Gotha G-V

Gotha G-V


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Gotha pertama, G-I, dirancang oleh Oskar Ursinus untuk Syarikat Gothaer Waggonfabrik pada tahun 1914. Pesawat penyerang darat ini mendapat perkhidmatan di Front Barat dan Front Timur pada tahun 1915. Pada tahun berikutnya syarikat menghasilkan Gotha G-IV. Pesawat ini, yang dirancang oleh Hans Burkhard, dibina untuk melakukan serangan bom di Britain. Serangan siang berterusan sepanjang musim panas tahun 1917.

Gotha G-IV digantikan oleh Gotha G-V yang unggul pada bulan Ogos 1917. Selain perubahan struktur, Gotha G-V mempunyai enjin yang lebih kuat dan lebih sukar untuk ditembak. Ciri pengebom yang berjaya adalah terowong ventral penembak, yang membolehkannya melepaskan tembakan ke bawah dan ke arah belakang.

Data Prestasi Gotha G-V

Jenis

pengebom berat

Enjin

Mercedes 2 x 260 hp

Span Sayap

77 kaki 9 inci (23.7 m)

Panjang

40 kaki (12.2 m)

Ketinggian

14 kaki (43 m)

Kelajuan maksimum

87 mph (140 kph)

Ketinggian Maksimum

21,325 kaki (6,500 m)

Julat

520 batu (835 km)

Persenjataan

2-3 senapang mesin; 1,102 lbs (500 kg) bom


Perang di Udara - Pengebom: Jerman, Gotha dan Giant

Selama dua minggu terakhir tahun 1914, sebelum serangan Zeppelin pertama ke Britain, terdapat sebilangan kecil serangan pengguguran terhadap wilayah Dover oleh pesawat laut Jerman.

Pasukan pengebom yang lebih berjaya dari 36 kapal terbang diatur di wilayah Bruges, yang melakukan serangan malam pertamanya, terhadap Dunkirk, pada bulan Januari 1915. Unit ini merancang untuk melakukan serbuan terhadap Britain, tetapi sebelum mereka dapat sekitar setengah dari mereka dipindahkan ke Front Timur dan memberikan sokongan taktikal kepada kejayaan Jerman di Gorlice-Tarnow.

Jerman kemudian memusatkan kegiatan pengebom mereka ke armada Zeppelin, hingga pertengahan tahun 1916 jelas bagi semua orang (kecuali Strasser, komandan armada kapal angkatan laut) bahawa kapal-kapal udara itu tidak berjaya seperti yang diharapkan.

Pada musim luruh tahun 1916, Jerman mula bersenjata dengan pengebom bermesin kembar Gotha. Dengan susunan penolak, pesawat ini dapat terbang pada ketinggian 15,000 kaki, di atas ketinggian maksimum pesawat tempur kontemporari. Dengan jarak 800 km (500 mil) dan muatan bom hingga 500 kg (1,100 lb), Gothas dirancang untuk melakukan serangan di seluruh saluran terhadap Britain.

Sekumpulan empat skuadron ditubuhkan di Belgia, dan mereka melakukan serangan pengeboman pertama mereka pada akhir Mei 1917. Pengembaraan 22 pesawat ini, menentang bandar Folkestone, menyebabkan 95 kematian. Pada pertengahan bulan Jun, pasukan 18 Gotha menyerang London pada waktu siang. Mereka disambut oleh lebih dari 90 pejuang Inggeris, tetapi tidak seorang pun Gotha yang dijatuhkan. Serangan pengeboman ini menyebabkan 162 kematian.

Pada 7 Julai 1917 lebih dari seratus pasukan pertahanan diterbangkan terhadap serangan 22 pesawat Gotha. Dalam kes ini, satu Gotha ditembak jatuh, dan tiga lagi mengalami kerosakan, dengan harga dua pejuang yang ditembak jatuh oleh penembak pertahanan Gotha. Hanya ketika RFC mulai melengkapi pertahanan rumah mereka dengan Sopwith Camels, orang-orang Goth mulai mengalami kerugian serius dan terpaksa beralih ke serangan malam.

Dari pertengahan September, Gotha bergabung dengan pengebom yang lebih besar dan lebih kuat. The Zeppelin-Staaken Riesenflugzeug Pengebom raksasa & quot adalah biplan traktor empat mesin dengan kabin tertutup yang mungkin diilhamkan oleh Murometz Rusia. The Giant sememangnya layak mendapat gelaran - jarak sayapnya 42 meter (138 kaki) hanya satu meter (3 kaki) lebih pendek daripada ketenaran B29 Superfortress of World War II yang terkenal Boeing, dan pesawat ekornya kira-kira sama dengan ukuran Sopwith Pup.

Ini dapat membawa muatan bom maksimum 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) tetapi untuk penerbangan jarak jauh, seperti melawan London, ini dikurangkan menjadi setengah dari itu. Jaraknya sekitar 800km (500 batu). Seperti Murometz, enjinnya dapat diservis pada pertengahan penerbangan.

Serangan malam Gotha / Giant berterusan sepanjang tahun 1917, hampir tanpa cedera, hingga bulan Disember ketika British mula berjaya memintas Gotha pada waktu malam. Kebakaran anti-pesawat juga menjadi lebih berkesan dan peningkatan penggunaan belon rentetan mempengaruhi pengebom.

Menjelang akhir perang, sebatang belon rentetan sepanjang 50 batu mengelilingi London.

Pada malam 28-29 Januari 1918, setelah kehilangan satu Gotha ke atas Britain dan empat lagi ketika mendarat di Belgia, skuadron Gotha ditarik untuk penyusunan semula dan latihan. Ketika mereka beroperasi semula pada bulan Mac, mereka digunakan terutamanya untuk sokongan taktikal semasa serangan hebat terakhir Jerman di Front Barat.

Sementara itu, Giants meneruskan kempen kecil tetapi berpengaruh menentang London. Pada 16 Februari, semasa serangan empat pesawat, seekor Giant menjatuhkan bom seberat 1.000 kg (2.200 lb) - yang terbesar digunakan oleh sesiapa dalam perang - dan meletupkan sayap hospital Chelsea.

Dalam serbuan yang sama Giant lain terselamat bertabrakan dengan kabel belon rentetan dan jatuh 1.000 kaki sebelum juruterbang dapat kembali terkawal. Petang berikutnya Giant tunggal kembali dan menjaringkan gol langsung di stesen St. Pancras. Krew kapal terbang ini melaporkan bahawa mereka melihat tembakan anti-pesawat sejauh dua puluh batu jauhnya - petunjuk kesan psikologi serangan terhadap sasaran bandar.

Serangan terakhir perang dilakukan pada malam 19-20 Oktober 1918. Ini adalah gabungan serangan Gotha / Giant, dan dari 38 orang Gotha yang mengambil bahagian tiga ditembak jatuh oleh pejuang dan tiga lagi dijatuhkan oleh tembakan anti-pesawat.

Tidak ada pasukan raksasa yang pernah dikalahkan oleh pejuang Inggeris atau senjata anti-pesawat, walaupun ada yang dipintas. Sejumlah rosak teruk akibat kemalangan semasa mendarat. Raksasa sangat rumit untuk dibina, dan hanya 18 yang pernah disiapkan.

Jerman berharap dapat menimbulkan rasa panik yang meluas dan bahkan pemberontakan dengan serangan ini. Dalam hal ini mereka gagal, tetapi serangan itu mengikat sejumlah besar pesawat, senjata anti-pesawat dan personel yang sebaliknya dapat digunakan secara langsung di Front Barat. Keperluan untuk pertahanan udara yang terkoordinasi adalah salah satu sebab utama pembentukan RAF pada bulan April 1918.

Salah satu syarat gencatan senjata adalah bahawa Jerman akan menyerahkan semua pengebom malam mereka. Ketika pihak Britain melihat sebilangan kecil pesawat ini sebenarnya pada awalnya mereka mengesyaki Jerman menyembunyikan sebahagian dari mereka.

Kekebalan pengebom yang nampaknya tidak terkalahkan, terutama pada tahun 1917, mempunyai pengaruh besar terhadap pemikiran ketenteraan Inggeris hingga ke Perang Dunia Kedua, kerana di sinilah lahirnya konsep British bahawa & quot; pengebom berat akan selalu dilahirkan & quot.

