Edward Heath - Sejarah

Edward Heath - Sejarah


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Edward Heath

1916-2005

Ahli Politik Inggeris

Edward Heath dilahirkan di Broadstairs England pada 9 Julai 1916. Berkat beasiswa, dia dapat belajar di Oxford College. bertugas di Perang Dunia II sebagai pegawai artileri. Pada tahun 1950, dia terpilih ke Parlimen di mana dia berkhidmat sebagai Parti Konservatif dari tahun 1955 hingga 1959.

Heath memasuki Kabinet pada tahun 1963 sebagai Menteri Perdagangan dan Industri. Pada tahun 1965, dia menjadi ketua Parti Konservatif dan pada tahun 1970, dia menjadi Perdana Menteri.

Pencapaian terbesarnya ialah menjadikan Britain menjadi ahli di Common Market. Krisis buruh pada tahun 1974 mengakibatkan Konservatif kalah dalam pilihan raya.


Edward Heath

Edward Heath& # 160 (9 Julai 1916 - 17 Julai 2005) adalah Perdana Menteri Inggeris dari 19 Jun 1970 hingga 4 Mac 1974, mengganggu dua penggal Harold Wilson. Tindakannya yang paling penting sebagai Perdana Menteri adalah membawa Inggeris ke dalam Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah pada tahun 1973, serta pengenaan peraturan langsung di Ireland Utara ketika Masalah mencapai puncaknya.


Kandungan

Edward Heath berasal dari keluarga kelas pekerja, anak seorang tukang kayu dan pembantu rumah. Dia adalah yang pertama dari dua perdana menteri penting selepas Perang Dunia II yang berasal dari peringkat bawah masyarakat (yang lain adalah Margaret Thatcher). Heath pergi ke sekolah tatabahasa di Ramsgate, dan memenangi biasiswa ke Balliol College, Oxford. Heath adalah pemuzik berbakat, dan memenangi biasiswa organ kolej pada penggal pertamanya. Ini membolehkannya tinggal di universiti untuk tahun keempat. Dia akhirnya lulus dalam bidang falsafah, politik dan ekonomi (PPE) pada tahun 1939.

Heath bertugas di tentera pada Perang Dunia II, bermula sebagai letnan kedua di Royal Artillery. Pada tahun 1944 dia mengambil bahagian dalam Pendaratan Normandia. Heath akhirnya didemobilisasi (meninggalkan tentera) sebagai letnan-kolonel pada tahun 1947.

Setelah bertugas dalam Perkhidmatan Awam, Heath memenangi kerusi sebagai Anggota Parlimen (MP) untuk Bexley pada pilihan raya umum Februari 1950.

Pelantikan awal Heath adalah sebagai cambuk dalam Parti Konservatif di Dewan Rakyat. Dia meningkat menjadi Ketua Whip dan Setiausaha Parlimen Perbendaharaan dari tahun 1955 hingga 1959. Harold Macmillan melantiknya sebagai Menteri Tenaga Kerja, jawatan Kabinet, pada tahun 1959.

Pada tahun 1960 Macmillan memberikan tanggungjawab kepada Heath untuk merundingkan percubaan pertama Inggeris untuk bergabung dengan Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah (ketika Kesatuan Eropah dipanggil). Setelah rundingan yang meluas, kemasukan Inggeris dipveto oleh Presiden Perancis, Charles de Gaulle.

Dari tahun 1965 hingga 1970 Heath adalah Ketua Pembangkang ketika Parti Buruh berkuasa. Kemudian dia terpilih sebagai Perdana Menteri pada Pilihan Raya Umum 1970.

Semasa menjadi perdana menteri, kerajaan Inggeris melalui parlimen beberapa perubahan yang cukup radikal.

Edit mata wang dan metrikasi

Sejak zaman Anglo-Saxon, mata wang Inggeris (dan kemudian Inggeris) didasarkan pada pound sterling, pada kadar 240 pence hingga £ 1. Pada 15 Februari 1971, dikenali sebagai Hari Perpuluhan, United Kingdom dan Ireland mendefinisikan mata wang mereka.

Perubahan ini mempunyai banyak akibat, tetapi akhirnya diterima oleh kebanyakan orang. Itu adalah perubahan yang mahal. Tidak hanya keseluruhan mata wang yang beredar berubah, tetapi banyak alat mekanik juga harus diubah. Setiap daftar tunai di negara ini, setiap mesin komersial yang mengambil duit syiling, setiap pemberitahuan umum mengenai caj wang, dan sebagainya.

Perubahan lain, yang terjadi pada waktu yang hampir sama, adalah metrikasi sistem timbangan dan ukuran kekaisaran lama. Idea ini bertarikh sebelum Heath, dan diteruskan setelahnya oleh pemerintah Buruh berikutnya. Ia tidak pernah siap sepenuhnya. Had kelajuan masih dalam mil per jam, dan ukuran panjang masih di meter tradisional, kaki dan inci, dengan metrik sebagai alternatif. Sekali lagi, perubahannya sangat mahal. Ini bermaksud peralatan yang hampir lengkap dalam industri alat mesin.

Ini dilakukan terutamanya kerana bergabung dengan Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah (EEC) pada tahun 1973 mewajibkan Inggeris untuk mengambil undang-undangnya semua arahan EEC. Ini termasuk penggunaan satu set unit berasaskan SI untuk banyak tujuan dalam lima tahun. Walau bagaimanapun, ukuran metrik tidak banyak digunakan dalam kehidupan seharian di UK. [6]

Heath membawa Inggeris ke Eropah dengan Akta Komuniti Eropah 1972 pada bulan Oktober. [7]

Setelah de Gaulle meninggalkan pejabat, Heath bertekad untuk memasukkan UK ke dalam Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah (ketika itu). Ekonomi EEC juga perlahan dan keanggotaan Britain dilihat sebagai cara untuk menghidupkannya semula. [8] Setelah perbincangan selama 12 jam antara Heath dan Presiden Perancis Georges Pompidou, permohonan ketiga Britain berjaya. [9]

Akhir pengeditan perdana beliau

Heath gagal mengawal kekuatan kesatuan. Serangan dua pelombong merosakkan ekonomi. Mogok 1974 menyebabkan sebahagian besar industri negara bekerja tiga hari seminggu untuk menjimatkan tenaga. Itu sudah cukup bagi pengundi untuk meletakkan pemerintah di luar pejabat. Kekalahan pada pilihan raya 1974 mengakhiri karier Heath di tangga teratas. Parti Konservatif menggantikannya dengan Margaret Thatcher.

Heath tidak pernah berkahwin. Dia dijangka menikahi teman kecilnya Kay Raven, yang dilaporkan bosan menunggu dan mengahwini seorang pegawai RAF yang dia temui bercuti pada tahun 1950. Dalam perenggan empat ayat dari memoarnya, Heath mendakwa bahawa dia terlalu sibuk untuk membina karier selepas perang dan "mungkin. dianggap terlalu banyak". Dalam wawancara TV 1998 dengan Michael Cockerell, Heath mengakui bahawa dia menyimpan fotonya di flatnya selama bertahun-tahun selepas itu. [10]

Minatnya terhadap muzik menjadikannya mesra dengan sebilangan pemuzik wanita termasuk Moura Lympany. Lympany mengira Heath akan menikahinya, tetapi ketika ditanya tentang hal yang paling intim yang dia lakukan, menjawab, "Dia meletakkan lengannya di bahu saya." [11] Bernard Levin menulis pada waktu di Pemerhati, melupakan dua perdana menteri lain yang bujang tanpa minat romantis yang diketahui, bahawa Inggeris harus menunggu sehingga munculnya masyarakat yang permis untuk perdana menteri yang masih dara. [12] Di kemudian hari, menurut penulis biografi resminya, Philip Ziegler, Heath "cenderung untuk kembali ke dalam kesunyian murung atau benar-benar mengabaikan wanita di sebelahnya dan bercakap dengannya kepada lelaki terdekat". [12]

John Campbell, yang menerbitkan biografi Heath pada tahun 1993, menumpukan empat halaman untuk perbincangan bukti mengenai seksualiti Heath. Walaupun mengakui bahawa Heath sering dianggap oleh orang awam sebagai gay, paling tidak kerana "pada masa kini. Berbisik dari mana-mana bujang" dia mendapati "tidak ada bukti positif" bahawa ini begitu "kecuali khabar angin yang tidak berasas samar". [13] Campbell menyimpulkan bahawa aspek yang paling penting dalam seksualiti Heath adalah penindasan sepenuhnya terhadapnya.


Edward Heath - Sejarah

Bahagian interaktif sumber ini tidak lagi berfungsi, tetapi telah diarkibkan sehingga anda dapat terus menggunakannya.

