Amfiteater Rom - Iskandariah

Amfiteater Rom - Iskandariah


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The Amfiteater Rom di Iskandariah di Mesir adalah teater Rom yang besar dan satu-satunya jenisnya yang terdapat di negara ini. Walaupun sering disebut sebagai ampiteater, situs ini sebenarnya adalah teater Rom kecil dan bukan arena sukan yang lebih besar.

Penggalian di lokasi - yang awalnya dilakukan untuk mencari kubur Alexander the Great - menemui tempat duduk marmar Rom yang asli, sejumlah mozek halaman dan juga grafiti yang berkaitan dengan persaingan penyokong pasukan kereta tempatan. Selain teater itu sendiri, terdapat juga sisa-sisa kompleks mandi di lokasi dan beberapa bilik dan tempat tinggal yang lain.

Penyelidikan dan penggalian lebih lanjut masih dilakukan, dengan penemuan ini memberi cahaya baru di kompleks ini. Sebilangan teori terkini berpusat pada idea bahawa teater itu sebenarnya adalah dewan kuliah kecil, dan sesungguhnya kompleks itu secara keseluruhannya adalah sebuah institusi akademik - mungkin juga sebuah universiti kuno yang dihubungkan dengan Perpustakaan Besar Alexandria.


Sejarah Iskandariah

Alexander the Great mendirikan kota ini pada tahun 332 SM setelah bermulanya kempen Parsi, ia menjadi ibu kota kekuasaan Mesir barunya dan pangkalan tentera laut yang akan menguasai wilayah Mediterania. Pilihan laman web yang merangkumi penempatan kuno Rhakotis (yang berasal dari 1500 SM) ditentukan oleh banyaknya air dari Danau Maryūṭ, kemudian diberi makan oleh lonjakan Sungai Canopic Nile, dan oleh pelabuhan yang baik yang disediakan di lepas pantai oleh pulau dari Pharos.

Setelah Alexander meninggalkan Mesir, wakilnya, Cleomenes, meneruskan penciptaan Alexandria. Dengan pecahnya kerajaan setelah kematian Alexander pada tahun 323 SM, penguasaan kota diserahkan kepada wakilnya, Ptolemy I Soter, yang mendirikan dinasti yang mengambil namanya. Ptolemies awal berjaya menggabungkan agama-agama Yunani kuno dan Mesir dalam kultus Serapis (Sarapis) dan memimpin zaman kegemilangan Alexandria. Alexandria mendapat keuntungan dari kehancuran kekuasaan Fenisia setelah Alexander memecat Tyre (332 bce) dan dari perdagangan Rom yang berkembang dengan Timur melalui Sungai Nil dan terusan yang kemudian menghubungkannya dengan Laut Merah. Sesungguhnya, Alexandria menjadi, dalam satu abad penubuhannya, salah satu bandar terbesar di Mediterranean dan pusat keilmuan dan sains Yunani. Para sarjana seperti Euclid, Archimedes, Plotinus the falsafah, dan Ptolemy dan Eratosthenes ahli geografi belajar di Mouseion, sebuah institusi penyelidikan hebat yang ditubuhkan pada awal abad ke-3 SM oleh Ptolemies yang merangkumi perpustakaan terkenal di bandar ini. Perpustakaan kuno memuat banyak teks, yang kebanyakannya dalam bahasa Yunani sebuah "perpustakaan anak perempuan" didirikan di kuil Serapis sekitar 235 SM. Perpustakaan itu sendiri kemudiannya hancur dalam perang saudara yang berlaku di bawah maharaja Rom, Aurelian pada akhir abad ke-3, sementara cabang subsidiari itu dihancurkan pada tahun 391 CE (lihat Alexandria, Perpustakaan).

Iskandariyah juga merupakan rumah bagi jajahan Yahudi yang ramai dan merupakan pusat utama orang Yahudi yang mempelajari terjemahan Perjanjian Lama dari Ibrani ke Yunani, Septuaginta, dihasilkan di sana. Banyak kumpulan etnik dan agama lain diwakili di kota itu, dan Iskandariah menjadi tempat perselisihan antara kaum dalam tempoh ini.


Muzium Greco-Roman

Iskandariah terkenal kerana tidak banyak menunjukkan sejarahnya. Lokasi bandar & rsquos antara kawasan lembah Mediterania dan lembah di belakang Sungai Nil bermaksud bahawa ia telah dibina di atasnya sendiri beberapa kali untuk masuk ke tempat yang terbatas ini. Menambah ini kehancuran penaklukan, pengepungan, dan pengeboman berulang-ulang sepanjang sejarahnya dan fakta bahawa sangat sedikit dari Alexandria kuno yang terlihat hari ini menjadi lebih mudah difahami.

Adalah sukar untuk menyelimuti kepentingan bandar ini sebagai pusat perdagangan dan budaya sejak penubuhannya pada tahun 331 SM. Kunjungan ke Muzium Yunani-Rom dan Kom Al-Dikka dapat membantu anda mengatasi masalah ini.

Muzium Greco-Roman kecil, tetapi mempunyai artifak dari zaman menarik dalam sejarah Mesir ketika peradaban Yunani, Rom, dan Mesir Kuno berinteraksi di sini, menghasilkan gabungan tradisi yang menarik. Di muzium kecil ini, anda akan menghubungi beberapa tokoh legenda dari sejarah dunia, yang semuanya memainkan peranan penting dalam kehidupan mereka di Alexandria.

Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, dan Cleopatra semuanya diwakili di sini. Anda juga dapat melihat satu-satunya replika Rumah Api Pharos yang ada untuk menandakan pelabuhan Alexandria & rsquos & mdashthe 2nd of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World di Mesir. Piramid Giza di Kaherah adalah yang lain.

Muzium yang berdekatan adalah Kom Al-Dikka. Nama itu diterjemahkan dari bahasa Arab sebagai & ldquound of runtuhan & rdquo, tetapi ini adalah salah satu daripada sebilangan kecil laman web di mana arkeolog telah menemui sebahagian dari bandar kuno. Penggalian yang berterusan di sini telah menunjukkan amfiteater Rom yang terpelihara dengan baik, satu-satunya dari banyak yang seharusnya menghiasi kota kuno. Laman web ini juga telah menunjukkan rumah mandi Rom dan vila Rom dengan hiasan mozek yang masih tersusun.


Kandungan

Edit zaman kuno

Penemuan radiokarbon terkini mengenai serpihan kerang laut dan pencemaran plumbum menunjukkan aktiviti manusia di lokasi tersebut selama tempoh Kerajaan Lama (abad ke-21 - 21 SM) dan sekali lagi pada tahun 1000-800 SM, diikuti oleh tidak adanya aktiviti selepas itu. [11] Dari sumber kuno diketahui bahawa terdapat pos perdagangan di lokasi ini pada masa Rameses the Great untuk berdagang dengan Kreta, tetapi ia telah lama hilang pada masa kedatangan Alexander. [9] Sebuah perkampungan nelayan kecil Mesir bernama Rhakotis (Mesir: rꜥ-qdy.t, 'Yang dibina') wujud sejak abad ke-13 SM di sekitarnya dan akhirnya berkembang menjadi kawasan kota Mesir. [9] Di sebelah timur Iskandariah (di mana Abu Qir Bay sekarang), ada di kawasan purba rawa dan beberapa pulau. Seawal abad ke-7 SM, terdapat bandar-bandar pelabuhan penting Canopus dan Heracleion. Yang terakhir baru-baru ini ditemui semula di bawah air.