Sabtu, 22 Ogos 2009 Ari Unikoski

Kos kewangan perang dikatakan berjumlah hampir $ 38 bilion untuk Jerman sahaja Britain membelanjakan $ 35 bilion, Perancis $ 24 bilion, Rusia $ 22 bilion, AS $ 22 bilion dan Austria-Hongaria $ 20 bilion. Secara keseluruhan, perang menanggung sekutu sekitar $ 125 bilion $ the Central Powers $ 60 bilion.

- Adakah kamu tahu?


Pengebom Gotha G. IV Dan G. V Biplane

Yang berpotensi menjadi kemajuan besar dalam perang udara, pengebom Gotha adalah senjata utama Jerman dalam percubaannya untuk menundukkan penduduk awam England dalam Perang Dunia I. Dari itu timbul kepercayaan sesat bahawa pengeboman pengganas dapat memenangkan perang.

Persidangan Perdamaian Hague yang pertama pada tahun 1899 telah melarang jatuhnya proyektil dari belon tetapi hanya untuk jangka masa lima tahun, dan sebelum tahun 1914, penulis akhbar dan fiksyen terkenal telah meramalkan serangan udara ke bandar-bandar. Kerentanan London menimbulkan rasa panik pada tahun 1913.83 Setelah perang bermula, pertimbangan kemanusiaan menimbulkan sedikit keraguan. Orang Perancis mengebom Ludwigshafen pada tahun 1914, dan mereka dan Inggeris terus menyerang kota-kota sempadan musuh hingga tahun 1915–16, walaupun belum ada yang mengembangkan pesawat pengebom khusus dan kerusakan yang disebabkan adalah sedikit. Dari Jerman, hanya kapal terbang Zeppelin yang dapat mencapai London, dan mereka berada di bawah angkatan laut Jerman. Secara beransur-ansur Wilhelm - yang bertengkar tentang menargetkan bangunan bersejarah dan istana sepupunya, sementara Canselor bimbang akan pendapat umum yang netral - menyerahkan semangat tentera laut, dan serbuan di London bermula pada 31 Mei 1915. Selama beberapa bulan Inggeris tidak mempunyai jawapan , tetapi pada tahun 1916 pesawat BE2C baru tiba yang naik lebih tinggi dan stabil pada waktu malam, dan menembakkan peluru 'Buckingham'. Dengan disokong oleh senjata antipesawat yang lebih baik, lampu pencarian, dan sistem pemerhati darat yang lebih baik, mereka menembak jatuh begitu banyak Zeppelins sehingga dari serangan September 1916 di London berhenti. Kerana kekurangan bahan mentah, kulit kapal udara tidak lagi digosok, dan tulang rusuknya terdiri daripada kayu daripada aluminium, menjadikannya lebih mudah terbakar. Bahaya nampaknya sudah berakhir, dan pada awal tahun 1917 pihak berkuasa Inggeris telah menghentikan pengaturan pertahanan awam mereka.

Tetapi Zeppelins menyiapkan jalan untuk pengeboman dengan pesawat. Jurutera Jerman telah mengusahakan pengebom Gotha G-IV sejak awal perang, dan OHL menginginkannya untuk diserbu bertepatan dengan peperangan kapal selam yang tidak terhad. London, 175 batu dari pangkalan Gothas di Belgium, berada dalam jarak 500 batu. Tidak seperti bandar-bandar di Perancis, ia dapat didekati di atas air, tanpa pertahanan darat, dan muara Thames memberikan garis panduan yang jelas. Gotha membawa muatan yang lebih kecil daripada Zeppelins, tetapi mereka lebih pantas (87 mph), lebih tinggi (hingga 10.500 kaki), lebih bersenjata (membawa tiga mesingan), dan lebih sukar untuk ditembak jatuh. Lebih-lebih lagi, sementara pihak Inggeris mendekripsi kod tanpa wayar Zeppelins dan selalu memberi amaran mengenai kedatangan mereka, serangan Gotha pada siang hari (dengan nama khas Operasi Türkenkreuz) tidak dijangka. Mereka membunuh dan mencederakan 290 orang di Folkestone pada 25 Mei, dan pada 13 Jun mereka membunuh dan mencederakan 594 orang dalam pengeboman berpusat di Stesen Liverpool Street London dan East End, termasuk lapan belas kanak-kanak di sekolah Upper North Street di East India Dock Road di 7 Julai satu lagi serangan di ibu negara meragut 250 lagi korban. Pada tahap ini terdapat perbincangan media yang tegang dan tegang di Kabinet Perang. Dua skuadron pejuang kembali dari Front Barat (atas bantahan Haig) - dan sebuah agensi baru, Kawasan Pertahanan Udara London (LADA), diciptakan di bawah Mejar Edward B. Ashmore, seorang penembak yang berpindah dari Flanders. Ashmore menambah satu lagi penghalang pejuang di sebelah timur London dan mengubah taktik mereka sehingga mereka menyerang Gothas secara berkumpulan dan bukannya secara tunggal, dan cuaca buruk yang sama yang menewaskan tentera Britain di Belgium membantunya. Dalam tiga serbuan pada bulan Ogos, Gotha gagal sampai di London, dan pada akhirnya mereka kehilangan tiga pesawat, satu dari api AA dan dua dari para pejuang. Mungkin sebelum waktunya, mereka beralih ke serangan malam.

Sejauh ini pengebom perang Jerman yang paling terkenal adalah biplanes Gotha G. IV dan G. V, yang melakukan serangan yang sangat berjaya di London pada musim panas tahun 1917. Mereka berasal dari Gotha G. II dan G. III sebelumnya. , yang dirancang oleh Hans Burkhard dan diperkenalkan pada tahun 1916. Yang pertama terbukti kurang bertenaga dengan motor inline 220 hp Benz kembarnya, yang membatasi pengeluaran hanya dengan sepuluh pesawat. Walau bagaimanapun, yang terakhir ini dikuasakan oleh dua mesin inline Mercedes 260 hp dan dapat membawa muatan bom sekitar 1,100 lbs. G. III juga merupakan pengebom pertama yang berusaha memberikan penembak ekor kemampuan untuk melepaskan tembakan ke bawah serta sisi dan ke atas. Digantikan di Front Barat dengan pantas oleh G. IV yang jauh lebih baik, G. III dipindahkan ke Balkan setelah Romania memasuki perang melawan Jerman dan Austria-Hungaria.

G. IV diperkenalkan pada akhir 1916 dan membentuk inti dari Heavy Bomber Squadron No. 3, yang pada akhir perang menjatuhkan lebih dari 186,000 lbs bom di London dalam satu siri serangan yang dimulakan dengan serangan siang hari pada 25 Mei 1917. Dengan lebar sayap 77 kaki 9,25 inci, panjang 38 kaki 11 inci, dan berat muatan 7,997 lbs, G. IV mampu membawa antara 660 hingga 1,100 lbs bom, bergantung pada misi dan jumlah bahan bakar yang dibawa di atas kapal. Untuk memiliki jarak maksimum serangan di London, misalnya, G. IV membawa hanya 660 lbs bom. Salah satu sebab utama kejayaannya ialah motor inline Mercedes D. IVa berkembar 260 hp (dikonfigurasikan dalam pengaturan penolak) membolehkannya mencapai kelajuan maksimum 87 mph dan beroperasi dari siling servis 6,500 m (21,325 kaki ) - ketinggian yang melebihi kemampuan pesawat pertahanan rumah yang digunakan oleh British. Sebagai hasil dari serangan tersebut, British terpaksa mengalihkan pejuang top-of-the-line ke pertahanan rumah, memaksa orang-orang Goth untuk beralih ke serangan malam. G. V adalah versi yang lebih berat yang mempunyai pusat graviti yang lebih baik dan menampilkan susunan penembakan penembak ekor yang lebih baik. Semua versi Gothas mempunyai kru tiga orang. Walaupun angka pengeluaran yang tepat tidak tersedia, dianggarkan 230 G. IV mula beroperasi pada tahun 1917. Jumlah pengeluaran mungkin melebihi 400, di antaranya empat puluh kerangka udara yang dihasilkan oleh LVG dibekalkan ke Austria-Hungary dan dilengkapi oleh Oeffag dengan enjin sebaris 230 hp Hiero .

Kagohl 3 masih melakukan serbuan di pelabuhan Perancis dan di depan, tetapi korban meningkat dengan kadar yang membimbangkan. Pada awal bulan Februari, Ernst Brandenburg kembali untuk mengambil alih perintah, tetapi setelah melihat apa yang tersisa dari Geschwader dari Inggris, dia menyuruh unit itu menghentikan operasi untuk mengatur kembali dan melengkapkan kembali. Menjelang musim bunga 1918, Kagohl 3 sekali lagi menjadi misi pertempuran terbang ke atas Perancis dan bahagian barat, tetapi mereka tidak menyerang Inggeris lagi sehingga 19 Mei.

