1921 penukaran Kapel Katolik Rom, menjadi teater kerja selesai dan Maddermarket Theatre didirikan

Ethel Colman adalah Datuk Bandar Norwich yang pertama Norwich dan anak perempuan dari raksasa mustard, Jeremiah James Colman

Heigham Park dibuka secara rasmi, dengan kerja yang dimulakan pada tahun 1921

Woodrow Piling Park dibuka pada tahun 1927

Taman Sloughbottom dan Taman Mile Cross dibuka

Pembukaan rasmi Lapangan Terbang Norwich di lokasi di Mousehold

Taman Waterloo dibuka pada tahun 1933

Trem elektrik berhenti beroperasi di Norwich

Norwich City Football Club berpindah ke Carrow Road dari bekas tanah mereka, The Nest

Pada bulan April, Norwich terkena bom udara oleh pasukan Jerman

Perpustakaan Pusat baru dibina di Norwich

Kelab Bola Sepak Norwich City memenangi Piala Liga

Universiti Norwich ditubuhkan pada tahun 1963 dan mengakui kohort pertama dari 87 pelajar pada tahun ini

Lapangan Terbang Norwich bergerak ke Horsham St Faith

Penerbangan sewa percutian pertama mula berjalan dari Lapangan Terbang Norwich

Kelab Bola Sepak Norwich City dinaikkan ke kedudukan teratas

Kedai mustard Colman & rsquos dibuka di Norwich, ditutup pada April 2017

Pusat Kesenian Norwich dibuka

Pusat Sainsbury untuk Seni Visual, terletak di kampus University of East Anglia & rsquos dan direka oleh arkitek Norman Foster dan Wendy Cheesman, dibuka

Teater Boneka Norwich ditubuhkan. Ia pertama kali dibuka untuk umum pada tahun 1980, setelah penukaran gereja abad pertengahan St James, di tengah-tengah Norwich

Teater Sewell Barn dibuka

Kelab Bola Sepak Norwich City memenangi Piala Liga

Terminal Lapangan Terbang Norwich dibuka

Pelancaran rasmi Norwich Research Park

Pusat membeli-belah Castle Mall dibuka, setelah mengambil masa sekitar 4 tahun untuk disiapkan, menempati hampir 7 ekar di pusat bandar Norwich

Perpustakaan Pusat Norwich terbakar

Norwich Playhouse dibuka pada awalnya yang merupakan penyalahgunaan abad ke-19

Riverside Leisure Complex dibuka

Norfolk dan Norwich University Hospital ditubuhkan

Forum ini selesai, dibina di laman Perpustakaan Norwich sebelumnya yang terbakar pada tahun 1994

Pusat Beli-belah Chapelfield dibuka

99.9 Radio Norwich mula bersiaran

Bangunan Teater Royal diubahsuai

Pada tahun 2009 Norwich menjadi tuan rumah acara Gay Pride pertama di bandar & rsquos, untuk komuniti kehidupan lesbian, gay, biseksual dan trans

Festival Filem Norwich bermula

Seramai 132,512 orang tinggal di Bandar Norwich menurut bancian 2011

Kedai mustard Colman & rsquos ditutup pada April 2017

Perkara di atas adalah garis masa Norwich dan bertujuan untuk berfungsi sebagai sesuatu yang menarik dan tidak mendakwa benar-benar tepat. Walaupun telah dilakukan dengan teliti untuk meneliti tarikh dan peristiwa di Norwich secara metodis, mungkin terdapat beberapa ketidaktepatan (misalnya ketika meneliti, tarikh yang berbeza telah dijumpai dalam buku dan bahan dalam talian untuk acara yang sama!)

Sekiranya anda ingin melihat sesuatu yang ditambahkan pada garis masa ini yang anda rasa tidak seharusnya dilewatkan, sila hubungi.


Jenis Tempat:

Akses ke ruang legar dan Caley's Cocoa Cafe:
Isnin - Jumaat 10 - 4.30
Sabtu 10.30 - 5
Matahari 11 - 3

Lawatan ke Guildhall yang bersejarah - setiap hari Jumaat (kecuali Cuti Bank) 10 dan 2

Ketahui sejarah unik The Guildhall, dewan bandar abad pertengahan terbesar dan paling rumit di England, dalam lawatan selama sejam ini dari Guildhall Guides, yang membuka warisan tersembunyi bangunan ini.

Lihatlah Dewan Majlis Walikota yang rumit dengan kayu hiasannya dan kaca berwarna yang menakjubkan, ruang sidang Victoria akhir yang hampir utuh dengan panel kayu eknya, dan ruang bawah tanah atmosfera yang menjelang The Guildhall dan digunakan untuk menampung penjenayah berbahaya.

Kawasan bangunan ini pada masa ini berfungsi sebagai pejabat, oleh itu beberapa kawasan tidak dapat diakses sepanjang masa.


Lambang lengan Norwich

Lambang yang dirancang untuk mengenal pasti kumpulan tentera dalam pertempuran yang panas juga digunakan oleh bandar-bandar untuk mengenal pasti diri mereka sendiri dan sumber kekuasaan mereka.

Kedua-dua simbol yang terdapat pada oat Norwich adalah tentera dan menunjukkan hubungan panjang dengan mahkota yang memberikan hak istimewa kepada bandar. Lambang sivik ini digambarkan sebagai: & # 8220Gules, sebuah istana yang bertopeng tiga tingkat dan berkubah di pangkalan seorang pengawal pasang singa Atau & # 8221 . Ringkasnya: perisai merah, istana perak, singa emas. Namun demikian, terdapat banyak variasi gaya: sesekali tidak istana berkembar tiga tidak berkubah.

Tidak berkedudukan atau berkubah. Lambang bandar Norwich di Dewan Bandaraya (1938). Kiri, di pintu Bethel Street ke Bendahari & # 8217s Jabatan dan kanan, di dalam & # 8216Rates Hall & # 8217.

Kastil, tentu saja, adalah Norman tetapi kira-kira satu abad setelah Penaklukan, singa kota itu muncul semasa pemerintahan Plantagenets. Hubungan antara singa dan mahkota Inggeris sepertinya telah dimulakan semasa pemerintahan Raja John tetapi ia adalah kakak lelaki John, Richard the Lionheart, yang sangat berkaitan dengan penjaga pasif singa [1] iaitu berjalan dengan kaki depan yang terangkat (pasif) dan kepala berpusing ke kiri, muka penuh (penjaga). Ini adalah versi haiwan yang terdapat di semua alat heraldik bandar. Kecuali & # 8230 menjaga pintu masuk ke Dewan Bandaraya, singa gangsa yang dipengaruhi oleh Assyrian Alfred Hardiman & # 8217 adalah dua patung sivik terbaik kami tetapi mereka bertentangan dengan singa Norwich lain yang tidak kelihatan kiri. Ini mungkin kerana arkitek melihat seekor singa dipamerkan di Pameran Empayar Inggeris pada tahun 1936 sebelum mereka menugaskan kembarnya [2].