Alexandria diasaskan oleh Alexander the Great pada bulan April 331 SM sebagai Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Alexandreia). Melewati Mesir, Alexander ingin membina sebuah kota besar Yunani di pesisir Mesir yang akan menanggung namanya. Dia memilih lokasi Iskandariah, membayangkan pembangunan jalan masuk ke pulau Pharos yang berdekatan yang akan menghasilkan dua pelabuhan semula jadi yang hebat. [9] Alexandria dimaksudkan untuk menggantikan jajahan Yunani Naucratis yang lebih tua sebagai pusat Hellenistik di Mesir, dan menjadi penghubung antara Yunani dan lembah Nil yang kaya. Beberapa bulan selepas penubuhannya, Alexander meninggalkan Mesir dan tidak pernah kembali ke kota selama hidupnya.

Setelah pemergian Alexander, wakilnya Cleomenes meneruskan pengembangan. Arkitek Dinocrates of Rhodes merancang bandar itu, menggunakan rancangan grid Hippodamia. Setelah kematian Alexander pada tahun 323 SM, jeneralnya Ptolemy Lagides mengambil alih Mesir dan membawa jenazah Alexander ke Mesir bersamanya. [12] Pada mulanya Ptolemy memerintah dari ibu kota Mesir Memphis yang lama. Pada 322/321 SM dia telah Cleomenes dieksekusi. Akhirnya, pada 305 SM, Ptolemy mengisytiharkan dirinya Firaun sebagai Ptolemy I Soter ("Penyelamat") dan memindahkan ibu kotanya ke Iskandariah.

Walaupun Cleomenes berperanan mengawasi perkembangan awal Alexandria, namun Heptastadion dan kawasan daratan nampaknya merupakan karya Ptolemaik. Mewarisi perdagangan Tirus yang hancur dan menjadi pusat perdagangan baru antara Eropah dan Timur Arab dan India, bandar ini berkembang dalam masa kurang dari satu generasi menjadi lebih besar daripada Carthage. Dalam satu abad, Alexandria telah menjadi kota terbesar di dunia dan, selama beberapa abad lagi, berada di tempat kedua setelah Rom. Ia menjadi bandar utama Yunani di Mesir, dengan orang-orang Yunani dari pelbagai latar belakang. [13]

Alexandria bukan sahaja merupakan pusat Hellenisme, tetapi juga merupakan rumah bagi komuniti Yahudi bandar terbesar di dunia. Septuaginta, versi Yunani dari Tanakh, dihasilkan di sana. Ptolemies awal membuatnya tetap teratur dan mendorong pengembangan muziumnya menjadi pusat pembelajaran Hellenistik terkemuka (Perpustakaan Alexandria), tetapi berhati-hati untuk mempertahankan perbezaan tiga etnik terbesar penduduknya: Yunani, Yahudi, dan Mesir. [14] Pada waktu Augustus, tembok kota meliputi area seluas 5,34 km 2, dan jumlah penduduk selama pemerintahan Rom sekitar 500,000-600,000, yang akan semakin berkurang dalam empat abad berikutnya di bawah pemerintahan Rom . [15]

Menurut Philo dari Iskandariyah, pada tahun 38 dari era Biasa, terjadi gangguan di antara orang Yahudi dan warga Yunani dari Iskandariyah semasa kunjungan yang dilakukan oleh Raja Agrippa I ke Iskandariah, terutama atas penghormatan yang diberikan oleh bangsa Herodian kepada maharaja Rom, dan yang dengan cepat meningkat menjadi pergaduhan terbuka dan keganasan antara dua kumpulan etnik dan penodaan rumah-rumah ibadat Alexandria. Acara ini telah disebut pogrom Alexandrian. Keganasan itu dihentikan setelah Caligula campur tangan dan memerintahkan gabenor Rom, Flaccus, dari kota. [16]

Pada tahun 115 Masehi, sebahagian besar Alexandria dimusnahkan semasa Perang Kitos, yang memberi peluang kepada Hadrian dan arkiteknya, Decriannus, untuk membangunnya kembali. Pada tahun 215, maharaja Caracalla mengunjungi kota itu dan, karena beberapa sireh menghina yang diarahkan oleh penduduk kepadanya, tiba-tiba memerintahkan pasukannya untuk membunuh semua pemuda yang mampu membawa senjata. Pada 21 Julai 365, Iskandariah dilanda tsunami (gempa bumi 365 Kreta), [17] suatu peristiwa yang setiap tahunnya diperingati bertahun-tahun kemudian sebagai "hari ngeri". [18]

Suntingan era Islam

Pada tahun 619, Iskandariah jatuh kepada orang Sassanid. Walaupun Maharaja Byzantine Heraclius memulihkannya pada tahun 629, pada tahun 641 orang-orang Arab di bawah jenderal 'Amr ibn al-'As menyerang itu semasa penaklukan Muslim di Mesir, setelah pengepungan yang berlangsung selama 14 bulan. Gabenor Arab pertama Mesir yang dicatat mengunjungi Alexandria adalah Utba ibn Abi Sufyan, yang memperkuat kehadiran Arab dan membina istana gabenor di kota itu pada tahun 664-665. [19] [20]

Selepas Pertempuran Ridaniya pada tahun 1517, kota ini ditakluki oleh orang Turki Uthmaniyyah dan kekal di bawah pemerintahan Uthmaniyyah sehingga tahun 1798. Iskandariyah kehilangan banyak kepentingannya dahulu untuk bandar pelabuhan Rosetta Mesir pada abad ke-9 hingga ke-18, dan hanya memperoleh kembali bekasnya terkenal dengan pembinaan Terusan Mahmoudiyah pada tahun 1807.