Serangan pada 19-20 Mei adalah yang terbesar yang dilakukan terhadap Britain sepanjang perang, 38 Gotha dan tiga pesawat R terbang mengemban misi tersebut. Dari 2230 hingga tengah malam, para pengebom melintasi London, dan kehancuran meluas dengan lebih dari seribu bangunan yang rosak atau musnah. Tetapi orang Goth membayar harga yang menakutkan. Hanya 28 dari mereka yang berlepas benar-benar menyerang pejuang Inggeris yang menuduh tiga mangsa, tembakan anti-pesawat menyumbang tiga lagi, dan satu terhempas dalam penerbangan kembali.

Seperti yang telah berlaku dengan GIV, prestasi GV merosot ketika beban meningkat dan kemudahan servis menurun, dan serbuan 19 Mei telah dilakukan hanya dari sekitar 5,500 kaki, sedangkan misi malam sebelumnya dengan GV berada pada ketinggian lebih dari 8,000 kaki. Pengeboman pada tahap rendah seperti itu pasti mahal.

Menjelang bulan Jun 1918, jenis Gotha baru mula tiba di Kagohl 3. GVa dan GVb kedua-duanya mempunyai hidung yang lebih pendek daripada GV biasa, ekor kotak dengan kemudi kembar dan bukannya sirip tunggal dan kemudi, dan roda pendaratan tambahan di bawah hidung atau di bahagian depan setiap enjin nacelle. GVb dapat membawa muatan berguna 3,520lb, 8031b lebih banyak daripada model sebelumnya, tetapi kinerjanya tidak lebih baik dan dalam beberapa aspek lebih rendah. Oleh kerana GIV kini sudah usang, pesawat ini dibekalkan kepada orang Austria untuk digunakan di bahagian depan Itali, atau untuk melatih skuadron di Jerman.

Pada akhir Mei, Geschwader England dialihkan secara eksklusif ke sasaran di Perancis untuk menyokong serangan musim semi Jerman, termasuk Paris dan Etaples, di pantai Perancis. Kemudian mereka dialihkan ke sasaran taktikal di bahagian depan ketika Sekutu menyerang balas, dan skuadron pasti mengalami kerugian bencana. Menjelang bulan November, semuanya berakhir, dan skema besar untuk memperbaharui serangan di England pada tahun 1919 tidak berhasil ketika Jerman menuntut perdamaian.

Korban yang dialami oleh Kagohl 3 pada akhir permusuhan berjumlah 137 mati, 88 hilang dan lebih 200 cedera. Pada serbuan terhadap England sahaja, 60 orang Goth hilang - hampir dua kali kekuatan asas unit tersebut. Tetapi ancaman Gotha menjadikan dua skuadron pejuang barisan depan Britain di rumah pada satu masa dan dengan itu secara tidak langsung menguntungkan Tentera Udara Jerman di Perancis dan Flanders.

Siegfried Sasson, penyair perang, memerhatikan serangan udara - dalam kesnya mengenai serangan Gotha pada 17 Ogos 1917 yang menyerang City of London. Ini memerlukan perenggan dalam "Memoirs of a Infantry Officer" "Ketika teksi saya berhenti di jalan sempit, Old Broad Street, orang-orang di trotoar berdiri diam, menatap langit putih yang panas. Pukulan keras telah dimulai di kawasan berdekatan, dan jelas bahawa serangan udara sedang berlangsung. Acara ini tidak dapat diabaikan tetapi saya memerlukan wang dan ingin menaiki kereta api, jadi saya memutuskan untuk mengabaikannya. Kerosakan itu berlanjutan, dan semasa saya menyerahkan cek saya kepada juruwang, sekumpulan kerani wanita datang dengan liar menuruni tangga yang berliku dengan bunyi penggera yang tidak wajar. Di sebalik kekecohan ini, juruwang menyerahkan wang kertas lima paun kepada saya dengan kesopanan seorang lelaki yang bertekad untuk turun dengan kapal. Mungkin dia merasa seperti aku — lebih marah daripada takut sepertinya tidak ada akal dalam idea untuk terpesona di bank sendiri. Saya keluar dari bangunan dengan udara yang tidak prihatin dengan pemandu teksi saya, seperti juruwang, dengan tenang, walaupun satu lagi kemalangan yang luar biasa terdengar seolah-olah sangat dekat dengan Old Broad Street (seperti dulu). "Saya rasa kita juga boleh pergi ke stesen," kata saya, sambil menambah, "nampaknya agak curam bahawa seseorang tidak dapat membayar wang tunai dengan selesa!" Lelaki itu tersengih dan memandu. Mustahil untuk menafikan bahawa Perang dibawa pulang kepada saya. Di Liverpool Street telah terjadi apa, dalam keadaan normal, akan digambarkan sebagai bencana yang mengerikan. Bom telah dijatuhkan di stesen dan salah satu daripadanya telah menghantam kereta depan ekspres tengah hari saya ke Cambridge. Pelancong ngeri bergegas pergi. Tangan jam menunjukkan pukul 11.50 tetapi waktu kereta api telah terganggu sekali dalam kerjayanya, jam penting adalah penonton pasif. Sementara saya berdiri bertanya-tanya apa yang harus dilakukan, sebuah troli bagasi dipusingkan melewati saya di atasnya sambil meletakkan seorang lelaki tua, berpakaian lusuh, dan nampaknya mati. Penglihatan darah menyebabkan saya berasa agak pelik. Bahaya semacam ini sepertinya menuntut kualitas keberanian yang berbeda dengan ketabahan garis depan. Di dalam parit seseorang terbiasa dengan konsep pembunuhan dan ada rasa pembalasan yang teratur. Tetapi di sini seseorang tidak berdaya, musuh yang tidak kelihatan mengirim kehancuran berputar dari langit cuaca cerah, lelaki tua miskin membeli tiket kereta api dan dikerumuni lagi mati di atas barrow wanita yang cedera terbaring di stesen mengerang. Dan kereta api tidak bermula. . . . "


Pengebom Gotha dan Asal-usul Pengeboman Strategik

Walaupun Inggeris mungkin tidur selama bertahun-tahun antara perang dunia, itu adalah tidur yang gelisah dihantui oleh impian perang yang melampaui semua tempat perlindungan dan kesederhanaan. Negara-negara lain mungkin telah merenungkan teori pengeboman strategik, tetapi Inggeris telah merasakan panen pahitnya. Mereka tidak pernah melupakan musim panas tahun 1917, ketika orang-orang Jerman Jerman melancarkan keganasan dan kehancuran di London dan bandar-bandar di pantai selatan.

Cukup sesuai, lawatan pertama mimpi buruk & # 8217s benar-benar melambung ke dalam kewujudan. Sejak tahun 1793, ketika para revolusioner Perancis mendirikan korps balon bayi, kenderaan yang lebih ringan dari udara telah digunakan sebentar-sebentar untuk tujuan ketenteraan. Mereka digunakan terutama untuk pengintaian, tetapi idea pengeboman balon dianggap cukup dapat dipercaya sehingga dilarang oleh kedua-dua persidangan pelucutan senjata Hague pada tahun 1899 dan 1907. Besarnya dan putus asa Perang Dunia I membuat kerja larangan ini secara relatif pendek, dan pada akhir Januari 1915 zeppelin Jerman telah mula mengebom pelabuhan Inggeris di pantai tenggara. Menjelang September, serangan ini meningkat menjadi serangan malam skuadron di London itu sendiri, dan dalam setahun zeppelins telah menyebabkan lebih dari 400 orang mati dan kerosakan harta benda bernilai jutaan dolar.

Walaupun begitu, kapal terbang Jerman pada dasarnya cacat sebagai senjata.

Mereka bukan sahaja merupakan sasaran besar, yang panjangnya lebih dari 600 kaki, tetapi dipenuhi dengan hidrogen yang sangat mudah terbakar. Akibatnya, gabungan lampu sorot Britain, senjata antipesawat, dan pesawat pengejar menembak segera menjadikan zeppelins menjadi krematoria terbang dengan begitu kerap sehingga serangan dihentikan pada bulan Disember 1916. Tetapi orang Inggeris akan segera menghadapi ancaman yang jauh lebih berbahaya: Gotha G IV.