Menatap lurus ke depan, salah satu singa Alfred Hardiman & # 8217s (1938) di luar Dewan Bandaraya [3]

Hubungan dengan Richard I berkaitan dengan piagam 1194 di mana dia membenarkan warganegara memilih Reeve mereka sendiri - setara dengan & # 8216presiden & # 8217 borough [4]. Asas pemerintahan sendiri biasanya bertarikh kepada piagam Richard & # 8217 walaupun terdapat tahap kemerdekaan perbandaran sebelum ini [5].

Guildhall, yang merupakan bangunan sipil abad pertengahan terbesar di luar London, dibangun 1407-1412 untuk mentadbir kuasa pemerintahan sendiri yang diberikan oleh kota Henry IV. Piagam raja 1404 yang memberikan status daerah kepada bandar dan, seperti London, membenarkan warganegara memilih walikota [6]. Dokumen yang dikeluarkan oleh dewan telah disahkan dengan lambang kota dalam bentuk meterai lilin yang dikenakan secara langsung atau tertangguh.

Kiri dan kanan: meterai lilin C15 awal dari Colman & # 8217s Collection Norfolk Record Office COL5 / 1. Pusat: & # 8220The Common, atau City Seal, kini digunakan & # 8221 Blomefield 1806 [6]

Status bandar yang dibanggakan sebagai & # 8216kewarganegaraan& # 8216, suatu bentuk negara kota, diakui di peta Norwich Cuningham & # 8217s 1558, yang mungkin merupakan peta cetak terawal yang masih ada di mana-mana bandar atau bandar Inggeris.

Peta Norwich oleh warganegara William Cuningham, & # 8216Doktor di Physicke & # 8217 1558 (Perpustakaan Britain)

Di sudut kanan atas kita dapat melihat istana dan singa ditambah oleh dua penyokong yang, seperti yang akan kita lihat, muncul dalam pelbagai samaran melalui sejarah kota & # 8217s.

Satu abad sebelum ini, sekitar tahun 1450, alderman John Wighton - yang bengkel kaca patri membuat tingkap timur St Peter Mancroft - mengilap tingkap ruang dewan di Guildhall. Dia melakukan ini untuk walikota dan pedagang bulu kaya Robert Toppes yang menjalankan perniagaannya dari Dragon Hall di King Street [lihat 7 untuk akaun yang lebih lengkap mengenai kaca dicat Norwich School].

Di antara kedua malaikat itu adalah topi lengan Toppes & # 8217 sendiri, kerdil kot bandar di bawah setiap malaikat.

Lambang bandar pertengahan C15, dari tingkap Toppes di Guildhall

Di seberang pintu masuk belakang ke Cinema City, senjata kota dapat dilihat di antara serangkaian 13 perisai yang diukir di ujung timur gereja St Andrew & # 8217s dan bertarikh pembinaan semula gereja 1500-1506.

Senjata Norwich di St Andrew & # 8217 Church sekitar 1505. Perhatikan istana yang dipermudahkan dan singa yang bertentangan

Contoh C16 yang baik dari lambang kota dapat dilihat di Surrey House, bangunan C20 awal yang dirancang untuk Norwich Union oleh George Skipper. Kaca berwarna adalah peninggalan dari rumah Earl of Surrey & # 8217s yang sebelumnya berdiri di laman web ini di sekarang Surrey Street.

Dari rumah Earl of Surrey & # 8217s C16 di Surrey Street, Norwich

Earl of Surrey, Henry Howard, putera Duke of Norfolk, dipanggil & # 8220lelaki bangga yang paling bodoh yang ada di England & # 8221 dan kebanggaan itulah yang menyebabkan kejatuhannya. Surrey dibesarkan di Windsor Castle dengan Henry VIII & putra haram Henry Fitzroy. Raja percaya bahawa Surrey - seorang anti-Protestan yang kuat - merancang untuk merebut Henry VIII & putra sah Edward VI, ketika dia mewarisi mahkota. Namun, pencetus itu muncul ketika Surrey memamerkan keturunannya dari kerabat diraja Inggeris dengan melampirkan lengan Edward the Confessor ke tangannya sendiri. Dia dieksekusi kerana pengkhianatan pada tahun ketiga puluh tetapi bapanya, yang akan berkongsi nasib itu, diselamatkan ketika Henry VIII meninggal sehari sebelum pelaksanaan yang dirancang [8].

Terhadap latar belakang kebanggaan yang berlebihan ini yang berkaitan dengan lambang senjata, kaca perisai yang lain di Ante Room of Surrey House [9] mengambil lapisan makna tambahan.

Sekitar tahun 1900, tiga mosaik marmer dari senjata kota dipasang di pintu masuk ke bangunan sipil: Guildhall, Norwich Castle dan Institut Teknikal (sekarang Universiti Seni Norwich). Tetapi saya tidak dapati ada catatan mengenai pengrajin Itali yang tinggal di sekitar Ber Street yang dilaporkan membuat mereka.

Di sebelah selatan Guildhall adalah Bassingham Gateway, yang berasal dari rumah London Street John Bassingham, seorang tukang emas pada masa pemerintahan Henry VIII. Ketika London Street diperluas pada tahun 1855-7, pintu gerbang itu dibeli oleh William Wilde dengan harga £ 10 dan dimasukkan ke pintu masuk Majistret & # 8217s Guildhall [10].

Dengan membandingkannya dengan gambar George Plunkett & # 8217s 1934 di ambang pintu [10], ukiran yang tajam akan kelihatan sebagai sebahagian daripada pengubahsuaian selepas perang. Singa itu sekarang jelas oriental.

Walaupun terdapat sedikit variasi cara penggambarannya, istana dan singa adalah pemalar di lengan kota. Lebih banyak pemboleh ubah adalah penyokong - angka-angka mengapit yang terdapat pada beberapa versi lengan. Di Cuningham & # 8217s peta 1558 (di atas) mereka muncul sebagai kerub.

Pada tahun 1511, bumbung ruang walikota di Guildhall runtuh dan dalam pembinaan semula tahun 1535-7 papan penunjuk muka dari bahagian timur mendapat pelindung, senjata istana dan singa kota dilindungi oleh malaikat bersenjata dan bentuk tidak tentu yang melayang di atas perisai [3].

Bandar ini menggunakan satu daripada tiga lambang di hujung timur Guildhall. (Lengan tengah [tidak ditunjukkan] adalah senjata Henry VIII tetapi tidak lagi dapat dibaca)

Di atas lambang ini di dinding timur terdapat menara jam bertarikh 1850, yang dikhaskan untuk walikota Henry Woodcock. Mengapit muka jam adalah dua malaikat yang tidak bersenjata, masing-masing menggenggam lengan kota.