Alexandria terkenal dalam operasi ketenteraan ekspedisi Napoleon ke Mesir pada tahun 1798. Pasukan Perancis menyerang kota itu pada 2 Julai 1798, dan ia tetap berada di tangan mereka sehingga kedatangan ekspedisi Inggeris pada tahun 1801. British memperoleh kemenangan yang cukup besar terhadap Perancis pada Pertempuran Alexandria pada 21 Mac 1801, setelah itu mereka mengepung kota itu, yang jatuh kepada mereka pada 2 September 1801. Muhammad Ali, gabenor Uthmaniyyah Mesir, mula membangun kembali dan membangun kembali sekitar tahun 1810, dan pada tahun 1850, Alexandria telah kembali ke sesuatu yang serupa dengan kejayaannya yang dahulu. [21] Mesir beralih ke Eropah dalam usaha mereka memodenkan negara itu. Orang Yunani, diikuti oleh orang Eropah dan yang lain, mula bergerak ke bandar. Pada awal abad ke-20, kota ini menjadi rumah bagi novelis dan penyair. [10]

Pada bulan Julai 1882, kota ini diserang oleh tentera laut Inggeris dan diduduki. [22]

Pada bulan Julai 1954, kota ini menjadi sasaran kempen pengeboman Israel yang kemudiannya dikenali sebagai Lavon Affair. Pada 26 Oktober 1954, Dataran Mansheya di Iskandariah adalah lokasi percubaan pembunuhan yang gagal ke atas Gamal Abdel Nasser. [23]

Orang Eropah mula meninggalkan Alexandria berikutan Krisis Suez 1956 yang menyebabkan ledakan nasionalisme Arab. Nasionalisasi harta tanah oleh Nasser, yang mencapai titik tertinggi pada tahun 1961, mendorong hampir semua yang lain. [10]

Ibn Battuta di Iskandariyah

Merujuk kepada Iskandariyah, Mesir, Ibn Battuta berbicara tentang orang-orang kudus besar yang tinggal di sini. Salah satunya ialah Imam Borhan Oddin El Aaraj. Dia dikatakan mempunyai kekuatan untuk membuat keajaiban. Dia memberitahu Ibn Battuta bahawa dia harus pergi mencari tiga orang saudaranya, Farid Oddin, yang tinggal di India, Rokn Oddin Ibn Zakarya, yang tinggal di Sindia, dan Borhan Oddin, yang tinggal di China. Battuta kemudian menjadikannya tujuan untuk mencari orang-orang ini dan memberi pujian kepada mereka. Sheikh Yakut adalah seorang lelaki hebat yang lain. Dia adalah murid Syeikh Abu Abbas El Mursi, yang merupakan murid Abu El Hasan El Shadali, yang terkenal sebagai hamba Tuhan. Abu Abbas adalah pengarang Hizb El Bahr dan terkenal dengan ketakwaan dan keajaiban. Abu Abd Allah El Murshidi adalah seorang wali penafsir yang hebat yang tinggal terpencil di Minyat Ibn Murshed. Dia tinggal sendirian tetapi dikunjungi setiap hari oleh emir, wazir, dan orang ramai yang ingin makan bersamanya. Sultan Mesir (El Malik El Nasir) mengunjunginya juga. Ibnu Battuta meninggalkan Iskandariah dengan tujuan untuk mengunjunginya. [24]

Ibn Battuta juga mengunjungi rumah api Pharos sebanyak 2 kali pada tahun 1326, ia mendapati ia sebahagiannya runtuh dan pada tahun 1349 bangunan itu semakin merosot, menjadikan pintu masuk ke bangunan itu mustahil. [25]

Edit Garis Masa

Pertempuran dan pengepungan Alexandria yang paling penting termasuk:

    , Perang saudara Julius Caesar, perang terakhir Republik Rom, Perang Bizantium-Parsi, penaklukan Rashidun ke Mesir Byzantine (1365), perang salib yang dipimpin oleh Peter de Lusignan dari Cyprus yang mengakibatkan kekalahan Mamluk dan pemecatan kota . , Perang Napoleon, Perang Napoleon, Perang Napoleon (1882), diikuti oleh penjajahan Inggeris di Mesir

Alexandria Yunani dibahagikan kepada tiga wilayah:

Dua jalan utama, dilapisi dengan tiang tiang dan masing-masing selebar 60 meter (200 kaki), bersilang di tengah kota, dekat dengan titik di mana Sema (atau Soma) Alexander (Makamnya) naik. Titik ini sangat dekat dengan masjid Nebi Daniel yang ada sekarang dan garis jalan Canopic Timur-Barat yang hebat, hanya sedikit menyimpang dari jalan Boulevard de Rosette yang moden (sekarang Sharia Fouad). Jejak trotoar dan terusannya telah dijumpai di dekat Gerbang Rosetta, tetapi sisa-sisa jalan dan terusan telah ditemukan pada tahun 1899 oleh penggali Jerman di luar kubu timur, yang terletak baik di kawasan kota kuno.

Iskandariah pada awalnya terdiri lebih sedikit daripada pulau Pharos, yang bergabung dengan daratan dengan tahi lalat sepanjang 1.260 meter (4.130 kaki) dan disebut Heptastadion ("tujuh stadia" —a stadium adalah unit Yunani yang berukuran kira-kira 180 meter atau 590 kaki). Akhir ini bersambung di darat di hadapan Dataran Besar sekarang, di mana "Gerbang Bulan" naik. Semua yang ada sekarang antara titik itu dan kawasan "Ras al-Tin" moden dibina di atas lumpur yang secara beransur-ansur melebar dan menghilangkan tahi lalat ini. Kawasan Ras al-Tin mewakili semua yang tersisa di pulau Pharos, lokasi rumah api yang sebenarnya telah dilalui oleh laut. Di sebelah timur tahi lalat itu terdapat Pelabuhan Besar, sekarang sebuah teluk terbuka di sebelah barat terletak pelabuhan Eunostos, dengan lembangan dalamnya Kibotos, kini diperbesar dengan luas untuk membentuk pelabuhan moden.

Pada zaman Strabo, (separuh akhir abad ke-1 SM) bangunan-bangunan utamanya adalah seperti berikut, dihitung ketika mereka dilihat dari sebuah kapal yang memasuki Great Harbour.

  1. Istana Diraja, memenuhi sudut timur laut kota dan menempati tanjung Lochias, yang ditutup di Great Harbour di sebelah timur. Lochias (Pharillon moden) hampir hilang sepenuhnya ke laut, bersama dengan istana, "Pelabuhan Persendirian", dan pulau Antirrhodus. Terdapat penurunan tanah di sini, seperti di seluruh pantai timur laut Afrika.
  2. The Great Theatre, di Bukit Hospital moden berhampiran stesen Ramleh. Ini digunakan oleh Julius Caesar sebagai kubu, di mana dia menahan pengepungan dari massa kota setelah dia mengambil Mesir setelah pertempuran Pharsalus [rujukan diperlukan] [penjelasan diperlukan]
  3. Poseidon, atau Kuil Dewa Laut, dekat dengan teater
  4. Timonium yang dibina oleh Marc Antony
  5. Emporium (Pertukaran)
  6. The Apostases (Majalah)
  7. Navalia (Docks), terletak di sebelah barat Timonium, di sepanjang pinggir laut sejauh tahi lalat
  8. Di belakang Emporium muncul Caesareum Besar, di mana berdiri dua obelisk besar, yang dikenal sebagai "Jarum Cleopatra," dan diangkut ke New York City dan London. Kuil ini menjadi, pada waktunya, Gereja Patriarkal, walaupun beberapa peninggalan kuno kuil telah ditemukan. Caesareum yang sebenarnya, bahagian yang tidak terhakis oleh ombak, terletak di bawah rumah-rumah yang melapisi laut yang baru.
  9. Gymnasium dan Palaestra keduanya berada di pedalaman, berhampiran Boulevard de Rosette di bahagian timur kawasan bandar yang tidak diketahui.
  10. Kuil Saturn alexandria barat.
  11. Mausolea Alexander (Soma) dan Ptolemies dalam satu pagar cincin, berhampiran titik persimpangan dua jalan utama.
  12. Musaeum dengan Perpustakaan dan teaternya yang terkenal di kawasan yang sama tidak diketahui.
  13. Serapeum dari Alexandria, yang paling terkenal dari semua kuil Alexandria. Strabo memberitahu kita bahawa ini berdiri di sebelah barat kota dan penemuan baru-baru ini sejauh mana meletakkannya di dekat "Pompey's Pillar," yang merupakan monumen bebas yang didirikan untuk memperingati pengepungan kota Diocletian.