Akar program Jerman untuk mengembangkan pesawat pengebom berat kembali pada musim luruh 1914, ketika Mejar Wilhelm Siegert, bekas juruterbang balon, mengusulkan pengeboman strategik London menggunakan pesawat terbang. Tetapi yang ada dalam pikirannya adalah pesawat tipe B berkekuatan 100 tenaga kuda dengan muatan bom yang sangat ringan dan jarak yang sangat terbatas sehingga perjalanan ke London dan kembali memerlukan peluncuran mereka dari lapangan terbang tidak jauh dari sasaran daripada Pas de Calais .

Kemajuan tentera Jerman terhenti jauh dari tujuan ini, yang memerlukan pergantian ke zeppelins jarak jauh yang jauh. Meskipun demikian, spesifikasi juga dikeluarkan untuk a Grosse kampffiugzeug (pesawat pengebom besar) atau jenis G, dan sebilangan syarikat, termasuk Gothaer Waggonfabrik

A.G. Gotha, mula bekerja. Selama dua tahun akan datang, satu siri prototaip multi-mesin dan model pengeluaran terhad dibuat, tetapi dalam setiap kes itu terbukti kurang bertenaga dan tidak boleh dipercayai. Akhirnya, pada bulan Oktober 1916, Gotha berjaya menghasilkan reka bentuk yang berjaya, yang akan dilancarkan ke produksi sebagai G IV.

G IV asasnya adalah biplan yang bersudut besar dengan jarak sayap lebih dari 77 kaki dan berkembar 260-kuasa kuda, enjin Mercedes yang disejukkan dengan air yang dihubungkan dengan baling-baling pendorong yang menggerakkan kapal udara sejauh lebih dari 300 batu (pada tangki tambahan) pada sedate 80 Batu per jam. Namun Gotha tidak ada bebek duduk. Itu sangat mudah dikendalikan, dan model awal yang lebih baik, bahkan dengan muatan bahan bakar dan bom 2.600 paun penuh, dapat naik ke antara 18.000 hingga 21.000 kaki jauh lebih tinggi daripada hampir semua pencegat yang mungkin mereka hadapi. Malah pesawat pengejar yang berjaya melibatkan G IV pada ketinggian yang lebih rendah mendapati mereka adalah pelanggan yang agak sukar. Pengebom dan kru tiga orangnya dilindungi oleh dua mesingan Parabellum 7.92mm yang dipanaskan elektrik, satu diletakkan untuk menembak ke depan dan ke atas, yang lain dipasang untuk menembak bukan sahaja ke atas dan di belakang pesawat tetapi juga ke bawah, melalui terowong khas di bahagian belakang badan kapal, sehingga meliputi sudut pendekatan kegemaran. Ini & # 8220 yang tidak pernah terjadi sebelumnya & # 8221 akan memberikan kejutan jahat bagi juruterbang Britain yang berniat menyerang dari bawah.

Namun Gotha terutama merupakan alat serangan yang bertujuan untuk meledakkan bahan letupan, dan dalam peranan ini spesifikasinya sama hebatnya. Menurunkan berat badan untuk kru dan bahan bakar, G IV menahan muatan bom sebanyak 660 pound pada jarak penuh. Walaupun ini tidak sebanding dengan daya dukung zeppelins - dari 2.500 hingga 4.500 paun bom, bergantung pada modelnya - ia tidak mengambil kira jumlahnya. Serangan zeppelin yang tipikal mungkin merangkumi dua atau tiga kapal raksasa, sementara Gotha dapat bergerak dalam gelombang 25. Muatan gabungan pesawat sekurang-kurangnya hebat, dan G IV kedua-duanya secara individu kurang rentan dan secara kolektif kurang dikenakan kemerosotan dramatik, kerana bom itu tersebar di lebih banyak kenderaan.

Walaupun Gotha ditakdirkan untuk membuat kerosakan terutamanya pada orang awam dan harta benda mereka, ciri dan persenjataan pesawat menunjukkan bahawa ada niat untuk membatasi pemusnahan tanpa pandang bulu. Secara khusus, G IV dilengkapi dengan pengebom bom Goerz menggunakan teleskop menegak Zeiss tiga kaki, yang merupakan sejarahwan penerbangan C.M. Panggilan putih & # 8220 percubaan saintifik pertama yang bertujuan untuk bom semasa Perang Besar. & # 8221 Selanjutnya, muatan bom asas Gotha & # 8217 dibahagi antara proyektil 110 dan 27 paun, kedua-duanya berguna terutamanya terhadap sasaran titik, atau bangunan tertentu . Rak untuk bom yang lebih berat yang dimaksudkan untuk serangan malam tanpa pandang bulu akhirnya dipasang, tetapi ini sebahagian besarnya reaksi terhadap peningkatan pertahanan udara Britain yang semakin meningkat. (Orang Jerman nampaknya tidak pernah terfikir untuk memasukkan proyektil gas beracun, dan mengabaikan bom jahat & # 8220Elektron & # 8221 yang disempurnakan pada bulan-bulan terakhir perang - terutamanya kerana perang itu kalah.)

Walaupun begitu, ketika Gotha dilancarkan pada akhir Mei 1917, ini terutama dengan tujuan politik, dan ini difahami dengan jelas merangkumi serangan terhadap kemudahan awam. Türkenkreuz (Palang Turk & # 8217s), sebagaimana disebut operasi pengeboman, adalah sebahagian daripada strategi dua serangkai - yang lain adalah perang kapal selam yang tidak terhad - bertujuan untuk mengusir Britain dari perang dengan menyerang di depan rumah. Melambangkan ketetapan ini adalah penunjukan London pusat bangunan pemerintah di sekitar Downing Street, Admiralty, Bank of England, dan organ akhbar Fleet Street – sebagai kawasan sasaran utama, dengan pemasangan ketenteraan dan produksi perang dianggap penting. Namun keputusan sebenarnya terbukti jauh lebih berbeza, jika hampir sama menghancurkannya secara psikologi.

Yang biasa berlaku ialah serangan besar-besaran pertama di Gothas, yang cuaca buruk berpaling dari London. Walaupun serbuan itu hanya merosakkan kem tentera di Shorncliffe dan Cheriton, ia juga membunuh 60 orang, kebanyakan wanita dan kanak-kanak, di daerah komersial Folkestone. Ketika orang-orang Goth berjaya mencapai ibu kota, mulai bulan Jun, hasilnya hampir sama. Pesawat-pesawat itu terletak dan mencapai sasaran yang ditentukan, tetapi seberat bom seberat 110 paun juga jatuh ke Sekolah-sekolah Upper North Street, meletup di tingkat bawah untuk membunuh atau mencederakan 64 kanak-kanak. Dan pengeboman itu ditakdirkan untuk berkembang lebih dalam diskriminasi ketika pertahanan Inggeris bertambah baik.

Pada mulanya, usaha British dikompromikan oleh kerelaan pemerintah untuk mengalihkan aset dari Front Barat, oleh persaingan antara perkhidmatan, dan oleh kesukaran teknikal semata-mata untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan Jerman & pergeseran dari zeppelin pengangkut kayu ke Gotha yang lebih cepat dan terbang lebih tinggi. Juruterbang Inggeris sering kecewa kerana pengebom melewati ribuan kaki di atas tanpa cedera.

Tetapi jaring peringatan awal segera diselaraskan untuk memberikan masa reaksi yang mencukupi. Dan dengan ini terjadi peningkatan dramatik dalam koordinasi pertahanan kebakaran dan udara anti kapal terbang, yang pada gilirannya menyebabkan jumlah warga Gotha yang semakin berat. Menjelang akhir bulan Ogos, pengebom mencari perlindungan kegelapan, dan misi siang hari berhenti.

Oleh itu, bermulalah apa yang disebut oleh sejarawan Raymond Fredette sebagai letupan pertama, rentetan pengeboman malam rawak selama seminggu pada hari-hari terakhir bulan September 1917. Pada mulanya banyak orang London memandang serbuan itu sebagai semacam tontonan di luar pintu. Tetapi setelah empat serangan seperti itu, sebanyak 300.000 orang setiap malam berlindung di Bawah Tanah, dan banyak yang lain bersembunyi di terowong di bawah Sungai Thames.

Setiap petang lebih daripada 10,000 peluru anti pesawat dilancarkan ke arah penyerang Jerman - dan sejumlah puing yang dibelanjakan hujan turun ke kota menambah jumlah korban. Untuk semua orang tahu, pengeboman itu mungkin tidak akan berakhir.