Anehnya, prasasti emas di tepi bawah jam memberikan moto Dukes of Norfolk (Sola Virtus Invicta, Only Virtue is Invincible) yang, sejak sekian lama, tidak mempunyai hubungan dengan kota atau daerah [3]

Ilustrasi dalam buku berwibawa Blomefield & # 8217s mengenai sejarah Norwich [6] juga mempunyai dua malaikat sebagai penyokong, kali ini bersenjata, tetapi objek di atas perisai sukar dibaca dalam bentuk ini.

Senjata Kota Norwich. Dari Blomefield [7] 1806

Buku Hudson dan Tingey & # 8217s 1906 mengenai sejarah Norwich [4] juga memperlihatkan perisai yang diapit oleh dua malaikat penjaga dan dalam hal ini objek di atas lengan menjadi topi. Satu sumber menerangkan ini sebagai topi warden yeoman & # 8217s (warden yeoman & # 8217s?) [2], sumber lain sebagai topi bulu [12]. (Setelah menyiarkan artikel ini, mantan Sheriff Beryl Blower memberitahu saya ini mungkin topi Penyelenggaraan istiadat walikota dan saya melihat bahawa Blomefield mengatakan bahawa topi pemeliharaan dipakai oleh pembawa pedang pada semua acara umum).

The Norwich City Arms timbul di sampul Hudson dan Tingey, 1906 [4]

Topi itu juga muncul di lampu biru di balai polis, yang melekat di sebelah barat Dewan Bandaraya, tetapi tidak ada malaikat penjaga.

Balai Polis, Jalan Bethel 1938

Dewan Bandaraya itu sendiri adalah Coat-of-Arms Central bahkan ada rancangan untuk menara itu ditempatkan dengan malaikat sebelum dipotong dengan alasan kos [3]. Senjata bandar muncul di atas pintu masuk ke Jabatan Bendahari Bandar & # 8217 di Bethel Street dengan semua perlengkapannya: topi dan malaikat Art Deco mengapit lambang tradisional.

Oleh Eric Aumonier yang juga merancang arca Art Deco untuk London Underground

Contoh & # 8216full set & # 8217 juga dapat dilihat pada tingkap kaca terukir di atas tangga yang menuju dari tingkat bawah Dewan Bandaraya & # 8230

Direka oleh Eric Clarke dan dilukis oleh James Michie [13]

& # 8230 dan di peringatan perang Lutyens & # 8217, menghadap Dewan Bandaraya di St Peter & # 8217s Street.

Elemen tambahan (topi dan malaikat) yang muncul beberapa saat setelah pemberian senjata singa-dan-istana yang asli memang merumitkan apa yang pernah menjadi reka bentuk yang ringkas dan berkesan. College of Arms tidak mengenali para malaikat yang berdampingan dengan melepaskan senjata seperti kartun pada penyokong kedua-dua projek pertengahan C20 ini menandakan kembalinya kepada kesederhanaan (walaupun persoalan mengenai kubah kastil atau tidak masih belum dapat diselesaikan) .

Berkubah atau tidak berkubah. Kiri, Sekolah Hewitt kanan, Alderson Place, Finkelgate. Kedua-dua projek sivik ini diselia oleh City Architect David Percival sekitar tahun 1958

Versi tangan kanan kota juga muncul di Percival & # 8217s 1960 pembangunan semula di Rosary Road.

© 2018 Reggie Unthank

Terima kasih kepada Clive Cheesman, Richmond Herald dari College of Arms untuk maklumat mengenai lambang Norwich.


7 Sebab untuk menyukai Norwich yang bersejarah

Norwich adalah satu-satunya bandar Inggeris di Taman Negara (Norfolk Broads) dan sehingga Revolusi Perindustrian adalah bandar kedua terbesar di negara ini.

'Norwich mempunyai segalanya' menurut Nikolaus Pevsner.

Terkenal dengan pub, gereja, pemandangan budaya dan jalan-jalan berbatu, Norwich adalah satu-satunya bandar Inggeris di Taman Negara (Norfolk Broads) dan sehingga Revolusi Perindustrian adalah bandar kedua terbesar di negara ini.

Di sini kami meraikan 7 sebab untuk menyukai Norwich yang bersejarah:

1. Keajaiban abad pertengahan

Norwich adalah bandar abad pertengahan yang paling lengkap di UK dan merupakan rumah bagi banyak jalan yang utuh dan berbatu sejak zaman itu. Norwich Guildhall adalah bangunan sipil abad pertengahan terbesar yang masih hidup di luar London dan bandar ini mempunyai salah satu Katedral Norman termegah di Britain. Di sepanjang Bukit Elm dan di Tombland terdapat banyak bangunan Tudor yang khas.

2. Pasaran tertutup terbesar di Eropah

Di lokasinya sekarang, pasaran telah beroperasi selama lebih dari 900 tahun, tetapi pasar asalnya dibuka pada akhir abad ke-11 untuk pedagang dan peneroka Norman. Ia telah dibina semula dan didesain semula beberapa kali dan hari ini merupakan pasar tertutup terbesar di Eropah, dengan gerai menjual makanan dan pakaian dari seluruh dunia. Norwich adalah pusat perdagangan utama pada abad ke-14, yang menjadikan bandar ini besar dan makmur: Guildhall yang disenaraikan Gred I dibina di sebelah pasar untuk berfungsi sebagai pusat pemerintahan tempatan sehingga tahun 1938 ketika dewan bandar raya baru dibina.

3. Sejarah agama yang kompleks

Dikatakan bahawa Norwich mempunyai gereja untuk setiap hari minggu dan sebuah pub untuk setiap hari sepanjang tahun. Walaupun begitu, Norwich juga digambarkan sebagai 'kota yang tidak bertuhan' di England apabila lebih daripada 40% penduduk menyatakan diri mereka tidak mempunyai 'agama' dalam banci 2011. Ia juga satu-satunya kota Inggeris yang pernah dikucilkan sepenuhnya oleh Paus, setelah rusuhan berlaku pada abad ke-13. St Ethelbert & # 8217s Gate adalah Monumen Terjadual, yang dibayar oleh penduduk tempatan sebagai penebusan keganasan.

4. Bandar sastera

Pada tahun 2012 Norwich menjadi Bandar Kesusasteraan UNESCO pertama di England, dan pada tahun 1608 ia adalah lokasi perpustakaan pertama yang didirikan oleh sebuah syarikat di sebuah bangunan milik korporat di luar London. Sementara itu, kursus penulisan kreatif yang sangat terkenal di University of East Anglia telah menghasilkan pemenang Hadiah Nobel Kazuo Ishiguro dan beberapa pemenang Hadiah Booker.