Edward Heath - warganegara Eropah

Mengambil UK ke dalam EEC

Pada bulan Julai 1960 Heath dilantik sebagai Lord Privy Seal dalam pemerintahan Konservatif Harold Macmillan. Dalam posting ini dia bertanggung jawab (dari tahun 1961) untuk rundingan yang merangkumi percubaan pertama Britain untuk bergabung dengan Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah (EEC), yang telah dibuat oleh Perjanjian Rom pada bulan Mac 1957. Bagaimanapun, rundingan ini berakhir dengan kegagalan. Pada Januari 1963, presiden Perancis, Charles de Gaulle, yang waspada terhadap hubungan erat Britain dengan AS, memveto permohonan Britain. Ini adalah pukulan pahit bagi Heath. Itu mendorong salah satu pidatonya yang paling terkenal, di mana dia berjanji bahawa Britain tidak akan membelakangi projek Eropah: 'Kami adalah sebahagian dari Eropah oleh geografi, tradisi, sejarah, budaya dan peradaban. Kami akan terus bekerjasama dengan rakan-rakan kami di Eropah untuk kesatuan dan kekuatan sebenar benua ini. '

1974 dan selepasnya

Menjamin kemasukan Britain ke dalam EEC adalah pencapaian politik terhebat Heath. Namun, di kawasan lain, penggal jawatannya kurang berjaya. Masalah di Ireland Utara dan, khususnya, masalah ekonomi yang semakin meningkat merosakkan kedudukannya. Pada bulan Mac 1974, pemimpin Buruh Harold Wilson menggantikannya sebagai Perdana Menteri. Pada bulan Jun 1975, pemerintah Wilson, setelah berjaya 'merundingkan kembali' syarat asal kemasukan Britain ke dalam EEC tiga bulan sebelumnya, mengadakan referendum untuk menyokong keanggotaan yang berlanjutan. Sebanyak 67.2% peserta memilih 'ya' - penolakan terhadap kedudukan lama Heath.

Heath digantikan sebagai pemimpin parti Tory oleh Margaret Thatcher pada tahun 1975. Kerjaya politiknya berikutnya ditandai dengan komitmen berterusannya terhadap kesatuan Eropah - dan oleh banyak pertembungannya dengan Puan Thatcher, seorang penyokong Komuniti Eropah yang kurang bersemangat, atas dasar Eropah . Dia ditahbiskan pada tahun 1992, dan bersara dari politik pada tahun 2001. Dalam ucapan terakhirnya ke Parlimen, Heath mengkritik sikap 'Eurosceptic' kepimpinan Parti Konservatif dan menekankan sokongannya untuk keahlian Britain dalam mata wang tunggal Eropah.


Sir Edward Heath: Pengkhianat dan Pedofil

Polis Wiltshire kini telah menerbitkan laporan mereka mengenai Operasi Konifer, penyelidikan terhadap pedofilia Sir Edward Heath. Terdapat dua laporan, Laporan Ringkasan, yang berada di domain umum, dan Laporan Rahsia. Yang terakhir ini telah pergi ke Penyiasatan Bebas untuk Penyalahgunaan Seksual Kanak-kanak (IICSA) yang gagal, yang tidak akan terlalu memperhatikannya. Ini topik yang terlalu panas untuk IICSA, tidak ada kesalahan yang dimaksudkan.

Saya telah membaca laporan yang diterbitkan, yang berjumlah 109 halaman. Saya sudah mendapatkan nasihat dari domain awam Konifer detektif. The Hari Ahad, yang menyokong keahlian Heath dan EU, cuba memalukan siasatan dengan mengaitkan saya dengannya, lengkap dengan tuntutan tidak masuk akal, berdasarkan keyakinan palsu, bahawa saya adalah 'penipu' dan foto saya di blazer PKS saya.

Ini adalah bagian dari kampanye tekanan bersama terhadap ketua konstabel Wiltshire, Mike Veale, yang termasuk surat konyol ke London Masa dari bekas Setiausaha Kabinet, Lord Armstrong. Dia adalah lelaki, anda mungkin ingat, yang mencipta ungkapan "menjimatkan dengan kebenaran" semasa Pengintip litigasi di Australia. Lord Armstrong pada kesempatan itu mungkin merasa bingung dengan tampil di hadapan hakim yang tidak dapat dipertikaikan, Tuan Hakim Powell, pengalaman langka bagi seorang Setiausaha Kabinet.

The Hari Ahad artikel menjadi bumerang, sebahagiannya kerana orang awam Britain yang hebat tidak pernah menggunakan idea mengenai tipuan bom belang. Pihak pendakwaan melihat apa sebenarnya - percubaan menyedihkan untuk menutup kebenaran. Blazer MCC tentunya adalah pakaian yang bergaya, menarik dan bijaksana. Semua gambar itu (yang bukan berasal dari saya) mungkin dilakukan adalah untuk meningkatkan penjualan blazer di kedai PKS.

Mike Veale, atas penghargaan yang sangat besar, tidak menyerah pada tekanan dari Whitehall. Dia adalah tembaga yang baik, dengan rasa hormat, boleh dikatakan yang terbaik di UK. Sebilangan besar ketua konstabel kita adalah pegawai Kabinet yang tidak berhati perut, tidak ada kesalahan yang dimaksudkan.

Pejabat Kabinet mungkin agak bingung. Mereka terbiasa menggulingkan pasukan polis dan mungkin menyangka bahawa Polis Wiltshire adalah daging yang agak pedesaan dan mudah. Sekali sekala dalam siasatan jenayah, kawalan Pejabat Jemaah Menteri terhadap Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) tidak berlaku. Ketua suspek, iaitu Heath, meninggal pada tahun 2005 kerana komplikasi dari embolisme paru-paru yang dideritanya pada tahun 2003 di Salzburg Austria setelah DVD itu memberi amaran kepadanya bahawa MI5 sedang menolongnya. Oleh itu, tidak pernah ada pertanyaan mengenai pendakwaan, walaupun beberapa rakannya masih hidup.

BTW, anda yang meletakkan MI5 ke Heath. Saya rasa DVD itu tidak pernah memberitahunya tentang peranan saya dalam penyiasatan terhadapnya oleh British Intelligence, yang tentunya saya bukan bahagian (saya hanya membantu sesekali). Heath juga tidak menyukai saya, sebenarnya saya rasa dia takut kepada saya. Dia lebih suka saya jika dia tahu saya membelinya ke MI5. Pengetahuan tentang pengkhianatannya semasa Perang Dunia II mengesampingkan Pengebumian Negara, tentu saja.

Walaupun saya tidak pernah menyukai bugger lama, saya selalu memperlakukannya dengan sopan. Saya sangat tidak setuju dengan mereka yang mengatakan bahawa dia seharusnya digantung dalam Perang Dunia II. Dia memegang Suruhanjaya Raja dan berhak mendapat ihsan tentera kerana ditembak.

Sir Edward Heath KG MBE

Sir Edward dilahirkan pada 9 Julai 1916, anak lelaki tukang kayu dan pembantu rumah. Ibu bapanya mungkin orang yang sangat baik, tetapi dalam kes ini epal jatuh jauh dari pokok. Seorang budak sekolah tatabahasa, dia pergi ke Balliol College Oxford pada tahun 1935.

Balliol adalah pusat aktiviti perisikan Jerman. Heath, yang gay, cepat dikompromikan secara seksual dan direkrut oleh Abwehr. Dia juga dibayar £ 250 setahun oleh rakan komuniti kami, jumlah yang tidak dapat dipertimbangkan untuk seorang pemuda di Oxford pada akhir 1930-an. Dengan Abwehr dorongan dia menentang kesenangan. Perkara terakhir yang Abwehr mahukan salah seorang anak didik mereka secara terbuka menyokong Nazi Jerman.

Heath selalu memilih pasangan seksual yang lebih muda. Dia dibekalkan oleh Abwehr's rumah pelacuran gay yang sibuk di Oxford. Pada tahun 1937 seorang remaja lelaki muda Britain di Abwehr penggajian mengiringi Heath ke perhimpunan Parti Nazi di Nuremberg, Jerman, di mana Sir Edward bertemu dengan Adolf Hitler untuk pertama kalinya. Dari keduanya, Hitler sudah tentu lebih menawan.

Heath juga bertemu rakan komuniti kami SS-Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler di pesta minuman yang dilontarkan oleh Reichsführer. Heath kemudian mendakwa bahawa dia menyangka bahawa Himmler adalah "orang paling jahat yang pernah dia temui", yang aneh datang dari seorang lelaki yang bertemu dengan Hitler, Konrad Adenauer dan Helmut Kohl. Sumber saya, yang merangkumi seseorang yang berada di pesta minuman, mengatakan bahawa Himmler benar-benar memukul Heath dan mereka berdua nampaknya cukup baik bersama. Heinrich tahu bahawa Heath tentu saja bekerja untuk Laksamana Canaris.