Tetapi sebenarnya serangan itu adalah kekejangan, usaha tertinggi Jerman. Hampir semua Gotha terbang, serta zeppelin dan beberapa pesawat tidak standard yang dikenali sebagai Giants. Yang khas dari kelas raksasa kecil ini adalah R.39, dengan lebar sayap hampir 140 kaki, empat mesin berjumlah hampir 1.000 kuasa kuda, kru sembilan orang, dan muatan bom 4.000 pound. Namun hanya satu Giant yang sampai di London dan ini juga tipikal.

Kekalahan pertama adalah kegagalan yang tidak menyenangkan. Kaiser menganugerahkan Blue Max yang diinginkan kepada Rudolf Kleine, komandan Gothas, tetapi fakta itu menunjukkan hasil yang lain. Dari 92 G IV, hanya 55 yang sampai ke England, dan kurang dari 20 yang ditemui London. Tiga belas Gotha - hampir satu pertiga skuadron - musnah pada minggu itu. Akan ada serbuan lain, tetapi biayanya tetap lebih rendah. Kerana pada tahun 1918, Inggeris hampir menyelesaikan sistem pertahanan udara, yang dalam setiap radar simpanan penting seperti yang mengejutkan Luftwaffe pada tahun 1940.

Namun, kenangan orang Goth dan minggu yang menakutkan pada bulan September 1917 terus menghantui orang Inggeris. Sebanyak apa pun, inilah sebabnya ketika perang kembali ke negara yang tidak disiapkan, bukan hanya pertahanan udara tetapi pertahanan awam dan pasukan pengebom yang berat untuk membalas dendam yang dahsyat ke atas rumah mereka yang menyerang mereka dari atas.

ROBERT L. O & # 8217CONNELL adalah seorang MHQ penyumbang penyumbang.

Artikel ini mula-mula muncul dalam edisi Autumn 1990 (Jilid 3, No. 1) terbitan MHQ - Jurnal Sejarah Ketenteraan Suku Tahunan dengan tajuk utama: The Gotha Bomber and the Origins of Strategic Bombing

Ingin mempunyai edisi cetak berkualiti tinggi yang bergambar mewah MHQ dihantar terus kepada anda empat kali setahun? Langgan sekarang dengan penjimatan khas!


Gotha G.V

Gotha G.V adalah antara pengebom jarak jauh Jerman pada Perang Dunia I. Pesawat klasik ini mengambil alih dari Zeppelins yang tidak berguna yang sebelumnya digunakan sebagai platform bom di London dan sasaran lain. Perkataan 'Gotha' menimbulkan rasa ngeri di kalangan penduduk awam Inggeris dalam Perang Dunia I, seperti istilah 'V-1' dan 'V-2' semasa Perang Dunia II. Dalam kedua keadaan tersebut, rasa takut akan kecederaan dicampur dengan kekecewaan yang kuat sehingga tidak ada yang dilakukan untuk memperbaiki keadaan.

Pengebom Gotha berkembang dari versi G.II dan G.III 1915 yang berjaya di kedua-dua bahagian Timur dan Barat. Ini segera diikuti oleh pesawat G.IV dan G.V yang diperbaiki, yang lebih besar dan lebih kuat dibina. Seperti yang diceritakan oleh Raymond Fredette dalam bukunya yang luar biasa, Langit terbakar, mereka melakukan serangan Jerman terhadap Inggeris.

Galeri Gambar Pesawat Klasik

Gotha yang kemudiannya memang merupakan kejayaan kejuruteraan pesawat klasik, terutama ketika seseorang menganggap bahawa penerbangan pertama mereka hanya datang 13 tahun setelah Kitty Hawk. Biplanes besar yang terbuat dari kayu, keluli, dan kain, mereka dikuasakan oleh enjin Mercedes berkembar-terdorong yang terdengar menyeramkan (belakang).

Dipanggil untuk berkhidmat kerana kegagalan serangan Zeppelin terhadap England untuk memberikan sumbangan penting kepada kemenangan, Gothas tiga tempat itu melakukan serangan siang hari pertama mereka pada 25 Mei 1917, dengan serangan besar-besaran (untuk hari itu) 21 pesawat terhadap Kent. Pada 13 Julai, mereka melakukan serangan untuk menyerang London, membunuh 162 orang dan mencederakan 400. Warganegara yang marah menuntut tindakan segera, dan Royal Flying Corps akhirnya terpaksa menarik sejumlah skuadron tempur dari depan. Sistem pertahanan rumah yang berkesan yang diciptakan menjadi model pertahanan Britain semasa Perang Dunia II.

Kerana Gotha G.V adalah pesawat besar yang penuh dengan kekuatan enjin yang luar biasa, lepas landas dan pendaratan adalah ujian sebenar kemahiran juruterbang. Pada waktu malam, khususnya, lebih banyak pesawat klasik ini hilang akibat kecelakaan juruterbang daripada pesawat pejuang Inggeris.


Gotha G-V - Sejarah

Gambar:

Siri Gotha G.V 947-16 KZ yang ditangkap oleh tentera Belgium pada bulan Ogos 1918 (koleksi H Khutbah)

Negara asal:

Penerangan:

Pengebom jarak jauh enjin berkembar

Jana kuasa:

Dua enjin bertenaga cecair selinder enam silinder sebaris 194 kw (260 hp) Mercedes D.IVa

Spesifikasi:

Persenjataan:

Dua senapang parabellum 7.69 mm (0.303 in) yang dikendalikan secara manual di muatan bom hidung dan kokpit belakang dari 300 kg hingga 500 kg (660 lb hingga 1,100 lb) enam bom 50 50 (110 lb) yang dilakukan dalam serangan siang hari di England

Sejarah:

The Gotha G.V was one of a series of long-range heavy bombers built by Gothaer Waggonfabrik A G Gotha in Germany, which produced the type in some numbers during World War I, the series also being licence-built by Luft Verkehrs GmbH (LVG) and Siemens-Schuckert Werke GmbH.

The Gotha bombers of World War I have been described as having a unique position in aeronautical history in that their name became the accepted synonym for ‘German bomber’ on both sides and has remained so since. Despite widely-published information at the time that they were Handley Page O/100 bombers of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) which got lost and landed on a German airfield in 1916, they were an original design and were placed in production before the O/100.

Gothaer Waggonfabrik was well known before the war as a manufacturer of railway carriages, trucks and other heavy equipment, an aircraft manufacturing division being set up in 1912. Initially the Company built other manufacturers’ designs under licence but eventually commenced to produce its own designs.

The first twin-engine design appeared in 1914, designed by Oskar Ursinus, a civil engineer, and at the time editor of ‘Flugsport’. The aircraft was initially known as the Ursinus GUH and was an unarmed reconnaissance aircraft but was later fitted with machine guns and re-designated the GO G.I, having Benz engines providing 112 kw (150 hp) and an all-up weight of 2,790 kg (6,150 lb).

The prototype of the Model G.II had engines in the pusher configuration instead of tractor and had a unique quadricycle undercarriage under each engine nacelle. This was changed to a three-point undercarriage. The Models G.III to G.V differed only slightly from the G.II, mainly mounting more powerful engines.

The basic framework was of wood construction with fabric covering, the tail surfaces, ailerons and undercarriage being built of steel tube. The wing was of three-bay layout, the upper wings being composed of two panels joined at the centre with steel wedges. The lower wings had a centre-section to which were attached the engine bearers, struts and undercarriage. These sections were plywood covered on both surfaces. The interplane struts were of steel tube with three-ply fairings.

A crew of three or four was usually carried and the various cockpits for the nose gunner/bombardier, pilot and rear gunner were connected by an open passageway to allow positions to be changed in flight. Bombs were carried vertically in an internal bomb bay and externally on racks under the wings and fuselage. An unusual feature was the tunnel in the rear fuselage which gave the rear lower gunner a clear field of fire to the rear and below from a prone position which covered the vulnerable blind spots of the bomber.

Production continued to the G.VII and G.VIII models, which had opposite rotating propellers, but most aircraft had standard engines with both propellers rotating clockwise.

The Gotha G.IV emerged in 1916 and coincided with the realisation that the Zeppelin airships had limitations as a raiding weapon. Subsequently the Gothas made many bombing raids on England. Heavy Bomber Squadron 3 was formed in 1917 with 30 examples of the Gotha IV, commanded by Hauptmann Brandenburg, being based at St Denis Westrem [Flights 13 and 14] and Gontrode [Flights 15 and 16]. Two more Flights [Nos 17 and 18] were formed in July 1917. Daylight raids were made on England from 25 May to 22 August 1917 and achieved remarkable success with a low casualty rate, the aircraft flying at 4,572 m (15,000 ft). Sopwith Pups and Martinsydes were sent to intercept the Gothas but by the time they reached altitude the bombers were on their way back across the North Sea.