Nama-nama beberapa bangunan awam lain di daratan diketahui, tetapi tidak banyak maklumat mengenai kedudukan sebenarnya. Namun, tidak ada yang terkenal seperti bangunan yang berdiri di titik timur pulau Pharos. Di sana, Rumah Api Besar, salah satu dari Tujuh Keajaiban Dunia, yang terkenal setinggi 138 meter (453 kaki), terletak. Ptolemy pertama memulakan projek, dan Ptolemy kedua (Ptolemy II Philadelphus) menyiapkannya, dengan jumlah kos 800 bakat. Ia mengambil masa 12 tahun untuk disiapkan dan dijadikan sebagai prototaip untuk semua rumah api yang kemudian di dunia. Lampu dihasilkan oleh tungku di bahagian atas dan menara itu dibina kebanyakannya dengan batu kapur yang kukuh. Mercusuar Pharos musnah akibat gempa pada abad ke-14, menjadikannya keajaiban kuno terpanjang kedua, setelah Piramid Besar Giza. Sebuah kuil Hephaestus juga berdiri di Pharos di kepala tahi lalat.

Pada abad ke-1, penduduk Iskandariah mengandungi lebih dari 180.000 orang dewasa lelaki, [26] menurut bancian bertarikh 32 Masehi, selain sejumlah besar orang bebas, wanita, anak-anak dan budak. Anggaran jumlah penduduk berkisar antara 216,000 [27] hingga 500,000 [28] menjadikannya salah satu bandar terbesar yang pernah dibina sebelum Revolusi Perindustrian dan bandar pra-perindustrian terbesar yang bukan merupakan ibu kota kekaisaran. [ rujukan diperlukan ]


Amfiteater Rom Alexandria

Amphitheatre adalah kata singkatan dari istilah Yunani kuno yang bermaksud kawasan terbuka yang digunakan untuk jenis persembahan. Amfiteater Yunani biasanya disusun sebagai bentuk bulat atau bujur dengan banyak langkah duduk untuk penonton. Ini sebenarnya lebih seperti stadium terbuka, dan tersebar di seluruh negara seperti Itali, Turki, Jordan dan Yunani ketika orang Rom menguasai semua wilayah ini. Amfiteater Alexandria ditemui secara kebetulan pada tahun 1960. Ketika pemerintah Mesir bersiap sedia untuk mendirikan satu bangunannya di kawasan kom El Dekka, salah seorang pekerja menemui tiang padat di bawah debu dan pasir semasa menyiapkan lokasi oleh jurutera. Segera, pasukan penggalian di mana turun lokasi untuk memeriksa apa yang telah dijumpai. Teater Rom adalah penemuan yang sangat penting pada abad ke-20. Telah terbukti bahawa teater ini dibina sejak abad ke-4 M. dan digunakan hingga abad ke-7 lewat era Rom, Bizantium dan Islam. Perjalanan ke Syarikat Mesir sangat menyedari nilai laman web kuno ini kerana sangat diminta oleh pelanggan kami. Kami telah melibatkan banyak laman web Greco Roman dalam lawatan ke Mesir, dan jika anda ingin menjejaki lebih banyak laman Rom, anda akan mendapati semuanya disenaraikan dalam lawatan harian Alexandria.


Sejarah The Roman Amphitheatre

  • Amfiteater Rom yang kita lihat hari ini di Alexandria dibina pada abad ke-4 Masihi dan ia merupakan ciri umum pada zaman Rom Greco. Amfiteater adalah teater berbumbung khas yang dibina untuk mengadakan upacara muzik dan pertandingan penyair semasa pemerintahan Rom di Mesir.
  • Roman Amphitheatre Alexandria ditampilkan dengan bahagian khalayak marmarnya yang simetris dengan sayap yang diperluas dan dapat menampung 600 penonton.
  • Bahagian khalayak Roman Amphitheatre berdiameter sekitar 33 meter dan terdiri daripada 13 baris yang terbuat dari marmar putih Eropah dengan bahagian atasnya adalah sebuah portico yang terbuat dari tiang-tiang Granit yang dibawa dari Aswan dan beberapa di antaranya masih berdiri hingga hari ini.
  • Tiga belas baris Amfiteater Rom Alexandria diberi angka dengan angka dan huruf Rom untuk mengatur tempat duduk penonton dalam kesempatan yang berbeza.
  • Terdapat juga lima ruang yang dibina di bahagian atas bahagian khalayak dan digunakan untuk menjadi tuan rumah tokoh penting dan peniaga kaya semasa persembahan.
  • Kompartemen ini biasanya memiliki langit-langit dengan kubah yang didasarkan pada tiang besar yang terbuat dari granit untuk melindungi penonton dari matahari dan hujan. Lebih-lebih lagi, kubah ini digunakan untuk memperbesar suara muzik dan nyanyian semasa persembahan yang berbeza.

Teater ini digunakan dalam tiga tempoh yang berbeza iaitu Rom, Bizantium, dan Zaman Islam awal.

Malangnya, semua struktur ini musnah semasa gempa bumi yang melanda Alexandria pada abad ke-6 Masihi dan mengakibatkan kerosakan banyak struktur penting pada masa itu.

Amfiteater Rom Alexandria, yang dianggap sebagai salah satu pencapaian seni bina Rom yang paling penting di Mesir, ditemui secara kebetulan pada tahun 1960 oleh pekerja kausal yang mengeluarkan pasir untuk membersihkan tempat itu dan membina sebuah bangunan pemerintah .

Amfiteater Rom Alexandria terletak di kawasan yang disebut Kom El Dekka.


Siapakah orang Rom dan mengapa mereka membina Amfiteater?

Pada puncaknya, Kerajaan Rom Kuno merebak dari Lorong-lorong Inggeris di barat laut hingga ke Mesir dan Iraq moden di tenggara. Rom mula berkuasa mulai tahun 509 SM, dan akhirnya jatuh 476 Masihi. Kaisar Rom sentiasa berjuang untuk menjaga keamanan di antara berjuta-juta Warga Rom dan mereka membina amfiteater sebagai tempat orang berkumpul secara beramai-ramai dan menikmati pemandangan Rom yang popular. Ini benar-benar membantu menjaga ketertiban di kerajaan, dan selama mereka dihiburkan, orang-orang itu terutama damai.

Apakah terbaik Amfiteater Rom?