5. It’s not all medieval

Alongside its medieval history, Norwich is also home to an array of 20th century buildings, many of which are listed. Denys Lasdun’s Norfolk and Suffolk Terrace (better known as the Ziggurats) at the University of East Anglia are Grade II* listed and amongst the boldest designs of any post-war university. Directly opposite, Foster Associates Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts: a vast hanger-like space, is also Grade II* listed.

In the centre of the city The Forum, designed by Hopkins Architects, was opened in 2001 and the large plaza out front is a well-loved meeting place for young people.

6. The first council to get online

Thanks to its forward-thinking Treasurer, Mr A.J. Barnard, the City of Norwich was one of, if not the first, local authority to use computer technology. The Elliott 405 computer was delivered to Norwich City Hall in 1957, and became operational in April of the same year: the event was celebrated with a press conference and hosted by the Lord Mayor.

7. Strangers and canaries

The symbol of the city, the canary, was an import: brought by refugees from the Low Countries, who came to the area seeking refuge from religious persecution in Holland Belgium in the 16th and 17th centuries. In the early 20th century the local football team, Norwich City, began to be referred to as the canaries. The weaving trade was also brought by the refugees, and Grade I listed Strangers Hall got its name from the ‘strangers’ from Belgium and Holland who lived there.

Norwich is special as one of England’s great historic cities, and we are concerned about proposals for the planned redevelopment of Anglia Square. Find out more here.


Kandungan

The county town of Norfolk, Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in the East of England. Its origins are unclear, but by the reign of King Æthelstan (924–939) the city was a major trading centre and one of the most important boroughs in England. [1] The Anglo-Saxon settlement was centred around Tombland, a large open space at the point where the roads into Norwich converged. [1] The plain of Tombland was the site of Norwich's market. [1]

Following the Norman conquest of England (1066–1071), Norwich was radically redesigned. Norwich Cathedral was built immediately to the east of Tombland and much of the old town to the southwest of Tombland was cleared for the motte of Norwich Castle. A new Norman town was built west of the Castle, in an area known as Mancroft. [1] [note 1] The new town at Mancroft included a market of its own to provide for the Norman settlers and merchants moving into the area, and possibly also to supply the castle's garrison. [1] The exact date of the foundation of the market at Mancroft is not recorded, but it is known to have been operational by the time the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086. [1] Granting the right to trade in Norman England was a part of the Royal Prerogative and, as with most fairs and markets of the period, the market at Mancroft was operated under licence from the King. The King's Clerk had jurisdiction over all trade conducted at the market, and tolls and rents were collected on behalf of the King. [3]

Almost no records survive of the Norman market in the 11th to 13th centuries. [1] It is known that shortly after the market's establishment, a tollhouse was built nearby, which served as a collection point for taxes on trade. [1] Although the precise location of the tollhouse is not recorded, it was immediately north of the market on part of the site now occupied by the Guildhall. [1] At some point soon after its construction, the tollhouse also became the centre for the civil administration of the city. [1] Although the Tombland market retained its charter to host an annual horse fair, [4] over time the market at Mancroft supplanted that at Tombland as the principal market of the area. [1] At the end of the 11th century, the Tombland market was removed during construction work on Norwich Cathedral. [4]

By the start of the 14th century, Norwich was one of Europe's major cities. East Anglia was at this time one of the most densely populated areas in England, producing large amounts of grain, sheep, cattle and poultry. Much of this produce was traded in Norwich, an inland port roughly at the centre of the region. [5] The City, meanwhile, had industrialised, its growth based on textiles, leather and metalworking, as well as being the administrative centre of the region. [6] By 1300, Norwich had a population of between 6,000–10,000, [5] with a total of around 20,000 people living in the area. [7] (One 19th century historian estimated Norwich's population pre-1349 at as high as 70,000. [8] ) It was one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the country, [5] and was considered the second city of England. [7] Aside from occasional fairs, the majority of all goods produced in or imported to the region passed through the market at Mancroft. [5] While there is some evidence that the market operated daily for a period around 1300, it generally operated on Wednesdays and Saturdays. [5]

Layout Edit

The market had by this time taken on roughly the layout it retains today. It was a long rectangular open space aligned north–south, with the tollhouse (the Guildhall after 1413) marking the northern end and the very large church of St Peter Mancroft marking the southern end. [9] (St Peter Mancroft was built in 1430–55 incorporating an earlier church built in 1075 and was financed by the market's merchants. It retains its association with the market all stallholders retain the right to hold their weddings in the church and to be buried in the churchyard. [10] ) The marketplace sloped downwards from west to east. A long straight passageway called the Nethererowe or Nether Row (later renamed Gentleman's Walk) marked the eastern boundary. Another passage called the Overerowe, or Over Row (later renamed St Peter's Street, and since 1938 occupied by City Hall), marked the western boundary. [9]

The mediaeval market was divided into sections, each dealing with a particular trade. The stalls of the market were arranged in rows. They varied in width from 2 feet (60 cm) to 15 feet (460 cm). [5] Highly valuable, in the early years of the market they were generally owned by major institutions such as trade guilds and religious bodies, and generated a high income from rents. [5] They also provided a steady income for the King, and later the city, from perpetual rents. [3] The marketplace was surrounded by retail buildings, construction of which began in about 1300. These were fixed, permanent structures, some of which had multiple storeys and cellars. [5]

The northern section of the main market place, immediately south of the tollhouse, housed fishmongers, butchers, ironmongers and woolsellers. [9] This section of the market also housed the murage loft after 1294, where tolls to fund the building of Norwich's city walls were collected. [5] The southern section of the main market place, north of St Peter Mancroft, housed a bread market and a number of stalls associated with Norwich's significant cloth and leather industries. A broad space between the main marketplace and the Nethererowe was kept clear for the use of country smallholders, who would set up temporary booths and tents to sell their wares. [3]

South of St Peter Mancroft was a second marketplace dealing in wheat, poultry, cattle and sheep. [9] Pigs, horses, timber and dye were not traded in the main market, but had dedicated markets elsewhere in the city. [5] (The modern Norwich place names of Timberhill, St John Maddermarket and Rampant Horse Street derive from their origins as the sites of the mediaeval timber, dye and horse markets respectively. [5] )

Transfer to city control Edit

In 1341, King Edward III visited Norwich for a jousting tournament, coinciding with the completion of the city's defensive walls. Edward and his mother, Isabella of France, were very impressed by the city and, as a token of appreciation for bearing the costs of the defensive fortifications, Edward granted the franchise of the market to the city in perpetuity. [3] The control by the King's Clerk over trade at the market was ended and tolls and rents from the market from then on went directly to the city's bailiffs (the rulers of the city). [3]