There was very little significant damage caused by the bombing but the effect on the British public was enormous and forced the British Government to withdraw No 56 Squadron from France to combat the daylight raids. Once an early warning defence system was put in place, and with the advent of the Bristol F.2b Fighter and Sopwith Camel with defence units, daylight operations became impossible and the German bombers had to resort to night raids. By May 1918 the Gothas used on night raids were withdrawn from operations on England, having made 22 raids. No 3 Bombengeschwader dropped 84,745 kg (168,828 lb) of bombs. Twenty-four aircraft were destroyed by Allied defences and a further 37 were lost in accidents.

Late in the war, in December 1918, when Germany and its aerodromes were being overrun, units of the Australian Flying Corps (AFC) took possession of many German items of equipment, including aircraft and field guns. No 4 Squadron AFC captured what was said to be a Gotha bomber, thought to be a G.V, at an airfield near Cologne. A photo of this aircraft has appeared in Vol. VIII of the ‘Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18, Australian Flying Corps’ by F M Cutlack, this being Australian War Memorial (AWM) Official Photo No E4147. However, this aircraft was in fact a Zeppelin Staaken R.VI. The Australian unit did capture a Gotha G.V bomber in that area but, as the German bombers were too large an aircraft to be taken as a War Prize, it is assumed in due course it was abandoned on the airfield and later broken up.

It is interesting to note a German Railway gun named ‘Big Bertha’ was captured by Australian troops and shipped to Australia for the AWM. At one stage it was assembled and placed on display at Central Railway Station in Sydney, NSW. It is believed to be the only German railway gun which survived the war but it was eventually scrapped and all that remained was the barrel at the AWM.

The number of operations by German bombers against the United Kingdom has been described as the ‘First Battle of Britain’. Attacks were made initially by Zeppelin airships on 51 occasions and by aeroplanes on 52 occasions. Records have indicate 1,414 persons were killed and 3,416 were injured on the ground. However, raids did cause many Londoners to seek shelter in underground railways and many left the city for country areas.

Raids on Britain by Gotha aircraft commenced on 25 May 2017 with 21 aircraft reaching the shore and successfully bombing Folkestone on the English Channel in Kent, and Shorncliffe Camp. Raids continued until 18 September 1917 when 25 aircraft set out but only three bombed coastal areas in Suffolk, Kent and Essex. On this occasion they were joined by three Zeppelin Staakens, which were known as ‘Giants’.

The last operation was on 19/20 May 1918 when 38 Gothas set out and 28 reached their targets in the London, Faversham and Dover areas, being joined by two ‘Giants’. Altogether the Gothas carried out 383 raids, 297 reaching Britain during eight daylight and 19 night raids. On these raids they were joined by 30 ‘Giants’, 28 of which reached their targets. A total of 111,935 kg of bombs was dropped. During these operations 24 Gothas were shot down, 36 were lost or damaged in crashes, and two ‘Giants’ were lost in crashes.


Entering service in 1917.The Gotha G.V was a heavy bomber used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial German Air Service) during World War I to terrorize the innocent London dweller. They carried but 1200 lbs of bombs and, in reality, more were destroyed during landing than by Allied firepower. This model is being totally re-designed (Apr 6, 09)

Gotha G.V WWI German Bomb Dropper

It was not until the early spring of 1917 that a long-range bomber of sufficiently advanced design and number was available to the Germans to bomb London.

With it's sinister 'lozenge' camouflage, crew of three, and 6x200lb bombs careening in at 81 mph this two engine flying nightmare made the Zeppelin bomb droppers look like Santa Claus.

What's more, the rear gunner was able to fire down melalui yang Gotha's fuselage at attacking (and very much surprised!) allied Scouts. Whatamodel!!

Gotha G.V German WWI Bomber


Since the occupation of the Belgian coast in 1914, it had been the German ambition to be able to bomb England particularly London. But it was not until the early spring of 1917 that a long-range bomber of sufficiently advanced design was available. This flying nightmare, soon to become a household word in England, was the Gotha Bomb Dropper.

The Gotha Bomb Dropper was produced in the autumn of 1916 when the limitations of the Zeppelin as a raider had become painfully obvious. Unlike the Zeppelins, the Gotha's could fly in formation and cover each other with their Parabellum MG14 7.9 mm caliber machine guns. The German High Command decreed that 30 Gotha bombers were to be ready for a daylight raid on London on February 1st, 1917, but the machines were not actually available until May, and the first daylight raid on London was carried out by a formation of 14 Gotha's on June 13th, 1917.

This raid, and the others which followed, received little opposition and the public indignation was substantial. After July 7th, when 22 Gotha's raided the Capitol, the daylight raids on London stopped, and the following month night raids commenced. Hit and run raids continued by day in other parts of England for several weeks. Night raids continued until May 1918 and were abandoned in view of the increasingly heavy toll taken by the defenses which by that time included an efficient system of balloon-cables and many night-flying Sopwith Camels and other fighters. At peak employment, in April 1918, 36 G.Vs were in service.

On daylight attacks the Gotha's flew between 10,000 ft and 16,000 ft- too high to enable the defense to intercept them as they flew up the Thames estuary towards London. On the night raids, when a lower ceiling sufficed, a greater weight of bombs could be carried.

The most novel feature of the Gotha, and one which made it difficult to attack, was the carefully designed tunnel through the fuselage for firing downward, covering the standard blind spot and enabling the tail and underside to be perfectly protected against attacking aeroplanes. A crew of three was normally carried in the Gotha. The raids on England were mostly carried out from bases at St. Denis Westrem and Gontrode in Flanders.

ARMAMENT: Movable Parabellum 7.9mm machine gun on turntable mounting in front cockpit and a Parabellum gun on traverse mounting on rear cockpit. (Interesting note is that this rear cockpit gun could be fired downward through an opening in the upper fuselage for belly defense). Twelve (10?) heavy Explosive (H.E.) bombs carried in twin chambers mounted within the fuselage between the pilot's and rear cockpit along with two external bombs in spring jaws under the forward section to correct tail heaviness. Some Gotha's were seen to be carrying 6X50kg bombs externally between the landing gear. Total bomb capacity was 1,102 lb.

Jane's Fighting Aircraft of WWI explains ..
"The bomb dropping instruments carry 14 bombs in all. One in the front of the fuselage, an affair with spring jaws, contains two bombs lying longitudinally.

Two others placed between the pilot and the rear passenger contains up to six bombs each, piled one upon the other in a rectangular chamber, so arranged that as the lowest bomb is released, it is followed successfully by the other bombs."

POWER PLANTS:
Two 260 hp Mercedes motors driving pusher props:

Final versions in service were the G.Va distinguishable from the G.V by the biplane tail assembly and shorter nose And the G.Vb which sported a nose wheel for safer landings. Going into production in March 1918- in service by June, they were agile for their size, well defended, and difficult to shot down.

In all, there were 57 airship raids (564 killed and 1,370 wounded), and 27 aircraft raids (835 killed and 1,990 wounded) on Great Britain in the First World War. A total of 9,000 bombs (280 tons)was dropped. Damage totaling £3,000,000 was caused but the wasted time of workers having to take shelter had a far greater impact. Combined with this was the emotional shock resulting from raids such as that of January 28, 1918, when an exploding bomb caused a press to fall through the floor of O'dhams printing works on to people sheltering below, killing 38 of them and wounding 85 more.

The first Grossflugzeug (large aeroplane) built by the Gothaer Waggonfabrik AG was the 0. evolved by Oskar Ursinus and Major Friedel of the German Army from a prototype flown for the first time in January 1915. A few of these were built by Gotha under licence, in simplified and improved form. They were intended for ground-attack and general tactical duties and were employed on the Western and Eastern Fronts. The G.Is were characterized by a slim fuselage attached to the upper wings, while the two l60hp Mercedes D.III engines were mounted close together on the lower wings. Although following the same basic concept, the Gotha 0.11 was an entirely new design, evolved at Gotha under the Swiss engineer Hans Burkhard and flown for the first time in March 1916. The fuselage and engines (220hp Mercedes D.IVs) were mounted conventionally on the lower wings overall span was increased, and auxiliary front wheels were added to the landing gear to avoid the risk of nosing over. The Gotha 0.11 carried a crew of three and a defensive armament of two machine-guns the first production example was completed in April 1916. The 0.11 entered service in the autumn, but was soon withdrawn from operations (on the Balkan Front) after repeated failures of the engine crankshafts. It was replaced from October 1916 on the Balkan and Western Fronts by the 0.111, a new model with reinforced fuselage, an extra machine-gun and 260hp Mercedes DJVa engines. An initial 'twenty-five GIlls were ordered, and in December 1916 fourteen were in service at the Front.