Reichsparteitag. Der grosse Appell der Politischen Leiter auf der von Scheinwerfern uberstrahlten Zeppelin-wiese di Nurnburg. Ulasan besar oleh para pemimpin politik di ladang Zeppelin yang diterangi cahaya lampu di Nuremberg. September 1937. (Pejabat Harta Tanah Alien) Tarikh Tepat Ditembak Tidak DiketahuiNILE FILE #: 131-GR-164-2WAR & amp BUKU KONFLIK #: 984

Heath adalah sebahagian daripada Oxford Spy Ring yang terkenal, bersama dengan Roy Jenkins, Madron Seligman dan Tony Barber, yang semuanya belajar di Oxford sama ada sebelum atau selepas perang terakhir. Tugas besar pertamanya dalam Perang Dunia II adalah mengatur cincin pengintip di Liverpool untuk menyampaikan maklumat perisik ke Abwehr melalui Kedutaan Jerman di Dublin. Heath bekerja keras untuk memastikan kemenangan untuk Axis Powers dan membantu membuat banyak lelaki baik tenggelam dan kapal yang baik tenggelam.

Dia pergi ke Eropah selepas D-Day, tetapi berusaha untuk tidak membunuh orang Jerman sekiranya dia dapat. Seorang pegawai artileri, baterinya mungkin tempat yang cukup selamat. Rakan ejen Jerman Sir Edward Bridges mengatur MBE tentera untuknya pada akhir perang, yang dalam kes Heath benar-benar bermaksud 'Usaha Berdarah Minor'.

Selepas perang, Heath menjadi anak didik pengintip Jerman yang terkenal, Harold Macmillan, bekerja keras untuk membalikkan kemenangan Sekutu pada tahun 1945 dengan memasukkan Britain ke dalam EEC. Walaupun kecewa dengan veto de Gaulle (Heath tidak tahu bahawa de Gaulle juga gay dan Perisikan Inggeris dapat bergantung padanya, maksudnya saya menawarkan bimbingan berharga kepadanya) pertama kali, dia membawa kami pada tahun 1973. Dia menggunakan taktik kekuatan kuat, termasuk memerintahkan Canselornya, Iain Macleod, dibunuh oleh GO2, setelah Macleod mengetahui bahawa syarat yang dikenakan oleh Jerman merosakkan.

Pengganti Macleod adalah rakan Heath Abwehr dan ejen DVD Tony Barber, yang telah menyerahkan Spitfire-nya kepada Luftwaffe pada tahun 1942. Anda tentu tidak akan melihatnya dalam entri Wikipedia Barber. Seperti biasa Wikipedia membuat liputan untuk Perisikan Jerman dan masih mendorong kebohongan bahawa Barber kehabisan bahan bakar. Dengan ketidakjujuran intelektual yang khas, mereka mengetahui fakta bahawa Spitfire PR Mk IV-nya kemudian difoto di pusat ujian Luftwaffe di Rechlin dengan memilih untuk tidak menyebutkannya.

Tukang gunting mensabotaj ekonomi Britain dan perdana menteri Heath adalah bencana. Dia pantas kalah bukan hanya satu tetapi dua pilihan raya umum pada tahun 1974 dan digantikan sebagai Pemimpin Parti Tory oleh Margaret Thatcher yang hebat. Heath tidak pernah menerima kekalahannya dan menyimpan dendam terhadap Margaret sepanjang hidupnya yang tidak berharga.

Dia bersara ke Salisbury, Wiltshire, di mana dia selalu dibekalkan dengan anak-anak lelaki oleh penjaga rumah pelacuran, yang mengakui begitu banyak ketika diadili pada tahun 1994. Tidak diragukan lagi di bawah tekanan Pejabat Kabinet, CPS memastikan bahawa pendakwaan tidak berjalan. Ini adalah ketika Operasi ini terungkap, dari seorang bekas pegawai polis, Konifer telah bermula.

Siasatan IISCA sebahagiannya dipicu oleh pendedahan mengenai pedofil BBC Jimmy Savile, yang merupakan ketua cincin yang diatur di luar Pejabat Kabinet dan yang membekalkan anak lelaki kepada Heath dan Setiausaha Kabinet pada hari itu, John Hunt. Siasatan telah dikurangkan menjadi salah, dengan satu ketua mengikuti yang lain. Pengerusi sekarang adalah pekerja sosial, tanpa kepakaran perisikan, tidak ada kesalahan yang dimaksudkan. Saya pasti bahawa dia orang yang baik tetapi dia putus asa dari kedalamannya dan mungkin tidak pernah mendengar tentang DVD atau GO2.

Siasatan itu telah didiskreditkan sehingga hampir mustahil untuk mendiskreditkannya lebih jauh. Tidak ada kemungkinan ia akan mendapatkan kebenaran dan jika ia tersandung pada kebenaran secara tidak sengaja, tidak ada kemungkinan ia akan menerbitkannya. Satu-satunya perkara yang baik untuk keluar dari IICSA ialah merosakkan keyakinan masyarakat, tidak sebelum ini, dalam keseluruhan konsep pertanyaan rasmi.

Operasi Konifer Kesimpulannya

Pasukan siasatan, yang diketuai pada awalnya oleh Detektif Superintendan Sean Memory, seorang pegawai yang berkemampuan yang kemudian diburuk-burukkan, dan kemudian oleh Detektif Superintendan Steve Kirby, di bawah pengawasan Asisten Komandan Komandan Emas, Paul Mills, menyimpulkan bahawa terdapat cukup bukti untuk membenarkan menangkap Sir Edward Heath, apakah dia masih hidup, dan mewawancarainya dengan berhati-hati, mengenai tujuh tuduhan melakukan kesalahan seks. Ini semua kesalahan terhadap lelaki, kebanyakannya kanak-kanak lelaki, yang berumur seawal 11 tahun.

Tuduhan tersebut merangkumi rogol, terhadap budak lelaki muda, walaupun penting untuk ditegaskan bahawa tuduhan itu adalah salah satu rogol berkanun 'sahaja'. Penembusan di bawah undang-undang Inggeris, seperti di banyak negara Amerika, menjadi pemerkosaan jika mangsa terlalu muda untuk memberikan persetujuan. Setakat yang saya ketahui, perjumpaan itu adalah seks persetujuan yang dibayar. Tidak sah, dan tidak baik, tetapi tidak begitu dramatik seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh kata "rogol".

Di sinilah pertubuhan perundangan mendapat kemunculannya. Sudah bertahun-tahun mengejar tuduhan seks basi dan bermain-main dengan definisi kesalahan untuk menjadikannya lebih serius. Sekarang kembali untuk menggigit mereka, kerana pelaku dalam kes ini adalah Perdana Menteri yang menyeret kita ke dalam EEC.

Pasukan siasatan telah meletupkan tiga mitos mengenai Heath, yang disebarkan selama bertahun-tahun oleh Pejabat Kabinet:

(2) Bahwa dia selalu ditemani oleh petugas perlindungan, dan

(3) Bahawa dia tidak dapat memandu dan tidak memiliki kereta.

Mereka membuktikan bahawa dia mempunyai hubungan seksual secara konsensual dengan lelaki dewasa (yang muda, saya yakin). Sebenarnya nampaknya dia mempunyai nafsu seks yang rakus dan merupakan pemangsa seksual yang paling teruk.

Heath tidak mendapat perlindungan 24/7 sehingga tidak lama sebelum dia menjadi Perdana Menteri pada tahun 1970. Lebih-lebih lagi, dia sepertinya mahir memberikan slip kepada petugas perlindungannya.

Dia juga memiliki dua kereta pada pelbagai masa, Vauxhall Viva (pilihan ganjil) dan Rover 2000. Tidak diragukan lagi dia lebih suka memandu sesuatu yang lebih Hunnish, seperti Mercedes, tetapi dia berpura-pura berada di pihak kita, bajingan itu .

The Konifer pasukan telah melakukan kerja polis yang sangat baik. Saya tidak ragu-ragu mengatakannya, walaupun mereka tidak sampai sejauh yang saya lakukan Pengintip dan belum mencapai kesimpulan mengenai tuduhan yang lebih serius terhadap Heath. Kegiatannya untuk Abwehr berada di luar bidang tugas mereka.

Berkaitan dengan anak-anak lelaki yang hilang dari kapal layar Heath, mereka terhambat oleh kurangnya kerjasama dari beberapa kru, Pejabat Kabinet dan badan perisik. Tidak ada yang mengadu bahawa budak-budak itu hilang kerana mereka dijaga dan failnya hilang, atas perintah Pejabat Kabinet. Jangkauan Pejabat Kabinet ke pemerintahan tempatan di Britain sangat mendalam.