With the powers of the King's Clerk abolished, the bailiffs of Norwich set about regulating the operation of the market for what they felt was the greatest benefit to the city. To encourage fair competition among the market's traders, it was forbidden to sell foodstuffs before the Cathedral bell had tolled for Lady Mass (6.00 am). [3] The practice of forestalling (meeting merchants on their way to the market either to buy their goods for resale, or to prevent them from attending the market and thus make goods of the type they were selling scarce and hence more expensive) was forbidden. Trading anywhere other than in the market was strongly discouraged and the right to re-sell goods at a profit was restricted to Freemen of the city. [3] [note 3] The prices of bread and beer were fixed, [note 4] and a set of standardised weights and measures was introduced, against which measures used by merchants would regularly be checked. [3] Shortly after the transfer of the market to the city a market cross was erected near the centre of the main market (opposite the present day entrance to Davey Place), the design of which is not recorded. [11]

In mid-1348, the outbreak of bubonic plague known as the Great Mortality (later referred to as the Black Death), which had swept across Europe during the past year, reached England for the first time with an outbreak in the south coast port of Melcombe. [12] The plague spread gradually over the rest of the country with devastating effect, causing a mortality estimated at between 30%–45%. [13] In late March 1349, the outbreak reached East Anglia and, for reasons which are not understood, increased drastically in intensity. [13] In 1349–50 alone, more than half the population of East Anglia died. [14] In 1369, East Anglia, whose farming economy had collapsed in the wake of the plague, was struck by famine.

Although the market continued to operate, in the immediate aftermath of the plague it was at a much reduced level and many stalls were left empty for some years after. [15] The famine of 1369 overwhelmed Norwich's burial grounds, necessitating an expansion of St Peter Mancroft's churchyard. The southernmost rows of stalls in the main marketplace, which had been occupied by drapers and linen merchants, [9] were removed to clear space for an enlarged churchyard. [15] By 1377, the population of Norwich had fallen from at least 20,000 before the outbreak to below 6,000. [14]

Although social order was maintained throughout the plague years, the economy of the region was devastated. [16] [note 5] However, the surviving merchant community were very influential in the city and, in the wake of the catastrophe, set about increasing the council's influence around the market, buying many of the surrounding shops. [15] The council also bought a set of wharves along King Street near Dragon Hall in 1397 and decreed that all goods entering Norwich by water be unloaded there. This ensured almost complete control of Norwich trade by the merchants who now dominated the council. [15]

The market soon began to recover from the plague years to become a major trading hub again. Records of 1565 show 37 butchers' stalls alone in the market, and Norwich also became a major centre for the import of exotic foods. Sugar, figs and prunes were traded in the market in the 16th century, and it is recorded that 20,000 oranges and 1,000 lemons were provided for the 1581 St Bartholomew's Day fair. [17]

Guildhall and new market cross Edit

In 1404, Norwich secured a royal charter granting it autonomy as "The County of the City of Norwich". The local council was restructured into a body headed by a Mayor and administered by Sheriffs and Aldermen the Mayor also formally became Clerk of the Markets, but in practice the running of the markets was always delegated to deputies. [15]

By this time, the tollhouse was proving inadequate as the seat of local government and between 1407 and 1413 it was demolished, along with an adjoining site which had housed a vegetable market, and was replaced by a new Guildhall. In keeping with Norwich's status, it was one of the largest civic buildings in England outside London and housed all aspects of local government and justice for the new council. [15] [note 6] The Guildhall cost between £400–£500 to build. [18] (As it was built primarily using pressed labour, modern equivalents of the building costs are virtually meaningless. The annual income of the city council at the time the Guildhall was built was around £120. [18] ) The eastern face of the Guildhall was built in a distinctive black and white checked design, representing the exchequer. [18] The undercroft of the tollhouse was retained for use as a dungeon, while a new basement served as a lock-up from the opening of the Guildhall until the 1980s. [18]

The murage loft in the market, redundant since the completion of the city walls, took over the functions of the old tollhouse and became the offices of the market supervisor and the collection office for market tolls and taxes. [15]

Between 1501 and 1503, Mayor John Rightwise had the original market cross demolished [19] and replaced with an elaborate new cross. This was octagonal in shape, stood on a plinth 30 feet (9 m) wide, and rose to a height of 60 to 70 feet (18 to 21 m). The central structure contained an oratory, occupied by a priest. [11]

Rightwise's new market cross only survived in its original form for a short time. During the English Reformation of the 1530s, the rood on the pinnacle was pulled down and the oratory became a storeroom. The octagonal plinth became a shopping arcade of small stalls. In 1549, a temporary gallows was erected at the cross for the mass execution of 60 of the participants in Kett's Rebellion, who had congregated in the marketplace during their brief capture of Norwich. [20] In 1574, a local law was enacted demanding that all unemployed men were to assemble at the market cross each morning at 5.00 am, along with the tools of their trade, and remain there for an hour in the hope that they would be offered work a bonesetter was hired to treat any men who claimed they were unfit for work through injury. The success of this scheme is not recorded. [19]

By the 17th century, the building was known as the Market House, and was used for the sale of grain and other goods sold by the bushel a set of approved measures were chained to the pillars for public use. [11] The archaic title of "Keeper of the Cross" was bestowed on the man appointed to sweep the marketplace weekly. [21] [note 7]

The market cross also served as the focal point of Norfolk's parliamentary elections. Candidates would bring large crowds of voters in by cart from the surrounding countryside and ply them with large quantities of free alcohol to ensure their support. [22] Candidates would pay for lodgings for the voters, but, in closely fought elections, more voters than usual would be shipped in and every inn in the city would fill, forcing voters to sleep in and around the cross. Sir Thomas Browne described the voters around the market cross as "like flocks of sheep" during the unusually close elections of 1678, at the height of the Exclusion Crisis. [22] Following the counting of the vote, the winning candidate would be carried three times around the market, followed by torch-bearers and trumpeters. By this time, the crowds would generally be extremely drunk on the liquor provided by the candidates, and elections would often degenerate into drunken revelry or fighting. [22]

Although it was popular with travelling vendors, particularly of small fancy goods, [11] the maintenance of the market cross was costly and unpopular with Norwich's citizens. In 1732 the cross was demolished, and the stone was sold for £125. [21] In 2005 the base of the cross was rediscovered in excavations during renovation of the market area, but has since been re-covered. [23] Its site is now outlined in red stones embedded in the market floor. [19]

With few fixed structures in the main marketplace, the plain traditionally served as a public open space on days when the market was not operational. [21] Before the Reformation in the 1530s, its main use was as a venue for religious festivals, particularly the annual procession of the Craft Guilds at Corpus Christi. [21] Most public religious festivals were abandoned following the Reformation and the subsequent dissolution of many of the mediaeval guilds, and the leading event on Norwich's civic calendar became the annual inauguration of the mayor, which took place each May. [25] [note 8]