Senarai ini adalah usaha yang dikira untuk memilih dua puluh Amfiteater Rom Kuno teratas yang masih boleh dikunjungi hingga kini. kami telah mengumpulkan banyak data dan membuat senarai ini berdasarkan tiga kriteria utama. Pertama, ukuran amfiteater yang biasanya diukur dengan kapasiti tempat duduk. Kedua, pemeliharaan bahagian depan bangunan, dan akhirnya, pemeliharaan kawasan tempat duduk dan pemandangan. Bersama-sama kriteria ini menentukan kedudukan Amfiteater Romawi di bawah bermula dengan yang terbaik dari semuanya, dan berakhir dengan amfiteater yang sayangnya kebanyakannya dibongkar selama ini.

1. Colosseum & # 8211 Rome, Lazio, Itali

gambar dari Rajin dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 80,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 60% ±

Tentu saja yang terbesar dan paling terkenal dari semua Amfiteater Rom adalah Colosseum. Mampu menampung sekitar 80,000 penonton, ini adalah arena terbesar dengan margin yang sangat besar. Pembinaan dimulakan semasa pemerintahan Kaisar Vespasian di 72 CE dan selesai pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Titus di 80 CE. Dua gempa bumi yang terkenal antara lain berlaku kerosakan pada struktur, dan banyak bahagian depan dan tempat duduk luaran dipasang di banyak bangunan lain di Rom. Sebahagian besar façade terbuat dari travertine dengan venir marmar, dan selebihnya strukturnya adalah bata dan konkrit. Dalam 2018 Colosseum adalah laman web yang paling banyak dikunjungi di bumi, dan tetap menjadi simbol bagi kota Rom dan Empayar Rom.

2. Nîmes Amphitheatre & # 8211 Nîmes, Occitanie, Perancis

gambar dari Wolfgang Staudt dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 24,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 90% ±

Amphitheatre Nîmes selesai di 100 CE sejurus selepas selesainya Colosseum di Rom. Seperti Amfiteater Rom yang lain, struktur ini digunakan sebagai kubu pertahanan setelah kemerosotan dan kejatuhan Empayar Rom. Hari ini sebahagian besar arena masih utuh termasuk hampir semua tempat duduk dan semua 60 baris lengkungan luar yang asli. Di Perancis moden, amfiteater digunakan sebagai arena pertempuran banteng pada bulan-bulan musim panas.

3. Amfiteater El Djem & # 8211 El Djem, Mahdia, Tunisia

gambar dari Agnieszka Wolska dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 35,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 70% ±

Amphitheatre El Djem adalah struktur tertinggi dan paling mengagumkan di seluruh bandar. Ia adalah amfiteater ketiga terbesar dalam senarai ini dan disenaraikan sebagai Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO. Pembinaan telah siap di 238 Masihi dan dibina sepenuhnya dari bawah ke atas, tidak tenggelam ke bumi seperti arena lain. Semua lengkungan batu dan tempat duduk terbuat dari batu pasir kuning, yang biasanya terdapat di Tunisia. Walaupun tidak dipelihara seperti Amfiteater Rom yang lain, kapasiti ricih dan ketinggian fasad luaran menjadikannya salah satu sisa Rom kuno yang paling mengagumkan. (gambar sampul siaran ini menunjukkan bahagian luar El Djem Amphitheatre)

4. Amfiteater Arles & # 8211 Arles, Provence, Perancis

gambar dari Guido Radig dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 20,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 90% ±

Amfiteater Arles tidak sebesar yang lain dalam senarai ini, tetapi sangat terpelihara. Sebahagian besar tempat duduk masih utuh, bersama dengan sebahagian besar bahagian luarnya. Ia disenaraikan sebagai Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO bersama dengan banyak bangunan Rom lain yang terletak di Arles. Semasa abad pertengahan, arena itu diubah menjadi benteng pertahanan. Banyak struktur kayu dibina di dalam dan di atas struktur batu. Tiga menara pertahanan batu juga ditambahkan, yang masih dapat dilihat hingga kini.

5. Amfiteater Verona & # 8211 Verona, Veneto, Itali

gambar dari Kevin Poh dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 30,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 80% ±

Itali, yang merupakan wilayah tertua dan paling pusat empayar & # 8217 banyak wilayah, mengandungi kepekatan Roman Amphitheaters yang tinggi. Terletak di Piazza Bra, Amfiteater Verona adalah antara yang terbaik terpelihara di seluruh Itali. Hampir 100% struktur tempat duduk dan dalaman tetap ada, tetapi semua kecuali empat lengkungan fasad luaran asli dibongkar untuk bangunan lain. (gempa bumi di Abad ke-12 melakukan kerosakan yang besar pada bahagian luar bangunan, jadi keputusan dibuat untuk menggunakan semula bahan di tempat lain) Arena ini dibina sekitar tahun 30 CE. Hari ini ia adalah salah satu laman web yang paling terkenal di Verona dan ia masih digunakan untuk konsert dan persembahan yang ditonton oleh lebih daripada setengah juta penonton setiap tahun.

6. Amfiteater Pula & # 8211 Pula, Istria, Croatia

gambar dari Jeroen Komen dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 23,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 70% ±

Pula Amphitheatre adalah salah satu laman Rom yang terkenal di seluruh Croatia. Ia boleh dibilang salah satu fasad luar yang paling spektakuler dan terpelihara dari mana-mana Amfiteater Rom. Walaupun telah diubah beberapa kali dalam sejarahnya, struktur yang kita lihat hari ini siap dibina 81 CE. Fasad yang lebih tinggi mencapai ketinggian lebih dari 100 ’dan mengandungi tiga tingkat lengkungan.

7. Pompeii Amphitheatre & # 8211 Pompeii, Campania, Itali

gambar dari Mosborne01 dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 20,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 90% ±

Amphitheatre Pompeii adalah Amfiteater Rom tertua yang masih bertahan hingga kini. Bersama dengan seluruh kota, arena dikuburkan oleh letusan Gunung Vesuvius di 79 CE. Hari ini pelawat ke laman web arkeologi Pompeii dibenarkan berjalan di dalam dan sekitar amfiteater. Walaupun jumlah penonton dapat menahannya, fasad luaran sebenarnya hanya satu tingkat, tidak seperti arena lain dalam senarai ini. Ini kerana banyak struktur digali jauh ke dalam bumi. Amphitheatre of Pompeii juga digunakan oleh kumpulan rock Pink Floyd untuk merakam versi langsung lagu "gema" di 1971lihat rakaman untuk melihat beberapa gambaran hebat dari amfiteater!

8. Uthina Amphitheatre & # 8211 Mohammedia, Gabenor Ben Arous, Tunisia

gambar dari Maurizio Hublitz dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 16,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 60% ±

Afrika Utara adalah wilayah penting dalam empayar, dan hari ini banyak Amfiteater Rom Afrika Utara terpelihara dengan baik. Tempat duduk Uphina Amphitheatre hanya sekitar 60% utuh, tetapi beberapa lengkungan batu dari fasad asalnya masih bertahan hingga ke hari ini. Kira-kira separuh arena dibina tenggelam ke bukit bersebelahan. Selebihnya dibina dari tanah dengan fasad megah yang pastinya merupakan keajaiban pada zaman dahulu. Nasib baik, kerana sifatnya yang terpencil jauh dari bandar-bandar besar lain, kemungkinan arena ini akan digali lebih banyak lagi di masa depan.