Tidak ada satu fail risikan di Heath yang diserahkan. Setakat ini, tidak ada pasukan yang saya tahu, adalah pegawai perisik. Secara bijaksana mereka menumpukan perhatian pada mangsa yang masih hidup, tidak mempunyai mayat (itulah sebabnya mengapa budak-budak miskin itu diturunkan dengan rantai jangkar panjang setelah mereka dibunuh dan kemudian dilemparkan ke laut oleh ejen GO2). Naval Intelligence mempunyai sumber pada salah satu kapal layar, tetapi fail itu dikuburkan dalam. Mereka menyelamatkan seluruh jajahan mahkota (British Honduras) dengan memanfaatkan bio yang mereka perolehi di Heath. Anda tidak menyerahkan fail seperti itu kepada rozzers, seberapa baik fail itu.

Dengan kerjasama yang terbatas dan tidak ada akses sama sekali ke fail perisikan, ACC Mills dan pasukannya telah memeriksa tiga pembohongan Pejabat Kabinet mengenai Heath. Mereka juga menunjukkan kepada beberapa korbannya bahawa ada petugas polis di luar sana yang peduli terhadap mereka dan peraturan undang-undang, dan yang tidak takut dengan Whitehall.

Kemas kini mengenai penembakan Las Vegas

Teori penembak tunggal kini telah runtuh sepenuhnya. Hanya FBI dan media arus perdana yang masih menggunakannya, tetapi kemudian mereka masih menuntut bahawa Lee Harvey Oswald menembak Kennedy.

Saya dengan hormatnya bersetuju dengan angka rentang, berdasarkan analisis audio, yang disorot di tempat lain di laman web ini oleh rakan saya Ian Greenhalgh. Kami mempunyai satu penembak / pasukan penembak di Mandalay Bay dan yang lain lebih dekat. Kami mungkin mempunyai dua jenis pusingan yang berbeza, 0,223 Remington dan 30 cal. Sudah tentu tidak menunjukkan bahawa salah satu penembak adalah Paddock.

Seperti yang dinasihatkan sekarang, saya memikirkan .223 tembakan dari Mandalay Bay untuk melibatkan Paddock dan 30 cal. diberi makan dari salah satu laman web berpotensi yang dikenal pasti oleh Ian. Sebiji 30 cal. mesingan yang diberi tali pinggang dapat mengurangkan sebilangan besar orang awam yang tidak bersenjata dan tidak dilindungi dalam jangka masa yang singkat.

Kebakaran liar di Sonoma County

Berapa kali saya perlu mengatakannya? Memulakan kebakaran liar adalah al Qaeda dan kini menjadi ISIS modus operandi. Bertahun-tahun setelah saya mengambilnya, ini disahkan dalam serangan Seal Team Six 2011 di perkarangan keluarga bin Laden di Pakistan. Tidak ada yang mengucapkan tahniah kepada saya.

Tidak ada yang dilakukan untuk memberi amaran kepada masyarakat. Keamanan Dalam Negeri mengabaikan ancaman dan negara-negara sekutu juga berisiko, seperti Australia, dibiarkan berayun. Fibbies tidak sedikit pun bimbang - sejauh FBI bimbang, nampaknya warga AS tidak lebih dari makanan meriam.

Tidak ada orang di media yang memiliki kecerdasan untuk menghubungkan kebakaran Sonoma County dengan Hurricanes Harvey dan Irma, gempa di Mexico City dan penembakan massal Las Vegas. Sebilangan besar wartawan tidak pernah mendengar mengenai DVD, apalagi sistem senjata bertenaga tinggi. Bagi mereka, bencana adalah perkara yang baru sahaja berlaku.

Perkara yang sama berlaku untuk ahli politik. Pemerintahan Margaret Thatcher dilanda bencana demi bencana, tetapi tidak ada seorang pun di Kabinet yang mengetahui bahawa perisik Jerman berada di belakang kebanyakan mereka. Saya dengan hormat bersetuju dengan Dean Simonton (UC-Davis) mengenai IQ ahli politik. Majalah British Mensa semasa (Oktober 2017, halaman 12) mempunyai artikel berguna yang merangkum karyanya.

Tahap optimum IQ pemimpin politik adalah maksimum 1.2 sisihan piawai melebihi min kumpulan, iaitu sekitar 120-125. Singkatnya, orang pintar cenderung tidak terpilih. Ini adalah bagaimana kita berakhir dengan Presiden seperti Bill Clinton dan Perdana Menteri seperti Tony Blair, tanpa kesalahan.

Memang mustahil bagi orang yang sangat cerdas untuk terpilih. Mereka terlalu berbeza. Ini pada dasarnya bermaksud bahawa demokrasi dijalankan oleh orang bodoh perbandingan.

Itu cukup buruk. Masalah benar-benar timbul namun apabila orang-orang bodoh yang bertanggungjawab tidak memahami siapa idiot mereka dan gagal mendengar penasihat mereka yang lebih pintar, atau melantik diri mereka sebagai pakar. Hanya ada satu pemimpin terpilih di dunia, misalnya, yang tahu apa-apa tentang kecerdasan, dan itulah Vladimir Putin. Dia hampir satu-satunya ahli politik yang pendapatnya mengenai masalah perisikan patut didengar.

Spyhunter oleh barrister dan pakar perisikan, Michael Shrimpton, adalah pandangan alternatif yang menarik dalam sejarah pengintipan dari abad ke-11 hingga sekarang, dan berada di Amazon

Saya harap orang-orang membaca ini dengan akses kepada Presiden Trump yang menyekat Pengintip atau kecerdasan mengenai DVD dari menghubunginya mengetahui kualiti sebilangan orang yang kehidupannya mereka buang. Satu pasangan miskin yang dibakar hingga mati minggu ini telah dinikahkan 75 tahun. Saya pasti mereka adalah orang baik. Yang lain adalah veteran Tentera Laut, bekas juruterbang F4U.

Seperti yang saya katakan minggu lalu, kita sedang berperang semu dengan Jerman. Kita mungkin tidak mengetahuinya, tetapi orang Jerman, yang memulakannya, pasti mengetahuinya. Berapa banyak lagi bangunan pencakar langit, berapa banyak lagi tembakan besar-besaran, berapa banyak lagi mangsa kebakaran liar, sebelum kita bangun dan mencium bau kopi? Malangnya, saya meramalkan bahawa kematian minggu lalu tidak akan cukup untuk membangunkan media dan kelas politik kita yang mati otak. Mereka akan terus mengorbankan nyawa, seperti jeneral Perang Dunia I yang tidak menyedari bahawa Asquith, Lloyd George dan Hankey bekerja untuk Jerman dan menyerahkan rancangan perang kita kepada musuh.

Sekurang-kurangnya beberapa nyawa yang dibuang oleh jeneral itu adalah nyawa mereka sendiri. Lebih empat puluh pegawai am Britain tewas dalam Perang Dunia I. Ahli politik tidak mengambil risiko dengan keselamatan mereka sendiri, tetapi mereka senang terus membuang nyawa orang lain. Lebih mudah mengorbankan nyawa orang yang tidak anda kenal daripada memikirkan apa yang anda lakukan.

Terdapat tidak peluang siasatan rasmi yang serius terhadap kebakaran California. Penguatkuasaan undang-undang disatukan dengan konsep cacat bencana bahawa keganasan bukan fenomena yang ditaja oleh negara dan kebakaran liar dimulakan dengan rokok yang dibuang.

Namun ada sedikit kemungkinan bahawa salah satu syarikat insurans diminta untuk mengumpulkan wang yang serius untuk omong kosong ini (walaupun syarikat insurans untuk Teluk Mandalay) mungkin mula bertanya. Banyak polisi insurans mempunyai klausa tidak termasuk keganasan. Ini mungkin berlaku kerana kebakaran di California.

Saya bertindak sebagai penanggung insurans dan saya dengan senang hati memberi nasihat kepada orang lain! Tidak ada undang-undang terhadap penanggung insurans yang menggunakan penyiasat dengan otak. Malah FBI tidak dilarang oleh Undang-Undang Kongres daripada menggunakan ejen pintar. Sudah menjadi kebiasaan dan praktik untuk tidak.

Bacaan Minggu Ini: Churchill dan Laksamana

Kapten Stephen Roskill RN, 1977, Pen & amp Sword 2004

Karya sejarah tentera laut yang terkenal ini telah diterbitkan semula oleh Pen & amp Sword Military. Saya ingin menumpukan lebih banyak ruang untuk menganalisisnya, kerana buku itu berpengaruh.

Allahyarham Kapten Roskill bekerja di Pejabat Kabinet setelah perang dan tidak mengejutkan selalu mengambil pandangan Pejabat Kabinet. Dia adalah pengagum ejen Jerman Lord Hankey. Dalam karya terkenal ini, dia benar-benar meletakkan but ke Winston Churchill.

Winne, yang cucu saya tahu, mempunyai kesalahan: dia tidak minum cukup banyak dan merokok terlalu sedikit cerut untuk satu perkara. Sebilangan gelombang otaknya sangat tidak praktikal dan saya berkongsi analisis Kapten Roskill bahawa dia pertama dan terutama tentera, bukan pegawai tentera laut. Dia berkhidmat di India dan di Front Barat tetapi tidak pernah di laut.

