Empayar Rom di bawah Augustus

Empayar Rom di bawah Augustus



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Walaupun kita merujuk pada masa Republik dan Imperial di Rom, nilai-nilai Republik masih tetap dilayan selama pemerintahan Augustus dan seterusnya. Kemiripan demokrasi, walaupun lebih dari satu fasad, dihormati oleh Augustus dan Kaisar berikutnya.

Republik berakhir dengan praktikal dengan Julius Caesar, tetapi sebenarnya lebih merupakan proses melenyapkan daripada pertukaran secara langsung dari semi demokrasi patrician kepada monarki borong. Nampaknya ketidakstabilan dan perang adalah alasan atau alasan yang tepat untuk memasuki fasa politik yang berwibawa, tetapi mengakui hingga akhir Republik adalah idea yang perlu dibiasakan oleh rakyat dan senat.

Penyelesaian Augustus adalah dengan mewujudkan sistem pemerintahan yang sering disebut sebagai 'prinsipal'. Beliau Princeps, yang bermaksud 'warganegara pertama' atau 'pertama di antara yang sama', idea yang sebenarnya tidak sesuai dengan realiti keadaan.

Walaupun fakta bahawa Augustus menolak tawaran konsul hidup - walaupun mengambilnya lagi ketika menamakan warisnya - dan kediktatoran, selama masa pemerintahannya, dia menggabungkan kekuatan tentera dan mahkamah, menjadi ketua agama negara dan memperoleh kekuasaan hak veto hakim.


Menilai Warisan Augustus & # 8217s: Monarki atau Republik?

Cameo Maharaja Augustus memakai gorgoneion dan tali pinggang pedang. (Gambar: Koleksi Strozzi Koleksi Blacas / Muzium British)

Apa Kesan Ultimate Augustus & # 8217?

Salah satu masalah yang paling menarik mengenai Augustus, maharaja Rom & # 8217, adalah bagaimana menilai penubuhannya sebagai Principate. Apakah dia, untuk semua tujuan praktikal, menghancurkan Republik Rom dan pemerintahannya? Atau, seperti yang dia dakwa, apakah dia mengembalikannya ketika memerlukan peremajaan?

Begitu juga, dengan penempatannya di negara Rom, adakah dia seorang inovator yang mewujudkan institusi yang sama sekali baru, atau terutama seorang tradisionalis yang menyesuaikan dan mengemas kini bentuk lama untuk keadaan semasa?

Ini adalah transkrip dari siri video Empayar Rom: Dari Augustus hingga Kejatuhan Rom. Tonton sekarang, Wondrium

Ini adalah persoalan yang diperdebatkan oleh sejarawan selama berabad-abad. Mungkin tidak ada jawapan yang betul atau salah untuk mereka.

Pemusnah atau pemulih? Inovator atau tradisionalis? Atau, untuk mengikuti aspek yang paling mendasar dari pemerintahannya, adakah Augustus memang seorang raja?

Adakah monopoli sistematiknya atas kekuasaan nyata sama dengan menjadi raja yang hampir mutlak, atau adakah institusi republik itu terus berfungsi dengan cara yang bermakna di bawah pemerintahannya?

Pada masa itu, banyak orang Rom menerima gagasan bahawa dia adalah seorang tradisionalis yang telah memulihkan dan menyelamatkan republik itu pada masa krisis. Ini adalah kisah rasmi yang sangat disokong oleh Augustus. Dokumen menarik masih ada yang merangkumi versi kejadiannya.

The Res Gestae: Propaganda Kuat

Autobiografi Augustus, yang disusun olehnya dan terukir di atas batu batu yang didirikan di luar makamnya, dihitung dengan kesopanan khas.

Sebahagian daripada Res Gestae. (Imej: Berolini, Weidmann, Mommsen / Domain awam)

Augustus berjudul autobiografinya Res Gestae, yang dapat diterjemahkan secara longgar sebagai "Perkara selesai."