9. Leptis Magna Amphitheatre & # 8211 Khoms, Murqub, Libya

gambar dari Capuozzo Pietro dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 16,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 70% ±

Sebuah bandar Afrika Utara yang terkenal semasa Empayar Rom, Leptis Magna memegang beberapa tarikan Rom kuno yang terkenal, termasuk sebuah Triumphal Arch dikhaskan untuk Maharaja Septimius Severus. Amphitheatre Leptis Magna menjadi tumpuan seluruh kawasan, barisan dan lorong tempat duduknya terpelihara dengan baik. Kerana amfiteater dibangun ke dalam Bumi, dalam keadaan tertekan secara semula jadi, tidak ada fasad luaran yang masih hidup. Pembinaannya didedikasikan untuk Kaisar Nero, yang meletakkan tarikh penyelesaian sekitar 56 CE.

Suka Rom Kuno? lihat artikel kami, & # 822020 Terowong Rom Kuno Teratas.”

10. Avenches Amphitheatre & # 8211 Avenches, Vaud, Switzerland

gambar dari Nursangaion dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 16,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 50% ±

Avenches Amphitheatre siap pada tahun 165 Masihi dan merupakan salah satu laman web teratas di Modern Avenches. Asalnya disebut Aventicum, kota ini adalah ibu kota Rom Switzerland. Sebilangan besar fasad luaran dikeluarkan untuk bangunan lain, dan banyak barisan tempat duduk masih belum digali. Pengunjung dibenarkan memasuki pusat arena dan berdiri betul-betul di mana pertempuran gladiator digunakan. Arena ini adalah satu-satunya amfiteater Swiss dalam senarai ini, dan satu ciri penting ialah menara pertahanan yang ditambahkan ke struktur di Abad ke-11.

11. Tarragona Amphitheatre & # 8211 Tarragona, Catalonia, Sepanyol

gambar dari Malopez 21 dari Wikimedia Commons

Kapasiti: 15,000+ Struktur Terpelihara: 40% ±

Amfiteater Rom Kuno di Tarragona kini diklasifikasikan sebagai Tapak Warisan Dunia UNESCO, bersama dengan struktur kuno lain di bandar ini. Arena ini mempunyai kedudukan yang sangat indah, menghadap ke Laut Mediterranean ke Selatan. About 50% of the seating rows are still preserved, as well as a good portion of the archways on the south façade. Construction began in the 2nd century CE when the city was called, Tarraco. Today, visitors to amphitheater can walk around the rows of seats, and if you climb to the top you are rewarded with a magnificent view of the ocean beyond.

12. Mérida Amphitheater – Mérida, Extremadura, Spain

Photo by José Manuel García from flickr

Capacity: 15,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Mérida’s Roman Amphitheater, as well as the Roman Theater, aqueduct, and Bridge, are some of the most notable Roman sites in all of Spain. Together, these structures are classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The majority of the structure, including the top two seating sections, were repurposed in other buildings.

13. Italica Amphitheater – Santiponce, Andalusia, Spain

Photo by Diego Delso from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Italica is a historic site, located about 5 miles north of the town of Santiponce in Spain. The amphitheater and other remnants of the Ancient Roman city are a popular day trip from nearby Seville. Italica was a large city in Roman times, founded in 206 BCE by the general now known as Scipio Africanus. The birthplace of at least two Roman Emperors, Hadrian, and Trajan, Italica was known to have large and notable buildings. The amphitheater was also recently used as a filming location for Game of Thrones in 2017, in a scene where a few main characters (and their dragons) meet.

14. Trier Amphitheater – Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Photo by Berthold Werner from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 20,000+ Preserved Structure: 50% ±

Trier Amphitheater is the best-preserved Ancient Roman Amphitheater in all of Germany. At the time of its construction, Trier was a leading city in the Roman province of Gaul. Trier continued to grow in importance later becoming a regional capital in the later stages of the Western Roman Empire. Today the Roman monuments of Trier, along with several other historic buildings in the city, are recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

15. Alexandria Amphitheater – Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Photo by ASaber91 from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 600+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

By far the smallest on this list, Alexandria’s Amphitheater could only have held about 600+ spectators. Many historians believe it was used more for concerts and plays rather than gladiatorial combat. But one noticeable difference is the actual marble seats that still exist today. Completed in the 4th century CE this amphitheater was built during the Roman occupation of Egypt. It’s one of the top Roman sites located in the ancient city which was founded by Alexander the Great.

16. Lecce Amphitheater – Lecce, Apulia, Italy

Photo by Paolo de Reggio from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

The Amphitheater of Lecce is still largely unexcavated. It’s highly unlikely it will ever be excavated since the remainder of the structure is covered up by modern roads and buildings. During the time of the Romans, the city was named Lupiae and was a major city on the “heel” of the Italian Peninsula. The seats and façade of the arena are made of yellow-white sandstone, the same material which is used on many other significant buildings in the city.

Check out our article, “Top 15 Ancient Roman Triumphal Arches” to learn more about the architecture of the Roman Empire!

17. Cagliari Amphitheater – Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

Photo by Ruben Holthuijsen from flickr

Capacity: 10,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Roman Amphitheater of Cagliari differs from many of the others on this list since it was partially carved out of solid rock in the surrounding hillside. The hill of Buon Cammino is one of the tallest and steepest in Cagliari. Most of the seating was carved to match the slope of the hill, and there was also a large entry façade on the southern side. Today restoration work is still ongoing, so there’s a strong chance that more of the remains will be uncovered in the future.

18. Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli – Pozzuoli, Campania, Italy

Photo by ho visto nina volare from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 50,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli is the third-largest Amphitheater built during the Roman Empire. (“Flavian Amphitheater” is also a term widely associated with the Colosseum in Rome) Today several of the exterior arches and the vast majority of the seats remain, although all of the exterior marble veneers were reused in other buildings. The underground portion of this arena is among the best-preserved of all Roman Amphitheaters. Even some portions of the lifting mechanisms that connected the arena floor to the underground chambers are still intact.

19. Capua Amphitheater – Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Campania, Italy

Photo by Rico Heil from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 60,000+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

The Amphitheater of Capua is the second-largest amphitheater that still survives from antiquity. It is believed to be the model for the Colosseum in Rome. Today only a few of the original arches and about 30% of the original seating rows are still intact. The arena was the center point in a very well known event in Roman history, the Revolt of Spartacus that started in 73 BCE.

20. Aquincum Amphitheater – Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary

Photo by Civertan Grafik from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: unknown Preserved Structure: 10% ±

The Ancient Roman City of Aquincum was located on the Danube River in what is now Budapest. The city actually contained two separate Roman Amphitheaters, the Aquincum Miltary Amphitheater (depicted above) and the Aquincum Civil Amphitheater. In addition to being used for organized spectacles, the Aquincum Military Amphitheater was an important military training facility. Today the amphitheater lies at the southern edge of the Obuda district of Budapest.