The inauguration ceremony was conducted by the civic authorities and by the surviving, and still powerful, Guild of St George, and combined elements of a public festival and a religious carnival. [26] Four whifflers (city officials carrying swords) marched ahead of the procession to clear a path. Behind the whifflers, the incoming and outgoing mayors rode side-by-side, preceded by trumpeters and standard-bearers carrying the banners of England and St George, and followed by the city's Sheriffs and Aldermen in ceremonial gowns of violet and red, respectively. The procession was flanked by the city's waits (musicians playing loud wind instruments, usually the shawm) (a mediaeval double reed wind instrument with conical wooden body), and accompanied by dick fools (clowns carrying wands and wearing red and yellow gowns adorned with bells and cats' tails) and a man costumed as a dragon. [26]

As well as the mayoral inaugurations, the marketplace was also the setting for other public events, particularly mourning processions on the deaths of monarchs, coronation celebrations, [note 9] royal birthdays and celebrations of military victories. [26] Firework displays and bonfires would be held on these occasions, accompanied by the local militia firing volleys and the ringing of the bells of the surrounding churches, while local residents and shopkeepers would illuminate their windows with lit candles. [26] Often, particularly in the 18th century, temporary triumphal arches would be erected beside the Guildhall. [22] Free beer would traditionally be distributed at these events, which would on occasion degenerate into drunken disorder. [27]

The market was also the location for public punishment of wrongdoers, and stocks and a pillory were set at a prominent position at the eastern end of the Guildhall. The stocks were used for the punishment of relatively minor offences such as breaching the regulations on the price of bread, public brawling or incivility to the Mayor [22] wrongdoers would on occasion also be paraded around the market wearing paper hats bearing details of their offence. [19] The pillory was used for more serious offences such as sedition. On at least two occasions in the late 16th century people convicted of sedition were nailed to the pillory by their ears on completion of their time on the pillory their ears were cut off. Public whippings of criminals were also conducted in the marketplace. [22] Although not all executions in the period are recorded, it is known that public hangings also took place in the market square and around the market cross. [20]

By the 17th century, the market had also become the venue for many travelling entertainments. Exotic animals were displayed, including lions, tigers, camels and jackals, and displays by conjurers, puppeteers, singers, acrobats and other entertainers also regularly took place. Displays of human deformities were also popular records exist from the 1670s and 1680s of the Mayor granting exhibition licences to, among others, "a monstrous man with 2 bodies brought from the Indies by Sir Thomas Grantham", "a girl of sixteen with no bones", "a monstrous hayrie child", and "a monstrous man taken from amongst the hills of Corinthia, he feeds on the roots of trees etc". [20] Stages erected by charlatans selling medicines and demonstrating miracle cures were often erected near the Guildhall, prompting regular complaints from fishmongers that the crowds were blocking access to their stalls on at least one occasion one of these travelling doctors had his licence withdrawn 'because of possible damage to the city's economy by the distraction of "idle minds" from their work'. [20]

Improvements in Norfolk's road infrastructure and the development of the stagecoach system made Norwich an increasingly popular destination with travellers. Norwich was recovering from the plague years and was a major city, with attractions and social events second only to London itself. The increasingly prosperous country landowners of Norfolk and Suffolk began visiting Norwich more frequently and staying for longer when they did so. [28]

By the end of the 17th century many of the strict regulations regarding trade in Norwich were lifted or relaxed, and Norwich became a fashionable shopping town. Shops catering for the growing wealthy classes, such as booksellers, vintners and gunsmiths, grew around the market plain, [28] especially in the large buildings along the eastern side of the market, the Nethererowe, which became so popular with the gentry it became known as Gentleman's Walk. [29] Gentleman's Walk acquired a number of luxury shops, including John Toll's drapers from which Elizabeth Gurney (later Elizabeth Fry) watched the election of 1796, [30] the wine and spirit dealership of Thomas Bignold who in company with other local shopkeepers founded a mutual association to provide fire insurance for the area's shops which became Norwich Union, [31] and Saunders Coffee House, patronised by the young Horatio and William Nelson. [30]

By this time, a row of stalls bordering on St Peter Mancroft's churchyard had developed into a row of three- and four-storey houses running east to west, and a second row of buildings running north to south ran through the main market square. This row of houses cut off the main market from the eastern strip housing the butchers and fishmongers, known as the Upper Market, leaving only two narrow passageways as direct links between the two-halves of the market square. [32] (Although the buildings dividing the upper and lower markets were demolished in the 1930s, one of these connecting passages survives as Pudding Lane. [32] The name "Pudding Lane" derives from "ped", an archaic word for the large baskets from which itinerant traders sold goods in the market. [33] )

With increased numbers of people visiting Norwich, trade boomed in the inns around the marketplace. [32] In addition to the existing taverns, at least four very large coaching inns opened along Gentleman's Walk. By the latter half of the 18th century, stagecoaches were leaving one or other of the inns almost daily to London, and the inns also served as the hub of a network of frequent services throughout East Anglia. [34]

Built around long narrow yards, as well as serving food and drink and providing lodgings, these coaching inns also served as temporary warehouses, auction rooms and gambling halls for travellers doing business in the market. [35] The best known was the Angel, parts of which dated to the 15th century. As well as providing the other functions of the Norwich inns, its yard also served as a popular theatre and venue for other performers. (Despite its significance as a city, Norwich did not have a dedicated theatre until 1758. [35] ) However, in 1699 part of the building collapsed during a performance by Thomas Doggett's troupe of players, killing a woman and injuring many of the audience. The reputation of the Angel was severely damaged, and although still used for small-scale entertainments such as puppet shows, it was never again used for full-scale theatrical performances. [35]

Meanwhile, the livestock market south of St Peter Mancroft was becoming overwhelmingly crowded on market days. Eventually part of the eastern side of the castle mound was levelled, and in 1738 the livestock sales were moved to this new site. The old hay market remained on the old site for more than a century, until it was also moved to the new livestock market site in the early 19th century. [32] The new livestock market was one of the last significant livestock markets in a British city centre, and developed a reputation as "the cruellest in the country". [36] [note 10]

The relocation of the livestock market had done little to resolve the problems of congestion in and around the market. [39] Many of the mediaeval access routes to the market were too narrow for wheeled transport, and the narrow alleys were also dark, dangerous and mostly unpaved. [40] Although the market had been resurfaced during the 18th century, this had been with flint pebble cobblestones which were easily dislodged and trapped refuse. [41] William Chase, editor of the first Norwich Directory, lobbied in the late 18th century for civic improvements and a rationalisation of the streets around the market. However, the economy of Norwich depended heavily on the textile industry, which had suffered badly from the loss of export markets during the French Wars, and funds for improvements were limited. By the beginning of the 19th century the only significant improvement had been the paving of Gentleman's Walk. [40] In 1805 a number of Improvement Commissions were established to propose solutions to the problems facing the area, but little action was taken. Local councils had no powers to levy rates to fund general civic improvements and as a consequence funds for improvement works had to be raised either through tolls and rents, via public appeals, or through long term borrowing, and the city was initially unable to raise sufficient funds. [39]