Namun kritikan Roskill terhadapnya terlalu berat, dan sama sekali mengabaikan peranan Abwehr aset, termasuk Hankey dan Sir Edward Bridges, untuk melemahkannya. Bridges, misalnya, berbohong kepadanya semasa pelayaran HMS Putera Wales dan HMS Menolak dari Singapura. Stephen Roskill adalah seorang pegawai senjata api yang baik, dan khususnya seorang pakar AAA tentera laut yang sangat baik. Walau bagaimanapun, dia seharusnya terus menggunakan senjata api.

Saya tidak fikir bahawa dia seorang perisik Jerman, walaupun dia bekerja di Pejabat Kabinet. Dia bukan pegawai perisik yang cukup baik, dengan hormat, untuk melihat mata-mata Jerman yang dia bekerjasama!


Edward Heath

Edward Heath (1916-2005), juga dikenal sebagai Ted Heath, adalah seorang ahli politik Parti Konservatif yang bertugas sebagai perdana menteri Britain antara tahun 1970 dan 1974, tempoh terburuk dari Masalah.

Heath dilahirkan dalam keluarga kelas pekerja dari Broadstairs, Kent, ayahnya seorang pembangun dan ibunya pembantu rumah. Ted Heath mendapat pendidikan di Ramsgate dan cukup berjaya untuk mendapatkan biasiswa ke Oxford. Dia belajar falsafah, politik dan ekonomi, lulus dengan ijazah pada tahun 1939. Heath melakukan perjalanan ke seluruh Eropah semasa cuti belajar, termasuk lawatan ke Nazi Jerman, di mana dia dilaporkan bertemu dengan Nazi terkemuka seperti Heinrich Himmler dan Joseph Goebbels.

Heath bergabung dengan Tentera Darat pada bulan Mac 1941 dan bertugas sebagai pegawai artileri semasa Perang Dunia II, meninggalkan perkhidmatan sebagai letnan kolonel. Pada tahun 1950, dia mencalonkan diri untuk House of Commons, memenangi kerusi Bexley. Dia dinaikkan pangkat menjadi kabinet pada tahun 1959 dan memegang beberapa portfolio, sebelum menjadi pemimpin Parti Konservatif pada bulan Julai 1965.

Heath menjadi perdana menteri setelah kemenangan pilihan raya Konservatif pada bulan Jun 1970. Sebagai perdana menteri, dia menjadi perhatian utama terhadap pembaharuan ekonomi, terutama menguruskan kemasukan Britain ke Pasar Umum Eropah. Heath sering tidak berminat di Ireland Utara, melihat isu-isu politik dan sektarianisme dengan rasa tidak senang. Dia tidak mempunyai kasih sayang untuk tujuan Loyalis dan hubungan kerjanya dengan ahli politik Unionist seperti Brian Faulkner tegang.

Penembakan Sunday Bloody pada Januari 1972 mendorong Ireland Utara ke puncak agenda Heath & # 8217s. Frustrasi oleh ketidakpedulian Faulkner & # 8217, Heath membenarkan pengenaan Peraturan Langsung pada bulan Mac 1972. Pemerintahnya memilih perjanjian damai yang dirundingkan berdasarkan perkongsian kuasa dan kerjasama dengan Dublin. Heath mempercayai hal ini kepada bawahannya William Whitelaw, walaupun Heath sebagian terlibat dalam perundingan Desember 1973 yang memuncak dalam Perjanjian Sunningdale.

Heath tidak pernah popular di kalangan orang-orang Inggeris, yang menganggapnya terlalu dingin dan elit walaupun berasal dari kelas pekerja. Heath dan Konservatif kehilangan kuasa dalam pilihan raya Februari 1974, perdana menteri yang diserahkan kepada Buruh & # 8217 Harold Wilson. Heath kekal di parlimen 27 tahun lagi, akhirnya bersara pada bulan Jun 2001. Dia tidak dipertimbangkan untuk portfolio kabinet lain, kerana hubungannya yang lemah dengan Margaret Thatcher.

Pada Januari 2003, Heath memberikan bukti sebelum Penyelidikan Saville mengenai Sunday Bloody, salah satu tindakan awam terakhirnya yang penting. Dia jatuh sakit pada akhir tahun itu dan meninggal pada bulan Mac 2005, berusia 89 tahun.


Setelah bermain tanduk tenor pada usia enam tahun, didorong oleh ayahnya Bert, trompet dan pemimpin Band Wassworth Town Brass, Heath kemudian beralih ke trombone. [7] [8] Kedua-duanya sering bermain bersama dalam banyak rakaman kumpulan tarian tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an.

Earning a living for his family in the post-war years he, and his brother Harold with three other musicians, formed a band that played to commuters outside London Bridge Station before winding their way along the streets in London to a location outside the Queen's Hall Gardens venue. It was here that Heath's professional career began as he was spotted on the street and asked to play with the Jack Hylton Band [2] who had a residence there. He did not last long, not having the experience required, but it gave him the ambition to pursue a career as a professional musician. [8] [9]

His first real band gig was with an American band on tour in Europe – the Southern Syncopated Orchestra – which had an engagement in Vienna, Austria and needed a trombone player. The drummer for this band, Benny Payton, taught Heath all about Jazz and Swing. Heath had to pay his own way back from Austria when the band ran out of money. [8] Heath heard Bunny Berigan, Tommy Dorsey and Jimmy Dorsey and Paul Whiteman when they toured Europe. [8]

He next played with the Metro-Gnomes, a small band fronted by Hylton's then-wife Ennis Parkes. In the late 1920s, Heath again joined Hylton's larger stage band (also being present on a number of 12-inch "concert" recordings), staying until 1930. [8] Around this time, he also began to play for a number of other dance orchestras.

In 1928, he joined Bert Ambrose's orchestra at the Mayfair Hotel in London and played there until 1935 when he moved on to Sydney Lipton's orchestra at the Grosvenor House. Ambrose, a strict disciplinarian, taught Heath how to be a bandleader. It was during this time that Heath became the most prominent trombone player in Britain, renowned for his perfect tone. He kept playing on numerous recordings as a studio musician, although he concentrated his efforts on the Ambrose band after 1932.

In September 1939 the war caused the immediate disbandment of the Sydney Lipton Band, which was on tour in Scotland at the time. Heath, his wife Moira and children went back to London. In late 1939, Heath joined Maurice Winnick's Dorchester Hotel band.

During the late '30s and early '40s, Heath also played as a sideman on several Benny Carter sessions.

In 1940, Heath joined Geraldo's orchestra and played numerous concerts and broadcasts during the war travelling to the Middle East to play to the Allied Forces-based there. He often became one of the "boys" in Geraldo's vocal group, 'Three Boys and a Girl'.

In 1941, Geraldo asked his band members to submit a favourite tune to include in their broadcasts. Heath had composed a song "That Lovely Weekend", after his wife had written him a poem on a rare weekend together amongst his war travels, and he set this to music. Heath suggested "That Lovely Weekend" to Geraldo and it was orchestrated, with Dorothy Carless on vocal, and was an immediate wartime hit. The royalties from this song and another composition "Gonna Love That Guy" allowed Heath to form his own band.

Heath was inspired by Glenn Miller and his Army Air Force Band and spoke with Miller at length about forming his own band when Miller toured Britain with the USAAF Orchestra. Heath admired the immaculate precision of the Miller ensemble and felt confident that he could emulate Miller's great success with his own orchestra.

In 1944, Heath talked Douglas Lawrence, the Dance Music Organiser for the BBC's Variety Department, into supporting a new band with a broadcasting contract. Lawrence was sceptical as Heath wanted a much larger and more jazz orientated band than anyone had seen in Britain before. [9] This band followed the American model, and featured 5 saxes, 4 trombones, 4 trumpets, piano, guitar, Bass and Drums. The new Ted Heath Band, originally organised as a British "All Star Band" playing only radio dates, was first heard on a BBC broadcast in 1944.

In 1945, the BBC decreed that only permanent, touring bands could appear on radio. So Ted Heath and his Music was officially formed on D-Day, 1944.

In late 1945, American bandleader Toots (Tutti) Camarata [10] came to UK as musical director for the film London Town (1946) starring comedian Sid Field. This film was intended to be Britain's first attempt to emulate the American film musicals of studios such as MGM and Camarata commissioned Heath to provide his band as the nucleus for the film's orchestra. The film was not a success.

Heath arranged a stint at the Winter Gardens at Blackpool in 1946, a Scandinavian tour, a fortnight at the London Casino with Lena Horne, and backed Ella Fitzgerald at the London Palladium.