Roman Amphitheaters Today

Today, Roman Amphitheaters have left a lasting legacy on architectural history. Many of the amphitheaters on this list are still used for events to this day. They remain symbols of the Roman Empire and the fact that they can be found all over the Mediterranean is a testament to the reach and power of the Romans.

The model for the Roman Amphitheater has been reproduced all over the globe. One great example is the Harvard Colosseum located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Used as a football stadium for Harvard University, the exterior facade resembles what most Roman Amphitheaters would have looked like in their prime.

Photo of the Harvard Colosseum in Cambridge Massachusettes.
Photo by Nick Allen from Wikimedia Commons

Kesimpulannya

The Roman Empire was one of the most influential civilizations to have ever existed. They created monumental structures and made incredibly significant advancements in construction and engineering. Their largest and most emblematic structures were their amphitheaters. Throughout the lands of the Roman Empire, some 400 arenas remain. This list shows 20 of the best-preserved examples, each one a significant site that is worth a visit. Two honorable mentions that did not make this list are the Roman Amphitheater of Lucca Italy, which has since been repurposed as a public square, and Serdica Amphitheater in Sofia Bulgaria, where today a modern hotel atrium is built surrounding the ancient structure.

Mengenai Pengarang

Rob Carney, the founder and lead writer for Architecture of Cities has been studying the history of architecture for over 10 years. He is an avid traveler and photographer, and he is passionate about buildings and building history. Rob has a B.S. and a Master’s degree in Architecture and has worked as an architect and engineer in the Boston area for several years.

Exterior facade of the Amphitheater of El Djem in Tunisia
Photo by Mrabet.amir from Wikimedia Commons

The Roman Amphitheatre

The only known Roman amphitheater in Egypt is located in Kom El-Dekka, Alexandria, and is an extraordinarily well-preserved structure consisting of 13 terraces built in the traditional Greek style with a flat stage in the center of the lower level.

The Roman Amphitheater of Alexandria is the only Roman amphitheater in Egypt, dating back to the 2nd century AD. It was discovered by chance in 1960 by the Polish Egyptian expedition to Kom el-Dekka. It was found when the expedition team was trying to remove some remains from Napoleon’s time. The theater dates back to the 1st -2nd century BC. During the times this place was changing its plan and function until in the 6th century it became a place to celebrate religious feasts. The theatre consists of 2 main parts: AUDITORIUM – conference hall and SKENE’ – performance hall. Between these two parts, there was a special place for the orchestra. The diameter of the theatre was 42 meters. Now it is impossible to identify exactly how many steps the theatre had until the 6th century. After that, it became 33.5 meters in diameter and 16 steps. In the same century, it was decided to turn the open theatre into a close celebration hall. In the beginning, it was a semicircular auditorium with a number of rows of seats and a skenè in the middle.

Then it was decided to remove 3 steps (rows) and extend the auditorium. In addition, 6 columns on two rows were made to cover the theater and support a dome that was designed to be placed on the body of the theater (steps) and 6 columns. But after construction, the dome collapsed due to incorrect scientific calculations. After the theater is no longer used statp…So far you can see some remains of mosaic floors that once covered the entire floor of the scene. The steps of the theatre are made of white marble with the exception of the lower one in pink granite. The site is also home to the Villa degli Uccelli – four well-preserved floor mosaics depicting birds rather than risk damaging the mosaics by moving them, a museum has been built over the opera to protect it from the elements.

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Kandungan

Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. The site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon. The climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. [4]

The Caicus valley is mostly composed of volcanic rock, particularly andesite and the Pergamon massif is also an intrusive stock of andesite. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a relatively small peak - the upper city. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, which is known as the 'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off suddenly immediately to the east. The upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains very narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls gradually to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and then descends to the plain towards the southwest. [5]

Pre-Hellenistic period Edit

Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds, especially fragments of pottery imported from the west, particularly eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. [7]

The earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. [8] Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops (some 5,000 men according to Diodorus) to Thibron, who was planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. [9]

In 362 BC, Orontes, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of almost all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century.

Possible coinage of the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian cap on the reverse, as ruler of Pergamon for the Achaemenid Empire. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. The name of the city ΠΕΡΓ ("PERG"), appears for the first on this coinage, and is the first evidence for the name of the city. [11]

Coin of Orontes, Achaemenid Satrap of Mysia (including Pergamon), Adramyteion. Circa 357-352 BC

Hellenistic period Edit

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founding the Attalid dynasty. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281–263 Eumenes I 263–241 Attalus I 241–197 Eumenes II 197–159 Attalus II 159–138 and Attalus III 138–133. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland. The city thus became the centre of a territorial realm, but Eumenes did not take the royal title. In 238 his successor Attalus I defeated the Galatians, to whom Pergamon had paid tribute under Eumenes I. [12] Attalus thereafter declared himself leader of an entirely independent Pergamene kingdom, which went on to reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC.

The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them.

Image of Philetaerus on a coin of Eumenes I

The Kingdom of Pergamon, shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC

Over-life-size portrait head, probably of Attalus I, from early in the reign of Eumenes II

Nevertheless, under the brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II, Pergamon reached its apex and was rebuilt on a monumental scale. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres). [13] The Attalids' goal was to create a second Athens, a cultural and artistic hub of the Greek world. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. Epigraphic documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. [15] Eumenes II and Attalus II (whose epithet was 'Philadelphos' - 'he who loves his brother') were even compared to the mythical pair of brothers, Cleobis and Biton. [16]

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. This was challenged by Aristonicus who claimed to be Attalus III's brother and led an armed uprising against the Romans with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher. For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army, but he was defeated in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. The city itself was declared free and was briefly the capital of the province, before it was transferred to Ephesus.

Roman period Edit

In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans deprived Pergamon of all its benefits and of its status as a free city. Henceforth the city was required to pay tribute and accommodate and supply Roman troops, and the property of many of the inhabitants was confiscated. The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate Pasparus’ work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time. [17]

Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). Under Augustus, the first imperial cult, a neocorate, to be established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province [18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105.

Yet it was only under Trajan and his successors that a comprehensive redesign and remodelling of the city took place, with the construction a Roman 'new city' at the base of the Acropolis. The city was the first in the province to receive a second neocorate, from Trajan in AD 113/4. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. An ambitious building programme was carried out: massive temples, a stadium, a theatre, a huge forum and an amphitheatre were constructed. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. In the middle of the 2nd century, Pergamon was one of the largest cities in the province, along with these two, and had around 200,000 inhabitants. Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter. In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery.

Byzantine period Edit

The city gradually declined during Late Antiquity, and its settled core contracted to the acropolis, which was fortified by Emperor Constans II ( r . 641–668 ). [19] In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. [19] As a result of this ongoing threat, the area of settlement retracted to the citadel, which was protected by a 6-meter-thick (20 ft) wall, built of spolia.