In 1813 the yard of the King's Head coaching inn was widened to create Davey Place, [35] a new street between the market and Back of the Inns, at that time a narrow passageway which ran parallel to Gentleman's Walk behind the coaching inns. [42] (Although the inns no longer remain, Back of the Inns survives as a street name. [43] ) In 1820 the Gasolier, Norwich's first gas lamp, was installed in the market outside the entrance to Davey Place. [39] Exchange Street, a new road running north from the northeast corner of the market, was completed in 1828 and a roadway was installed alongside the existing footpath. [42] [44] London Street, the main road connecting the market with the older areas of the city around Tombland and the Cathedral was widened in 1856. [42] In 1860 the decrepit fish market adjacent to the Guildhall, by now over 700 years old, was replaced with a new neoclassical building. [45] In 1863 Gentleman's Walk was paved properly with York stone, and in 1874 the cobbles of the marketplace were replaced by timber blocks. [39] Although by this time the market operated on all working days, Sunday trading laws meant it was closed on Sundays. The market space on Sundays was used for public assemblies and gatherings. [46]

Meanwhile, Norwich railway station had opened in 1844. [47] Although many Norwich residents were reluctant to use the railway, and goods carriers initially found it more convenient to continue to collect goods from the coaching inns, [34] as railway usage gradually increased the number of coaches and carts calling at the inns slowly dwindled, reducing congestion. [44] In 1899 the Angel inn—renamed the Royal Hotel in 1840 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's wedding—finally closed, and was replaced with George Skipper's Royal Arcade, a shopping centre in the Art Nouveau style. [48]

Although the civic authorities initially resisted installing tramways in the city centre owing to concerns about nuisance and disruption, they eventually relented by the end of the 19th century Norwich had a total of 16 miles (26 km) of tram routes, including a route along Gentleman's Walk itself. [44] While schemes to rationalise the layout of the market's stalls had been proposed since the 18th century, they had foundered on the fact that so many of the stalls were privately owned. [44]

In the wake of the First World War the council's Markets Committee began a programme of gradually buying back all the privately owned stalls, with the intention of encouraging demobilised servicemen to work on the market. Within a few years the market was entirely publicly owned, and the council took responsibility for the upkeep of the market. [44] The city also bought out and closed many of the 30 or more inns in the area, transferring their licences to the growing suburbs. [49]

Meanwhile, the Guildhall, designed to serve the post-plague city with a population of around 6,000, was hopelessly inadequate as the administrative centre of a major modern city. As an interim solution the row of buildings dividing the upper and main markets had mostly been taken into public ownership and converted into civic offices, [44] and in January 1914 the 1860 fish market had also been enlarged and converted into offices. The Liberal welfare reforms of the early 20th century and the Local Government Act 1929 had greatly increased the role of local government in public health and welfare, and by the 1930s Norwich council was suffering from a severe lack of office space. [44]

The council opted for a radical redevelopment of the area around the upper market. [50] The row of buildings from St Peter Mancroft to the Guildhall, which divided the upper and lower markets, were demolished, opening up the marketplace, as were the buildings along the western side of the market. [50] The mixture of stalls and booths which occupied the market itself were all removed, and replaced by 205 stalls in uniform parallel rows, topped with multi-coloured sloping roofs (known locally as "tilts"). [51] [52] During the rebuilding of the market square, the existing stalls were relocated to a number of temporary locations in the area to allow them to continue trading, including the courtyard and rear of the City Hall development and surrounding streets. [53] In 1938 the coverings of the stalls were given the multi-coloured stripes for which they became famous. [54] [55]

In 1932, despite concerns from some local residents and businesses about the huge expense at a time of recession, a new building was envisaged to replace the demolished civic buildings, spanning the entire length of the western edge of the now unified marketplace. From over 140 entries a design by Charles Holloway James and Stephen Rowland Pierce was selected. [50] [56] Heavily influenced by Scandinavian architecture, the design attracted negative criticism at the time, with John Piper saying that "fog is its friend". [57] Opened by King George VI in 1938 as City Hall, [57] [note 11] the building proved extremely successful, and was described by Nikolaus Pevsner as "the foremost English public building between the Wars". [50] Norwich's war memorial, designed by Edwin Lutyens and opened in 1927 outside the Guildhall, was moved to a long narrow memorial garden on a raised terrace between City Hall and the enlarged market shortly after the opening of City Hall. [59] The Guildhall remained in use as a law court until 1985, and its basement remained in use as cells until that time. [18]

Although superficially the market remained little changed in the decades following the 1930s redevelopment, by the 1960s it was falling into disrepair, and it no longer met modern hygiene regulations. [60] A lack of funds delayed improvement works, and renovation works did not begin until February 1976. Hot and cold running water and refrigeration were provided to those stalls handling food, and many of the stalls were converted into lockable units. [51] New electrical mains cables were installed throughout the market, the site was resurfaced, and the elegant but ageing 19th century lavatories were demolished. [60] Aside from the demolition of the Victorian toilets, the only significant visible alteration was the addition of corrugated plastic covers over the walkways between the stalls. [51] [52] Although competition from supermarkets was by this time affecting shopping patterns, and the decline of market gardening meant a virtual end to stall-holders selling their own produce, the market survived competitive pressures. Many stalls diversified into specialist foods, clothing and other goods and the high number of stalls allowed the market to sell a range of goods as great as that provided by the supermarkets. [51]

While the 1976 renovations prolonged the life of the 1930s market, by the 1990s the market was once more becoming decrepit. The covers erected in 1976 over the walkways blocked sunlight, leaving much of the market dingy and poorly lit. The walkways themselves, already narrow, were becoming even more restricted as stalls erected external displays and additional weatherproofing. Removable shutters used to secure the stalls overnight were stacked against the sides of the stalls during trading hours, causing further obstruction, while on those stalls fitted with doors the doors opened outwards to maximise the limited space inside the units. In addition, the floors of stalls followed the slope of the hill, a gradient of about 1:12, causing health problems for those market workers who had to stand at this angle for prolonged periods during the day. [61] Norwich City Council decided that these problems needed to be addressed, and in December 2003 invited the public to choose between three proposals for a rebuilt market. [62]

These plans were extremely controversial. All three envisaged reducing the number of stalls from 205 to 140–160 to increase space, and all three involved splitting the market into isolated clusters of stalls, significantly altering its character and appearance. The Eastern Daily Press organised a campaign against the perceived unattractiveness of the designs, the proposed reduction in the number of stalls which would mean stallholders losing their jobs and the remaining stallholders facing rent increases to cover the difference, and the change to the character of central Norwich that such a radical redesign of the market would entail. A petition of over 12,000 signatories rejecting all three proposed designs was gathered. [63]