First major production model was the OW, chosen to carry out raids on the United Kingdom: an initial fifty G.IVs were ordered from Gotha, eighty were built by Siemens & Huckert and about a hundred by LVG. The CIV went into service about March 1917, and began to make daylight raids on southern England towards the end of May. The G.IV retained the Mercedes D.IVa, but differed appreciably in having a tunnel hollowed out of the rear fuselage so that the rear gunner could cover the blind spot' below and to the rear of the bomber. Normandy this was done with the standard rear-mounted gun, but a fourth gun could be carried for the purpose at the expense of part of the bomb load. The CIV, with an an-plywood fuselage, and ailerons on top and bottom wings, was stronger yet easier to fly than its predecessors, though its performance remained much the same as for the 0111, and Germany was obliged to switch it to night attacks against Britain from September 1917. By this time it was beginning to be replaced by the new G.V, which had entered service in August this version continued the night bombing of England until the following May.

At the peak of their employment, in April 1918, thirty-six Gotha G.Vs were in service. Their typical bomb load on cross-Channel raids was six 50kg (1 bIb) bombs - about half their maximum load. These differed from one another only in internal details, but could be distinguished from the G.V by their biplane tail assembly and shorter nose. The G.Va/Vb went into production in March 1918 and into service in June by August there were twenty-one G.Vbs at the Front. In general, the Gotha bombers were agile for their size, well defended and difficult to shoot down. More were lost to anti-aircraft flue than in aerial fighting, but far more still were lost in landing accidents. Forty of the Siemens-built G.lVs were completed as trainers. About thirty of the 1MG G.IVs were later transferred to Austro-Hungary, where they were refitted with 230hp Hieros and employed on the Italian Front. A seaplane development of the G.I, the Gotha-Ursinus UWD, was completed late in 1915. It was handed over to the German Navy in January 1916 and used on operations.

Specifications for the Gotha G.V Bomber

Persembahan
Maximum speed: 87 mph
Range: 522 miles
Service ceiling: 21,325 ft


Meet the Gotha: Imperial Germany's Deadly World War I Bomber

Kunci utama: In the WWI era, these bombers represented a significant improvement. However, they weren't enough to win the war for Berlin.

On May 25, 1917, a fleet of 21 bombers lumbered in a line at 12,000 feet over the English coast. The biplanes, each carrying 13 bombs, had wingspans exceeding 70 feet, immense for World War I aircraft. German military leaders called the planes Gothas, hoping the name would add an element of terror to English citizens in their homes below.

Earlier that day the Gothas, a top-secret weapon carefully concealed at Belgian airfields, had taken off and headed toward England, about 175 miles away. The super-bombers were led by Ernst Brandenburg, personally selected to head Kagohl 3, the elite of Kaiser Wilhelm’s bombing squadrons organized for raids on England. The target was London. Because the British weren’t expecting these newly designed warplanes, they were not prepared to spot their arrival or to stop them.

Ironically, in the spring of 1917, British residents believed the battle for the skies over their country was already won. They had been able to sleep soundly in their beds for about eight consecutive months with no German Zeppelins daring the North Sea with their deadly bombs. The Gothas now heading toward London had a much greater potential for causing damage than the Zeppelins, which could muster only small bomb loads.

Orang Jerman Gotha

Although no other bomber, German or Allied, cradled more than two 112-pound bombs, the Gotha was capable of carrying more than 10 times that amount and dropping them with remarkable accuracy by using a high-tech Goerz bombsight.

Twin engines gave these bombers a top speed of 88 miles per hour and a ceiling of 16,000 feet, well above the reach of most defensive fighters then based in England. Because the Gothas flew so high, tanks of liquid oxygen were available if needed by crewmembers. The aircraft’s many unique features convinced German leaders that the Gotha was a plane capable of winning the war.

The 34-year-old Brandenburg took off with 23 bombers from grass fields near Ghent and headed for the Nieuwunster Airfield 40 miles away to refuel. (A reserve fuel tank was later installed under the upper wing to avoid this delay on future raids.)

One Gotha experienced engine problems halfway to the coast and landed near Thielt. Another suffered fuel line problems over the North Sea and began falling behind. Unfortunately, Brandenburg had no radio (because of its prohibitive weight) to find out what was wrong with this Gotha, which was painted with undulating serpents from nose to tail. Finally, the pilot of the troubled plane fired several red flares to indicate he was turning back and dumped his bombs into the sea. Meanwhile, an observer on board scribbled a message about the bomber’s problems to be carried back to a German coastal station by one of two pigeons aboard.

“The Whole Street Seemed to Explode, With Smoke and Flames Everywhere”

Brandenburg had marched off to war in 1914 as an infantry officer, but after being severely wounded ended up an air observer flying over the front. From observer he had moved up to command the important Englandflieger, or England Squadrons, which he was now leading up the Thames Valley without opposition. Thick, towering clouds greeted the planes over the capital instead of the clear weather forecast in Belgium. Accurate bombing would be impossible, so the pilots reluctantly turned southeast and headed off to find another target.

They dropped a scattering of bombs along the way over Kent. These were aimed at Lympne Airfield and destroyed a few British airplanes about to take off. The Gothas then went in search of Folkestone, a major supply port for British armies in France.

The sky was clear at this seaside resort filled with unsuspecting crowds in a holiday mood for a Whitsun celebration. The Gothas droned high overhead. Although the raid lasted only 10 minutes, 60 bombs found their way to unsuspecting throngs in the Tortine Street shopping district. “The whole street seemed to explode, with smoke and flames everywhere,” one eyewitness reported. “Worst of all were the screams of the wounded.” The death toll was 95 along with 260 wounded, far higher than from any German Zeppelin airship raid.

The Gothas droned out over the North Sea again for the return flight to Belgium, ending their raid. The Germans had just introduced a new degree of aerial warfare, changing how wars from the sky would be fought during World War I and in future wars.

German efforts to create strategic bombing from the air with specially designed monster planes sprang from the hope of escaping the war’s hideous and interminable slaughter of ground troops. The bombers appealed to the German emperor and his High Command because they believed civilians had been softened by the Industrial Age and saw a chance to strike at the working class, considered Britain’s soft underbelly.

The Kaiser’s Secret Weapon

Brandenburg was personally selected to head Kagohl 3, the elite of the Kaiser’s bombing squadrons for the raids on England, by General Ernst von Hoeppner. Kagohl 3 was attached to the German Fourth Army in Flanders, but operated independently of fighting on that front. Its orders came directly from the German Army High Command (OHL).

A striking commander with dark, intelligent eyes, Brandenburg emphasized training his crews to handle the unwieldy bombers and to fly together like geese. In the middle of May when the Gothas were ready for their first raid on London, the revered Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg was driven to a Flanders airfield in a large open car to give Kagohl 3 airmen a fitting sendoff. The lined-up planes were snow-white except for bold black crosses on their tails and fuselages and customized body painting to suit a crew’s own taste.

The Germans began air attacks in late 1914 by using their unique Zeppelins. While drawing considerable publicity, these airships caused only minor damage. When the OHL lost faith in the Zeppelins, it ordered increased Gotha bomber production. These planes were produced by the Gothaer Waggonfabrik AG Company, a prewar maker of railway carriages. The German High Command wanted 30 Gothas ready by late May.

Dubbed “the Kaiser’s secret weapon,” Gothas were a big improvement over early aerial combat efforts in small, rickety planes. Early emphasis had been on “dogfights” between opposing pilots, then some airmen began tossing small bombs from their open cockpits. Soon French pilots were dropping pencil-sized steel darts called flechettes on unsuspecting ground troops 1,500 feet below. Some were said to have fatally wounded a German general riding on horseback.

Bombing efforts gradually became more sophisticated until larger bombers like the Gothas were specially designed to pack a bigger wallop. Gothas were only 41 feet long, far shorter than their extensive wingspans. Two early Gotha models had 72-foot wingspans, with wings on more widely used G.IV models extending 77 feet. The bombers ranged from the G.I model with two 160-horsepower Benz motors, to the improved G.IVs equipped with more powerful 260-horsepower Mercedes motors. The fuselage and wings were made of plywood and fabric.