Huge popularity quickly followed and Heath's Band and his musicians were regular Poll Winners in the Pembuat Melodi dan juga NME (New Musical Express) – Britain's leading music newspapers. Subsequently, Heath was asked to perform at two Royal Command Performances in front of King George VI in 1948 and 1949. [11]

In 1947 Heath persuaded impresario Val Parnell, uncle of the band's star drummer Jack Parnell, to allow him to hire the London Palladium for alternating Sundays for his Sunday Night Swing Sessions. The band caused a sensation and eventually played 110 Sunday concerts, ending in August 1955, consolidating the band's popular appeal from the late 1940s. These concerts allowed the band to play much more in a jazz idiom than it could in ballrooms. In addition to the Palladium Sunday night concerts the band appeared regularly at the Hammersmith Palais and toured the UK on a weekly basis.

In April 1956 Heath arranged his first American tour. This was a reciprocal agreement between Heath and Stan Kenton, who would tour Britain at the same time as Heath toured the United States. The tour was a major negotiated agreement with the British Musicians' Union and the American Federation of Musicians, which broke a 20-year union deadlock. Heath contracted to play a tour that included Nat King Cole, June Christy and the Four Freshmen that consisted of 43 concerts in 30 cities (primarily the southern states) in 31 days (7,000 miles) climaxing in a Carnegie Hall concert on 1 May 1956. [12] At this performance, the band's instrument truck was delayed by bad weather. The instruments finally arrived just minutes before the curtain rose. The band had no time to warm up or rehearse. There were so many encore calls at the Carnegie Hall performance that Nat King Cole (who was backstage, but not on the bill) had to come out on stage and ask people to leave.

During the tour, Nat King Cole was attacked on stage in Birmingham, Alabama by a group of white segregationists. Heath was so appalled he nearly cancelled the remainder of the tour but was persuaded by Cole to continue. They remained firm friends until Cole died in 1965 and collaborated musically on many occasions. Heath later successfully toured the US again and also toured Australia and Europe.

The 1950s was the most popular period for Ted Heath and His Music during which a substantial repertoire of recordings were made. In 1958 nine albums were recorded. He became a household name throughout the UK, Europe, Australasia and the US. Dia memenangi New Musical Express Poll for Best Band/Orchestra each year from 1952 to 1961. [13] Heath was asked to perform at a third Royal Command Performance for King George VI in 1951, and for Elizabeth II in 1954. [11]

He was the subject of This Is Your Life in 1959 when he was surprised by Eamonn Andrews at the BBC Television Theatre. During this period, Heath and his band appeared in several more films (following London Town) including Dance Hall (1950) It’s a Wonderful World (1956) and Jazz Boat (1960).

In addition to Cole, Heath established close personal and professional relationships with Woody Herman, [9] Count Basie, [9] Marlene Dietrich, [9] Johnny Mathis [9] and Tony Bennett. [9] He worked with Sarah Vaughan, [14] Ella Fitzgerald [15] Lena Horne June Christy Mel Torme The Four Freshmen Donna Hightower and others. His band members included Ronnie Scott, an early member of the band, the pianist Stan Tracey, trumpeters Kenny Baker, Eddie Blair, Duncan Campbell, sax players Don Rendell and Tommy Whittle, trombonists Don Lusher and Wally Smith, drummers Jack Parnell and Ronnie Verrell and double bass Johnny Hawksworth. The addition of singers Dickie Valentine, Lita Roza and Dennis Lotis in the '50s gave the band more teenage appeal. He commissioned scores from all the top arrangers of the era with more than 800 original arrangements as part of the band's library. Arrangers included Tadd Dameron, George Shearing, [16] Reg Owen, John Keating Kenny Graham [17] [18] Ken Moule Bob Farnon Woolf Phillips [19] Ron Roullier Bill Russo [20] Johnny Douglas [21] Ron Goodwin [22] and Ralph Dollimore.

Heath used Decca's Phase 4 Stereo recording methods in the early '60s. He continued to commission a huge number of original scores and arrangements and some of his biggest US chart successes came during this time. He performed continuously and successfully until his health faltered in 1964 suffering a cerebral thrombosis on his 62nd birthday and collapsing on stage in Cardiff. Thereafter the band toured less, but continued to record several albums.

He died in 1969 at the age of 67, but the band re-formed after a Thames Television tribute broadcast in 1976 [5] with the approval of the Heath family, and went on performing concerts. Initially some early 1970s recordings were recorded under the musical direction of Roland Shaw, Ralph Dollimore and Stan Reynolds, [5] but thereafter all recordings were supervised by trombonist Don Lusher, who led the band for 25 years until 2000, with mostly original Heath alumni. The final concert in December 2000, was a sell out at London's Royal Festival Hall, attended by most Heath personnel past and present and the Heath family. [2] The band at that performance was made up almost entirely of players who had played under Ted Heath's leadership. Numerous radio and television tributes have been broadcast over the years.

The band compared favourably with the best of America's big bands in the opinion of Count Basie [9] in his testimonial to Heath on Heath's 21st Anniversary album, and is generally accepted as the best swing band that Britain ever produced. [23]

Heath was married twice, firstly in 1924 to Audrey Keymer who died in 1932. There were two sons from the marriage, Raymond and Robert. His second marriage was to Moira Tracey—a ballet dancer who appeared in one of the first television transmissions by John Logie Baird on the BBC, and became a prolific lyricist and songwriter. She received a special award for services to television, the 'Freedom of the City of London' in recognition of her services to songwriting and a British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors 'Gold Badge Award'. [24] She died on 24 January 2000 in Weybridge, Surrey, England, UK. There were four children from this marriage, Martin, Valerie, Nicholas and Timothy. [7]

Two of Heath's sons, Nick Heath [25] and Tim Heath, continued the musical and entertainment tradition in the family by becoming successful artiste managers, record company and music publishing company owners, and Nick Heath continues his entertainment business career as a music producer and owner of Birdland Records. James Heath (Heath's grandson—Nick Heath's son) is a film and music video director. [26]

Leeds College of Music in Leeds, Yorkshire, United Kingdom has a wide collection of Ted Heath recordings and memorabilia available for research.

Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London has established, in conjunction with the Heath family, "The Ted and Moira Heath Award" for promising jazz musicians.


Back in the 70s, a U-turn really was a U-turn

Despite saying that public expenditure needed cutting back, in the 70s Edward Heath kickstarted the economy by pouring money into health, education and welfare. Photograph: Frank Tewkesbury/Getty Images

Despite saying that public expenditure needed cutting back, in the 70s Edward Heath kickstarted the economy by pouring money into health, education and welfare. Photograph: Frank Tewkesbury/Getty Images

I f Labour and its supporters in the media are to be believed, David Cameron's signature manoeuvre – especially after Ken Clarke backed down on reduced sentences for offenders who plead guilty – is the U-turn. Yesterday, the Mirror even provided a handy reminder of the top 10. Glancing through the list, though, one can't help but wonder if we've begun to stretch the concept to the point of meaninglessness. If it weren't such a cliche, I'd say George Orwell – the ultimate stickler when it comes to politics and the English language – must be turning in his grave.

When I was a boy – back in the 70s when the term was first applied to politics – a U-turn really was a U-turn, not just a decision to nix some half-baked idea you'd floated only to find it was unworkable or unpopular. To execute a U-turn you had to do what skateboarders (yeah, I know, they came in a little bit later) used to call a full one-eighty. You also had to go back on one or more fundamental, ideologically loaded, headline items in the programme to which you were publicly committed at the election that thrust you into office.

People might well value the school milk for the under-fives, the debt advice, the books for kids, and of course the publicly owned forests that have been rescued at the last minute by red-faced ministers forced to abandon their money-saving schemes by a prime minister who's suddenly realised that, in their case, the game isn't worth the candle-end.

But the failure to follow through on those policies – or on the idea of bigger discounts for guilty pleas, anonymity for defendants in rape cases or automatic imprisonment for carrying a knife – hardly qualifies as ripping the heart out of the programme on which either the Lib Dems or the Conservatives were elected.

It certainly doesn't compare to what Ted Heath, undisputed king of the U-turn, got up to in 1972 – the year he earned the derision and despair of the Tory party's proto-Thatcherites by exercising a series of screeching U-turns on what they had been led to believe was the road to redemption.

Public expenditure, said the Conservative manifesto of 1970, needed cutting back. But faced with unemployment rising to over 1 million for the first time since 1947, the government kickstarted the economy by pouring money into health, education, and welfare, most of it spent by Margaret Thatcher and Keith Joseph – the colleagues who then turned on Heath after he lost two elections in one year in 1974.

The Conservatives had also promised they were no longer in the business of rescuing "lame ducks" – industrial concerns that couldn't pay their way without government assistance. Nor would they spray money willy-nilly at economically underperforming regions of the UK. Before long, though, the government felt obliged to nationalise a number of basket cases, boost regional subsidies and pass an Industry Act so interventionist that it left Tony Benn licking his lips.

Even more humiliatingly, the Tories in opposition had promised categorically never to go back to statutory control of prices and incomes, but that's exactly what Heath had to do after a series of strikes and the failure of the TUC and CBI to agree on a voluntary solution meant there was no other way – other than deflating the economy and returning to mass unemployment (what some see as Thatcher's solution) – of taming inflation.