Following a public meeting on 26 January 2004 the council backed down, and Hereward Cooke, deputy leader of the council, said that "We are finding out what the stall-holders and people of Norwich want and we will try our best to fulfill their wishes". Architect Michael Innes proposed a new design, which was accepted by the council. [63] The new design was put in place in 2005. [64]

Innes's design retained the market's layout of parallel rows of stalls with striped coloured roofs. The new stalls were built as steel and aluminium prefabricated units consisting of four stalls each, each stall having a level floor accessed by a step. These "pods" were arranged in rows, with 2-metre (6 ft 7 in) wide walkways between the "pods". Transparent retractable canopies were installed above the aisles, which could be opened and closed centrally. [65]

To allow the market to continue trading while the rebuilding took place, a set of temporary stalls were built in Gentleman's Walk and surrounding streets. A third of the market's stalls at a time traded from these temporary stalls while their stalls in the main market were replaced, a process taking four months for each third of the market. [64] The rebuilding was officially completed on 25 March 2006. [66] Although generally popular with traders and shoppers, the redesign was criticised by The Times, who described it as "an anaemic shopping mall for health and safety inspectors: straight lines, wipe-clean boxy cubicles, all life and love drained out." [67]

Meanwhile, in November 2004 engineers identified cracks in the terrace supporting the Memorial Gardens, and they were closed to the public as a potential hazard. Eventually in 2009 work began on renovating the gardens. Lutyens's memorial was dismantled and cleaned, and reassembled at a higher level to be visible from the street it was also rotated 180° to face City Hall, rather than the market. The terrace was strengthened, and the gardens were landscaped around a new sculpture by Paul de Monchaux on the original site of the memorial. [68]

Supermarkets continued to affect shopping patterns. In 1979 fruit and vegetable stalls occupied 70 of the market's 205 stalls by 1988 greengrocers occupied only 28 stalls, and by 2010 there were only seven remaining fruit and vegetable stalls on the market. [69] A wide variety of other stalls have taken their place, and the market remains active. One of the largest markets in Britain, it is a tourist attraction as well as remaining heavily used by local residents, and is a focal point of the city. [66]


Norwich Guildhall - History

Norwich Guildhall. The southern side view from outside City Hall

Norwich Guildhall ialah Grade I building on Gaol Hill in Norwich, Norfolk. It was constructed between 1407 and 1413 to enable the greater self-governing powers conferred upon Norwich by the Piagam of 1404 to be administered more efficiently.

Henry IV had introduced a ‘Charter of Incorporation’ to Norwich, granting special privileges to the city and raising its importance to a new level. The charter allowed burgesses to elect a Mayor, collect taxes and hold their own courts of law and with the removal of the popular assembly, was a chance for the government to become more locally representative. Crucially, the charter gave Norwich bandar status.

Bangunan
By 1435 the tower and porch had been added and in 1440 all of the city records were brought over, a reminder of its political responsibility. By 1453 the final windows of the magnificent building were glazed, essentially marking the building’s completion.

An upper council (of twenty-four Aldermen, one Mayor and two Sheriffs), with members from ‘dignified’ society and given life-long membership, were to govern alongside the associated lower council, whose sixty members were to act as representatives from the local community. These changes to the political structure instigated a sense of civic pride among the citizens of Norwich many felt that the growth in the city’s responsibilities and self-governing power should be marked by the establishment of an equally fitting civic building.

Prisoners first occupied the crypts of the building in 1412. In 1511 both the tower at the west end and the roof of the Council Chamber, collapsed. The roof was reconstructed between 1534 and 1537 by Augustine Steward, at a cost of over £200. The destruction forced the Council Chamber to move to the east end of the building. As part of the works, the exterior wall of the eastern face of the new Chamber was faced with chequered flint work and freestone, and a central panel containing a fragment of the Arms of Henry VIII, flanked by the City Arms and the arms of the St George’s Company.

In 1635 the Guildhall was almost accidentally demolished as garam garam diggers went down too far. 1723 saw the reconstruction of the porch, and in 1747, after the destruction of the Shire Hall, the Guildhall took on further responsibilities and additional alterations were made. In 1850 the clock tower was erected as a gift from the Mayor, Henry Woodcock.

More renovations came in 1857, when the doorway of a house belonging to a Tudor goldsmith was taken down from its original location in London Street and placed in the south-west corner of the Guildhall. Additions to the south side of the building were constructed in 1861 by Thomas Barry, the City Surveyor, and further work was undertaken in 1908.

The Mayor and Officials Royal procession from Guildhall to open City Hall at Norwich in 1938

The Norwich Guildhall served as the seat of city government from the early 15th century until 1938, when it was replaced by the newly built Dewan Bandaraya. At the time of the building’s construction and for much of its history Norwich was one of the largest and wealthiest cities in England, and today the Guildhall is the largest surviving medieval civic building in the country outside of London.

As well as various courts, a prison and a chapel, the building contained facilities for accounting and tax collection, accommodation for civic officials (it remains the home of the Sheriff’s parlour today) and storage space for records, money and civic regalia. The Assembly Chamber (or Sheriff’s Court) was designed for meetings of the full medieval council. It now contains a virtually intact late Victorian courtroom.

The council chamber (or mayor’s court) is more elaborate with oak panelling, a 16-bay roof with tie-beams, renaissance decorative woodwork and stained glass. The undercroft, beneath the east end pre-dates the building, and is thought to be an original feature of the earlier toll-house on this site. It was used to accommodate more dangerous criminals.

The Norwich’s Heritage Economic and Regeneration Trust (HEART) has taken on a 25-year lease of the iconic landmark from Norwich City Council. As of January 2015 the building will be another place to explore Norwich’s past.

The Gates
The porch previously had a pair of iron gates to its outer threshold. These are thought to date from the 1720s and were removed several decades ago. They were recently ‘rediscovered’ and the City wishes to reinstate them.

I was asked to examine the paint on the gates.

CATATAN
This has been taken from a variety of sources including Norwich HEART, Wikipedia and the Eastern Daily Press


Amazing Then and Now photos Show How Norwich Has Changed from the Norwich Blitz

During World War II, the German forces heavily bombarded Norwich and its surrounding areas, known as ‘The Norwich Blitz.’ The bombing was also launched in several other Britain’s cities in 1940. However, Norwich was not attacked until April and May 1942 as part of the so-called Baedeker raids. Targets were chosen for their cultural and historical value and not as strategic or military targets.

The furious bombing was launched on the evening of 27 April 1942, and it lasted for two days. There were further attacks in May and a heavy bombardment on 26 and 27 June in which Norwich Cathedral was damaged. Norwich Castle, the City Hall, and the Guildhall escaped while many residential streets were destroyed.

Here is a fantastic set of then and now photographs that show the Norwich landmarks immediately after the attack and how they look years later. Two pictures of the exact location in a single frame with the same angle.


Tonton videonya: Гилдхолл, Ратуша Норвич