Brandenburg Pounces on London

In the front sat the navigator/bombardier, who was also the front gunner. Behind were the pilots. The tail had two guns reachable by a tunnel running through the rear fuselage. One was called the “sting in the tail” because it shot downward to cover the tail’s blind spot. The other rear gun was able to shoot above the plane if an attacker approached from that direction.

The machine guns were fitted with electrical dynamo-driven heating so they could be fired in the cold air of high altitudes. Because of chilling temperatures, the airmen dressed as warmly as possible. In addition, oxygen was taken along, but it wasn’t always used. “We rather preferred to restore our body warmth and energy with an occasional gulp of cognac,” claimed one pilot.

Brandenburg had to wait weeks for another try on London, but when good weather was predicted, he pounced. Brandenburg and 14 Gothas took off from Ghent at 10 am on June 13, hoping to return before forecast thunderstorms at 3 pm.

By midday the Gothas were droning up the Thames. The distant rumble was heard first by English suburb dwellers, who stepped outside to watch the planes—their wonder greater than their fear. They stared in awe at the distinctive formation three miles up. Because of their great height, a British volley from ground guns proved fruitless.

At 11:35 am, the Gothas dropped some bombs on London’s East End, with a cluster falling between the Royal Albert Docks and the borough of East Ham. Eight men were killed at the docks and bombs damaged some sheds, offices, and railway cars. Brandenburg, in the lead plane, fired a white flare signaling the Gothas to unleash their main bomb loads, Liverpool Street Station being the prime target. With terrible explosions, 72 bombs landed within a mile of the terminal—only three hit the station itself. Some victims were trapped in a wrecked dining car and two coaches were set afire.


Super Guns

When the first shells from Germany’s infamous Paris Gun, history’s first super long-range artillery piece, began landing in the so called City of Light in the spring of 1918, citizens wrongly believed that they were under attack from a high-flying Zeppelin. In reality, they were being bombarded by a 211-mm field gun with an unheard of range of 130 km. In the first day of its use, the gun hammered the city with 21 shells, each weighing more than 200 lbs. Despite the terror the weapon wrought on the people of the city, the Paris Gun proved to be more trouble that it was worth for the Germans. For starters, the 350-lb. powder charges required to send a shell such a distance wore the barrel’s rifling down so quickly each successive shot measurably increased the caliber of the gun. In fact, after 60 rounds, the entire barrel was ruined and would need to be replaced. The gun was also woefully inaccurate. Not only was it virtually impossible to hit anything smaller than a city from a distance of more than 100 km, but since the flight time from muzzle to target was more than three minutes, the gunners actually needed to calculate the earth’s rotation when aiming the weapon. Simply put, by the time one of the gun’s shells returned to earth from its then unprecedented 130,000-foot-high flight path, the city had moved slightly with the planet’s own rotation. Despite this, the Germans managed to kill 256 civilians with the Paris Gun. Sixty-eight died in one lucky shot alone, when a round struck a packed church on Good Friday of 1918. The Paris Gun was withdrawn from service in the final weeks of the war, lest the advancing Allies capture it. It was dismantled in Germany before the Armistice. Although militarily a failure, the Paris Gun was the first device to launch a man made object so high into the stratosphere. An improved version of the weapon would be used by the Nazis in World War Two to shell southern England from Occupied France.


Gotha G-V - History

S u m m a r y

Hippo Kit No. PK48001 - Gotha G.V

Contents and Media:

124 tan coloured injection moulded plastic part three parts in clear 29 photo-etched parts.

Jenis Ulasan:

Excellent mouldings with good detail wings with sharp trailing edges and subtle rib tapes outlines conform very well to published plans, includes some useful photo-etched parts decals in perfect register with thin carrier film.

Kekurangan:

Missing window and some decal option issues. No bombs included.

Thanks to Hippo, the Gotha G.V makes another appearance in 1:48 scale. Although it&rsquos not perfect, all of the basic elements are catered for to allow a sound replica of the original. Don&rsquot be scared off by the boxtop warning &ldquofor experienced modeller&rsquos only&rdquo. All this really means is that some skills will be needed for the photo-etched parts, rigging and the &ldquopinning&rdquo of the wings. easily accomplished if you have tackled a biplane or two in the past.

Reviewed by Rob Baumgartner


HyperScale is proudly supported by Squadron

FirstLook

For those of us with a fondness for the famous Gotha bomber, things are looking pretty good at the moment. Not only can we indulge ourselves in new kit releases, there are new publications as well.

The popular scale of 1:48 hasn&rsquot seen many of these aircraft. We had the Aurora G.V in the late 1950s, which although quite inaccurate by today&rsquos standards, was a good effort for its time. When the Copper State Models G.III came onto the market, we were in heaven. Now we have a new kid on the block and it&rsquos the G.V that once again makes an appearance.

Fortunately it&rsquos a well produced kit but there are a few things to look out for along the way.

Presented on four tan coloured sprues, we have a total of 124 plastic parts with an additional clear sprue catering for the windows and windscreen. Added to this is a photo etched fret which provides another 29 pieces, and completing the package is a decal sheet that offers markings for a single aircraft.

All of the plastic parts are well formed with good detail and no obvious deformities. A couple of ejection pin towers can be found inside the fuselage halves but these can easily be cleaned up and removed.

No locating pins are present so a little care will be needed during assembly.

A warning on the boxtop advises that this kit is for experienced modellers only. As such the builder is expected to provide much of the detail themselves. This includes the interior framework as Hippo only supplies the floor, &ldquofuel tanks&rdquo and bulkheads. Some smaller items are catered for, which come in the form of seats, steering wheel, and rudder bar. Pilot controls, fuel and air pump, bomb release levers and the like, will all have to be made from scratch.

The instrument panel comprises of a photo etched part (uncoloured) that is glued to the rear of the cockpit partitioning.

The moulding of the wings is very good, requiring only minimal cleaning up of each flying surface. The ribs are represented by subtle tapes and the trailing edges are commendably thin. As per the original, they are broken into sections so some pinning will be required for strength. The delicate struts are all to scale and thankfully the plastic is strong enough to support the structure.

Photo etched parts take care of the finer elements in the kit. These include such items as the control horns, machine gun mount, and the all important propeller guards. An interesting idea from Hippo is their decision to use this material for the control cable guides that run along the fuselage sides. These will certainly help ease the rigging process.

All of the major components conform well to published general arrangement drawings, those used here being Ian Stair&rsquos set found in the 1994 Albatros Publications &ldquoGotha!&rdquo Datafile Special. However there is one frustrating omission and this relates to one of the starboard windows below the bomb aimer. Even if this was painted over (and some were, including 670/17 during its career), there should still be the representation of a frame.

Arming your Gotha with bombs will also be problematical as they are a surprising exclusion from this release.

Speaking of transparencies, one would expect to see one above the instrument panel. The outline is present but unfortunately it&rsquos a solid piece of plastic. So if you wish to replicate an aircraft that didn&rsquot have this area blacked out, you will have to open up this region and also find some clear film to fill the resultant gap.

A rigging diagram is included on the instruction sheet and this also deals with the outer control cables.

The decal sheet contains some of the thinnest carrier film you are ever likely to see and each item was printed in perfect register. While the foregoing is all good news, there are some items that will raise a few eyebrows amongst the aficionados. Hippo have gone against convention and decided to include a black outline around the national crosses and chevrons.

While this interpretation can be altered by those with a steady hand, the omission of the aircraft&rsquos serial number is inexcusable. It should be 670/17, as flown by Walter Aschoff who was the commander of Staffel 17. It was photographed in early 1918 and can be seen wearing the image of a snake down its fuselage sides.

Stencilling and the all important Gotha logo are included.

Kesimpulannya

With just a little bit of extra work, Hippo&rsquos Gotha G.V will turn into a fine replica of the original. After all, it is a &ldquolimited run&rdquo kit and designed for the experienced builder, so one is expected to do more than just &ldquoassemble&rdquo the bits.

The few problem areas are frustrating but they are not insurmountable. A window frame can be fabricated from sheet styrene and the missing serial number manufactured from spares. Constructing the correct font could prove difficult so perhaps this is an opportunity for Rowan at Pheon.

Overall it&rsquos a very welcome addition to one&rsquos Kagohl 3 airfield.


Tonton videonya: Rise of Flight Test Pilot: Gotha


Komen:

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