Poor old Ted even took flak from some Tories for his humanitarian decision to allow in over 25,000 Asians thrown out of Uganda by Idi Amin after the Conservative manifesto promised to take tough action on immigration.

Nothing the Cameron government has yet done comes close to any of this – except perhaps the homeopathic-level dilution of Andrew Lansley's NHS plans. Strictly speaking, though, even that doesn't qualify since those proposals arguably represented a negation rather than a fulfilment of the Tories' manifesto pledges on health.

If (and, given the post-Heath Conservative party's understandable aversion to real U-turns, it's a big if) you catch Cameron putting deficit reduction on ice for the sake of growth and jobs, then get back to me. For the moment, U-turn if you want to: the gentleman's not for turning.


Sir Edward Heath

When Edward Heath, who has died aged 89, took Britain into the European Economic Community in 1971, it was the culmination of a lifetime of undeviating effort. Europe was his great theme - from his maiden speech in 1950 on the Schuman plan for coordinating western Europe's steel industries, to the ones he was still making half a century later, when Tony Blair was in 10 Downing Street and his own battles with his successor as Conservative leader, Margaret Thatcher, had entered history.

When an earlier Conservative prime minister, Harold Macmillan, first applied to join the then European Common Market in the early 1960s, Heath was in charge of the unsuccessful British negotiating team. His widely praised work won him the Charlemagne prize.

Shortly before Heath became prime minister in 1970, the third British application to join the Common Market had been submitted by Labour's Harold Wilson. But Wilson's singleness of purpose was in doubt. Heath's was not. On October 28 1971, the Commons voted with a 112 majority to go into Europe.

After that, little went well. Singlemindedness and determination could also look like obstinacy and arrogance. Heath had won the 1970 election - against all the forecasts - with a majority of 30 and an unchallenged personal authority he lost that in 1974, amid gloom and industrial chaos.

The 1970 victory had been preceded by talk of competitiveness, lower taxes, the hunting down of "lame duck" industry, a curb on public spending and an assault on what was seen as untrammelled trade union power. But then events, as Macmillan would have said, intruded.

In 1971 Rolls-Royce faced bankruptcy and was partly nationalised and bailed out, as was Upper Clyde Shipbuilders. The attack on unions triggered the 1972 saga of the Pentonville 5, while the battle with the miners ended in victory for the NUM. Public spending rocketed. In Northern Ireland, internment was followed by Bloody Sunday and the beginning of the IRA assault on mainland Britain.

Internationally, in the wake of the Yom Kippur war, energy prices went up four-fold, and in 1973-74 there was renewed conflict with the NUM, the slide into the three-day week and the February 1974 election, called around the slogan, "Who governs?" The answer turned out to be Wilson, after a near dead-heat between the Labour and the Conservatives.

Wilson called another election that October. He won a majority of three, but for many Tory MPs losing was a sin. In 1975, Margaret Thatcher won the leadership from Heath. While it may have been radical for the Conservatives to choose a woman, from Heath's point of view the irony was that they had chosen another meritocrat.

For that was where he had come in. His party had seen the need in the mid-1960s to set Heath, their own meritocrat, to catch Labour's formidable Wilson, and that confrontation dominated a decade of British parliamentary life.

Wilson was loquacious, self-justifying, scornful, though anxious to please, fundamentally warm-hearted. Heath was tight-lipped, introverted, seemingly cold. Yet his performance was more effective than the headlines often made out, even if his carelessness about image-building must at times have been the despair of what are now labelled spin doctors.

After Thatcher toppled him, his incapacity to do or say the right thing verged on high comedy. He regarded her as authoritarian, egotistical, intolerant, an aberration among Conservative leaders. There was no doubting their mutual dislike.

Pointedly she left him out of her shadow cabinet when he and many observers were expecting him to be offered the foreign affairs brief. One of the most bizarre episodes in 20th century Britain's politics ensued.

Onlookers were astonished, delighted, appalled, according to temperament and party. Some were all three as Heath delivered speech after critical speech. It might all have been dismissed as disgruntled soliloquies from a soured man, were it not that the drama increasingly involved the central theme of Heath's career: Europe. Thatcher, as he saw things, was pursuing a narrow nationalism that militated against this country playing a full part in Europe.

The great issue is still unresolved, all these years after Heath led the British to Brussels. This lingering insularity, encouraged by what he regarded as the obstinate egotism and narrow vision of his successor, provided him with a cause that saved him from that elder statesman's fate of subsiding into the Lords or persisting on the Commons backbenches like an extinct volcano. Heath declined to be extinct. He and his great theme remained active. And after Thatcher's memorable fall in November 1990, her predecessor wore Westminster's widest, toothiest smile and borrowed one of her own phrases: "Rejoice, rejoice".

In July, 1965, Heath was the first Conservative leader to be chosen by secret ballot of MPs, the election having broken with the patrician system by which his predecessor, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, had "emerged" as leader in 1963. But it was Douglas-Home during his leadership who had instituted that ballot as a means of selecting, and deselecting, leaders.

Heath's origin and career were in sharp contrast with those of his aristocratic predecessor. His father had been a Kent carpenter before becoming a master builder, his mother a lady's maid. Born in Broadstairs, he began his education as a choral scholar at St Peter's, the local Church of England school, at seven he began piano lessons. He won a scholarship to Chatham House grammar school, Ramsgate, took his school certificate at 13, was playing the organ at 14 and conducting at 15. He won an organ scholarship to Balliol College, Oxford, became president of the university Conservative association in 1937 and of the Oxford Union in 1939.

In those times he visited Nazi Germany and attended a Nuremberg rally, and, as a supporter of the Spanish republic, came under machine gun fire while driving down the Spanish coast. During the 1938 Oxford byelection which Quintin Hogg, the future Lord Hailsham, won as the pro-appeasement Conservative candidate, Heath worked for the anti-appeasement candidate, the then Master of Balliol, AD Lindsay.

That year too he won a scholarship to Gray's Inn, London. He never took it up because in 1939 came the second world war. He fought in north-west Europe with the Honourable Artillery Company, rose to lieutenant-colonel and was awarded the military MBE and mentioned in dispatches.

After the war, Heath became a civil servant, then took a post as news editor of the Church Times in 1947. Thatcher would have her husband's wealth behind her, but Heath, like John Major, William Hague , Iain Duncan-Smith, and Michael Howard, had to earn a living.

In 1948, he became a trainee in the finance house of Brown, Shipley and Company.

In 1949 at Bexley's "bread-rationing byelection" he reduced the Labour majority from 11,000 to 1,000. At the 1950 general election he won the redistributed seat with a 133 majority. After the Conservatives won the 1951 general election, he became a junior whip and resigned from Brown, Shipley to devote himself to politics.

He was energetic, thorough, efficient and a master both of detail and of his temper. The public had some idea of his political attitudes from his contribution to the seminal Conservative pamphlet, One Nation (1950). But then he remained silent in the Commons as deputy chief whip (1953-55) and chief whip (1955-59), before emerging as labour minister.

From 1960-63, he was Lord Privy Seal with Foreign Office responsibilities and as such handled the Common Market negotiations. He was in his element, dealing with like-minded men over details of trade. Never caught out by questions, he emerged as a fervent European.

When Sir Alec Douglas-Home succeeded Macmillan as prime minister in 1963, Heath was promoted to secretary of state for industry, trade and regional development and president of the board of trade. His main work was to secure the enactment of the resale prices bill which, against stiff Conservative opposition, limited the scope of price agreements.

It was not until the Conservatives lost office in October, 1964, that the House had a fair opportunity to judge Heath's ability in a wider context. His ability, familiarity with trade and finance, toughness in controversy - all fed belief among Conservatives that he was the man to restore them to power. Nevertheless, when the leadership election came, in 1965, Heath did not win outright. But his rivals Reginald Maudling and Enoch Powell withdrew their candidacies before the second ballot and Heath became leader.

He was promptly confronted with the task of preserving party unity over policy towards Ian Smith's white minority regime in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), when it made its 1965 unilateral declaration of independence. UDI challenged the authority of the crown and parliament and Wilson's government took steps - mainly sanctions - to undermine the Smith regime. There was a strong Conservative element, led by Lord Salisbury, which supported Smith. But, backed by Douglas-Home, Heath overcame the revolt.

Then came 1966, the high tide of Wilson's political ascendancy, a 98-seat Labour majority in place of the four-seat majority which had determined the 1964 result. Probably no Conservative could have defeated Labour in that year, but for Heath's enemies, later, that defeat would be seen as a harbinger of worst times to come.

By 1968 Labour's popularity had plummetted. Yet it was that April that Powell made his "rivers of blood" speech on immigration. Neither Heath, nor any of his colleagues had been consulted. The Conservative leader sacked Powell, and thus opened up a fissure in his party which persisted.