During the middle Byzantine period, the city was part of the Thracesian Theme, [19] and from the time of Leo VI the Wise ( r . 886–912 ) of the Theme of Samos. [20] The presence of an Armenian community, probably from refugees from the Muslim conquests, is attested during the 7th century, from which the emperor Philippikos ( r . 711–713 ) hailed. [19] [20] In 716, Pergamon was sacked again by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. It was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 717–718. [19] [20]

It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos ( r . 1143–1180 ) in c. 1170 . It likely became the capital of the new theme of Neokastra, established by Manuel. [19] [20] Under Isaac II Angelos ( r . 1185–1195 ), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus. [20]

With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. [20] The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. [21]

Pergamon, which traced its founding back to Telephus, the son of Heracles, is not mentioned in Greek myth or epic of the archaic or classical periods. However, in the epic cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. He comes there following an oracle in search of his mother, and becomes Teuthras' son-in-law or foster-son and inherits his kingdom of Teuthrania, which encompassed the area between Pergamon and the mouth of the Caicus. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus dan Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. [22] The adaptation of the myth is not entirely smooth.

Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. Otherwise he does not seem to have been paid any heed. [23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus [24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. [25] Pergamon thus entered the Trojan epic cycle, with its ruler said to have been an Arcadian who had fought with Telephus against Agamemnon when he landed at the Caicus, mistook it for Troy and began to ravage the land.

On the other hand, the story was linked to the foundation of the city with another myth - that of Pergamus, the eponymous hero of the city. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). [26] With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. There he built a heroon for his mother after her death. [27] In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. [28] These mythic connections seem to be late and are not attested before the 3rd century BC. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. Beginning in the Roman period, his image appears on civic coinage and he is said to have had a heroon in the city. [29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. [30]

However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links: [31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles, [32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest, [33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. [34] All of these claims derive their significance from Alexander the Great, who claimed descent from Heracles, through his father Philip II. [35]

In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. [36] The inhabitants of Pergamon enthusiastically followed their lead and took to calling themselves Telephidai ( Τηλεφίδαι ) and referring to Pergamon itself in poetic registers as the 'Telephian city' ( Τήλεφις πόλις ).

The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. Beginning with Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli in the 15th century, ever more travellers visited the place and published their accounts of it. The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, to which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant in their own accounts. [37]

In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. [38] A proper, multi-page description with plans, elevations, and views of the city and its ruins was first produced by Charles Texier when he published the second volume of his Description de l’Asie mineure. [39]

In 1864/5, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon for the first time. For the construction of the road from Pergamon to Dikili for which he had undertaken planning work and topographical studies, he returned in 1869 and began to focus intensively on the legacy of the city. In 1871, he organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. It is not clear who connected these fragments with the Great Altar in Pergamon mentioned by Lucius Ampelius. [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar. [41]

As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. With the approval of the Ottoman empire, the reliefs discovered there were transported to Berlin, where the Pergamon Museum was opened for them in 1907. The work was continued by Conze, who aimed for the most complete possible exposure and investigation of the historic city and citadel that was possible. He was followed by the architectural historian Wilhelm Dörpfeld from 1900 to 1911, who was responsible for the most important discoveries. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light.

The excavations were interrupted by the First World War and were only resumed in 1927 under the leadership of Theodor Wiegand, who remained in this post until 1939. He concentrated on further excavation of the upper city, the Asklepieion, and the Red Hall. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. In 1971, after a short pause, Wolfgang Radt succeeded him as leader of excavations and directed the focus of research on the residential buildings of Pergamon, but also on technical issues, like the water management system of the city which supported a population of 200,000 at its height. He also carried out conservation projects which were of vital importance for maintaining the material remains of Pergamon. Since 2006, the excavations have been led by Felix Pirson. [42]

Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then.

Pergamon is a good example of a city that expanded in a planned and controlled manner. Philetairos transformed Pergamon from an archaic settlement into a fortified city. He or his successor Attalos I built a wall around the whole upper city, including the plateau to the south, the upper agora and some of the housing - further housing must have been found outside these walls. Because of the growth of the city, the streets were expanded and the city was monumentalised. [43] Under Attalos I some minor changes were made to the city of Philetairos. [44] During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. [45] A new street network was created and a new city wall with a monumental gatehouse south of the Acropolis called the Gate of Eumenes. The wall, with numerous gates, now surrounded the entire hill, not just the upper city and the flat area to the southwest, all the way to the Selinus river. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets.

The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. For the construction of buildings and laying out of the agoras, extensive work on the cliff-face and terracing had to be carried out. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space.

Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats.

Housing Edit

Generally, most of the Hellenistic houses at Pergamon were laid out with a small, centrally-located and roughly square courtyard, with rooms on one or two sides of it. The main rooms are often stacked in two levels on the north side of the courtyard. A wide passage or colonnade on the north side of the courtyard often opened onto foyers, which enabled access to other rooms. An exact north-south arrangement of the city blocks was not possible because of the topographical situation and earlier construction. Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. Some complexes were designed as Prostas houses, similar to designs seen at Priene. Others had wide columned halls in front of main rooms to the north. Especially in this latter type there is often a second story accessed by stairways. In the courtyards there were often cisterns, which captured rain water from the sloping roofs above. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. [46]

Open spaces Edit

From the beginning of the reign of Philetairos, civic events in Pergamon were concentrated on the Acropolis. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. In the reign of Attalos I, a Temple of Zeus was built there. [47] To the north of this structure there was a multi-story building, which propbably had a function connected to the marketplace. [48] With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. [49] In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. [50] After these renovations, the Upper Agora thus served as a centre for trade and spectacle in the city. [51]

Because of significant new construction in the immediate vicinity - the renovation of the Sanctuary of Athena and the Pergamon altar and the redesign of the neighbouring area - the design and organisational principle of the Upper Agora underwent a further change. [52] Its character became much more spectacular and focussed on the two new structures looming over it, especially the altar which was visible on its terrace from below since the usual stoa surrounding it was omitted from the design. [53]

The 80 m long and 55 m wide 'Lower Agora' was built under Eumenes II and was not significantly altered until Late Antiquity. [54] As with the Upper Agora, the rectangular form of the agora was adapted to the steep terrain. The construction consisted in total of three levels. Of these the Upper Level and the 'Main Level' opened onto a central courtyard. On the lower level there were rooms only on the south and east sides because of the slope of the land, which led through a colonnade to the exterior of the space. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. [56]

Streets and bridges Edit

The course of the main street, which winds up the hill to the Acropolis with a series of hairpin turns, is typical of the street system of Pergamon. On this street were shops and warehouses. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. The street included a drainage system, which carried the water down the slope. Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. [58]


Alexandria Attractions

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Alexandria City

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citadel of Qaitbay located in the island of pharos western of Alexandria city , was built on the old lighthouse location after it was destroyed by the earth wake , the citadel of A.

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Pompey's Pillar

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The Greco Roman culture played a significant rule in forming Egypt's ancient history. The Roman invasions started step by step in a time Egyptians and Romans were the dominatin.

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Alexandria was founded by Alexander the great in 332 B.C on the site of old fishing village. It has thrived for more than 500 years and was the capital city of Egypt during i.


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