In June 1970 Wilson called an election. He, and much of the media, assumed that victory was in the bag for Labour. But it was to be Heath's triumph, although it would last less than four years.

But Heath had hinterland, as his Oxford contemporary Denis Healey would say. By the time he quit the Commons in 2001, he was Father of the House, yet another addition to the honours, political, academic and artistic which he accumulated. And there was the music and the yachting. The latter saw him win the 1969 Sydney to Hobart race, captain Britain's 1971 Admiral's Cup team and be part of the 1980 Sardinia Cup team. His books included his Godkin lectures, Old World, New Horizons (1970), and Sailing A Course In My Life (1975).

Michael White writes: To stay in public life for 26 years after being rejected resoundingly by the electorate and one's own party suggests either implacable determination or bloody-minded stubbornness. In Heath's case it was both. Winston Churchill, the patron of his early promotion, was clearly his model. Both spurned the Lords, but Churchill was 80, not 58, when he left No 10 trailing only slightly tarnished glory, not humiliation.

Critics dubbed it the longest sulk in parliamentary history. But Heath had much to say on many topics and, as a man whose sleeve had been brushed by Hitler's at a rally in Nuremberg in 1937, he brought increasingly unique insights to the task.

At times during the years he sat in his corner seat below the Commons gangway, it seemed as if he was determined to stay there until Thatcher was not only politically down, but ideologically out as well. Had he lived to attend her funeral, one can imagine him thinking he had finally made his point.

But nothing proved so cut and dried. The limits of economic Thatcherism had been demonstrated, especially in its monetarist manifestation. But the deregulated, privatised, market-oriented world she helped to create - rather more successfully than his own efforts - had triumphed almost everywhere.

As for Europe, the great cause of Heath's career, Britain's place in it, in the wake of the Dutch and French referendums is still not clear. Heath's contempt for wilder Eurosceptic Tory talk of withdrawal from the European Union , or membership of the North American Free Trade Agreement, was always total. It could be counter-productive in a house increasingly peopled by Tory MPs who had been taught to regard him as a traitor and by Labour ones who thought, wrongly, that he was almost one of them.

Towards the end he was often lumped together with his near-contemporary, Tony Benn. "Good Riddance" declared a Sunday Telegraph profile when the pair retired as MPs four years ago.

But right until the end of his parliamentary career he remained, like Benn, a speaker who could half-fill a near-empty chamber. Europe was his overriding preoccupation and he coupled it with a wariness of American policy and motives which made him the least pro-Washington postwar premier.

Industrial policy, relations with Russia and the wider world, especially China, where he advised the Beijing government and often defended it, were frequent topics. The author of the "unacceptable face of capitalism" jibe (his target was Lonrho) attacked corruption and poor performance among the captains of industry, deepening Tory enmity as much as his opposition to some of his party's privatisations.

That particular paradox was underlined when he spoke out fiercely against the widespread perception in the 1990s "sleaze era" that most MPs are less than honest and honourable. When he took that stance to the point of attacking the Nolan commission's report on reforming parliamentary accountability, few thought him wise.

Friends who had taken his finances in hand in the 1970s helped make him comfortably well off. In addition to the yacht Morning Cloud, Heath owned a modest terrace house in Wilton Street, Belgravia, and another, much more magnificent and dating from Queen Anne, in Salisbury's Cathedral Close.

Of the Chinese government's decision to put down the Tiananmen Square demonstrations in 1989, he said: "There was a crisis after a month in which the civil authorities had been defied. They took action. Very well." And his conciliatory approach to Saddam Hussein also attracted widespread criticism.

He was asked if he ever wondered if he was making the mistake that Neville Chamberlain had made. "No", he replied. In his defence, it could be said that former soldiers who have seen war are least keen to inflict it on others. But there was recurring evidence that he could be insensitive to democratic demands and insufficiently wary of authoritarian regimes.

As MP for Bexley, Bexley Sidcup and Old Bexley and Sidcup from 1950 - when his majority had been smaller than the number of votes which Mr Job, the Communist party candidate, took off Labour (he often toasted Mr Job) - Heath kept a good agent who looked after constituents' needs, and he did not outstay his welcome among local loyalists until close to the end. Whe he stood down in 2001, Derek Conway, a Eurosceptic ex-whip, won the seat.

The same election Tony Benn's seat went to the Lib Dems. Such are the indignities of political old age. But Heath's were more extensive, unusually so. His complaint was that the Thatcherites who so brilliantly ousted him from the leadership in 1975, never accorded him the courtesies to which an ex-leader and premier was entitled. Invitations to consult, or to No 10 dinners, were virtually non-existent. There was no cabinet job offered when Mrs Thatcher won office in 1979, except some vague talk of the Washington embassy, which he took (rightly) as an insult.

Apart from the Brandt commission on international development and north-south relations (1977-83), which was out of touch with the harsher temper of the times, he undertook few big public tasks, preferring to become what his lieutenant, Ian Gilmour, later called "the most distinguished backbencher since Richard Cobden" the Victorian apostle of free trade.

But his style, never light, underlined the impression that he was sulking. Even his jokes had a habit of sounding like pomposity or bad temper to those who did not know him. Often they were self-deprecating, albeit disguised.

For many years he invited a group of political reporters to dinner on the eve of the Tory conference, at Salisbury in the south or the Riverside hotel at Poulton-le-Fylde when the conference was in Blackpool. He may have had half an eye on the good opinion of posterity, but it was also generous. Reporters in their 30s could hear, firsthand of that brush with Hitler's arm.

"I am very good with widows," Heath would say. Certainly his later career, despite his many frustrations and disappointments, was neither lonely nor friendless. Lady Soames and Lady Woolf, the widow of his chief of staff, were among many who stayed loyal.

And if there had never been a wife to console his solitude there was always music. He was still to be found at the Salzburg annual music festival until 2003.

Heath claimed to have visited every country in the world except North Korea, Bolivia and Paraguay. In many countries he was treated rather more respectfully than at home, where his candour was redefined as petulance by his critics

He remained determined that he would be vindicated, until close to the end.

· Edward Richard George Heath, politician, born July 9 1916 died July 17 2005.

· This obituary has been revised and updated since the deaths of Francis Boyd, in 1995 and Norman Shrapnel last year.


Edward Heath (1525 - 1593)

He made his last Will on 06 March 1592/3 and was buried 2 days later on 08 Mar 1592/93 at Ware, Hertfordshire, England.

His estate was in probate court on 23 Mar 1592/93.

Disputed Origins

Edward Heath was NOT the son of Robert Heath.

Extracts from the last Will of Edward Heath of Ware .

. "I'm a collermaker, sycke in bodie" .

He asked to be buried in the churchyard of Ware and made the following bequests .

"unto Alyce my warylandyff xl a yere duryng her lyff. And her dwellyng in my howse, that ys to saye the chamber that she nowe useth to lie yn wthall moveables of household stuff nowe thereyn, the kytchen & the buttrye, wth ffree egresse ingresse & regresse into the same & easyaments in the backsyde durying her natural lyff. And a table with a ffourme in the hall provided, always.

And my wyll ys that two of my daughters, Elen & Kateryn, shall have all the aforesaid houshold stuff, after my wyffs decease equallie to be devided betwene them by the discreccon of my sonn Willm.

To my said two daughters, Elen & Kateryn, xx s a pece to be payd them at the daye of their maryage.

To Johan my daughter, vj s viij d to be payd to her within one yere after my decease.

To my daughter Johan, her sonn xiij s viij d to be paid at his age of xv yeres.

To Elizabeth my daughter, vj s viij d within one yere after my decease . to eyther of her children John & Margrett, vj s viij d a pece, at their age of xv yeres

To Thomas my sonn, xl s whereof xx s to be payd wthin one yere after my ddecease.

And the other xx s wthin the next yere then next ffolowyng.

To my sonn John, xx s to be payd hym wthin one yere next after my decease.

To my daughter Margaretts children now alyve v s a pece to be payd at their age of xv yeres afteter my decease.

To my sonn Willm, all that my nowe dwelling house wthall the edifice yards gardens wthall the Appurtenances therunto belongyng scituat in lytle Amwell in the countie of Hertf to hym & his heyres for ever, And all the resideue of my goods & moveables unbequeathed . to my sonne Willm his children nowe alyve vj s viij d a pece at their age of xviij yeres.

All wch severall somes of money to be payd by my sonn Willm, whom I do ordeyne & make my sole Executor of this my last Wyll & Testament.

[The following bequest is written on the left margin, evidently intended to be part of the main body of the Will]

Itm - I geve unto my sonn Robt, xl s wherof xx s wthin one yere after my decease and the other xx s wthin the yere then followyng. And all my apparell.

Itm - I geve unto everie of my sonn Robert his children v s a pece to be payd to them at the age of xv age.


Tonton videonya: EDWARD HEATH. Overview. 1970-74