Sekiranya sejarawan moden menulis sejarah Augustus, dia mungkin mengulang kalimat ini untuk membaca, "Pada usia 19 tahun, saya mengangkat tentera swasta untuk berperang saudara melawan hakim negara yang dipilih secara sah," tetapi versi Augustus terdengar sangat lebih gagah.

Dari penyelesaiannya pada tahun 27 SM, dia menyatakan:

Setelah mengalahkan musuh-musuh ini, dan pada masa ketika dengan persetujuan sejagat saya mengendalikan sepenuhnya urusan, saya kemudian mengalihkan republik itu dari kuasa saya kepada kawalan senat dan rakyat Rom. Untuk perkhidmatan ini, saya diberi nama Augustus dengan keputusan senat…

yang juga menyatakan bahawa perisai emas harus terpasang di atas pintu saya menyatakan keberanian, kemurahan hati, keadilan, dan ketakwaan saya. Selepas masa ini, saya mengalahkan orang lain dalam pengaruh, walaupun saya tidak mempunyai kekuatan rasmi daripada mereka yang merupakan rakan sekerja saya di berbagai hakim.

Dalam petikan ini, dia menekankan bahawa dia seharusnya hanya memegang kekuasaan dengan "persetujuan sejagat", dan bahawa dia tidak memiliki kekuatan resmi daripada sesama pemegang jawatannya. Walaupun secara teknis benar, masalah sebenarnya adalah dia memegang kekuatan semua hakim yang berbeza, bukan hanya salah satu dari mereka.

Satu lagi petikan menarik di Res Gestae adalah bahagian di mana Augustus menyombongkan diri, bukan mengenai gelaran atau penghormatan yang telah dia perolehi, melainkan mengenai tajuk yang ditolaknya:

Setelah saya meraikan tiga kemenangan] senat memutuskan lebih banyak kemenangan untuk penghormatan saya, yang semuanya saya tolak ... Baik senat dan rakyat menawarkan untuk menjadikan saya diktator, tetapi saya menolaknya. Mereka menawarkan untuk membuat saya konsul seumur hidup, tetapi saya menolaknya ... Saya tidak akan menerima pejabat yang tidak sesuai dengan adat istiadat nenek moyang kita.

The Res Gestae adalah karya propaganda yang sangat baik yang dapat menangkap dengan sempurna cara Augustus mengeksploitasi bahasa untuk mempromosikan pemerintahannya dan versi kejadiannya.

Ahli Sejarah Pertama yang Mencabar Label Augustus & # 8217

Untuk alasan yang jelas, tidak seorang pun pada waktu itu berani menentang pernyataan Augustus secara terbuka bahawa republik itu masih ada dan hanya menjalani "pemulihan" yang diperlukan di bawah arahannya. Sudah dua abad penuh sebelum kisah Augustus yang masih hidup secara terbuka berani melabelnya sebagai raja.

Sekitar tahun 200 M., sejarawan Rom Cassius Dio mengarang sejarah Rom yang merangkumi pemerintahan Augustus. Dio menerangkan secara terperinci pelbagai gelaran dan pejabat yang dipegang oleh Augustus, memberikan penilaian yang jelas ini:

Dengan cara ini, kuasa senat dan orang-orang diserahkan sepenuhnya ke tangan Augustus, dan dari masa ini, secara tegasnya, pemerintahan monarki akan menjadi nama yang paling benar untuknya & # 8230 Nama monarki, pasti , orang Rom sangat benci sehingga mereka memanggil maharaja mereka bukan diktator atau raja atau yang serupa lagi kerana sejak wewenang terakhir pemerintah menyerahkan kepada mereka, mereka mesti menjadi raja ...

Berdasarkan gelaran-gelaran yang terdengar demokratik ini, para maharaja telah melengkapkan diri dengan semua kekuasaan pemerintah, sehingga mereka benar-benar memiliki semua hak istimewa raja, kecuali gelar mereka yang lemah.

Dasar Luar Negeri Augustus

Dari segi dasar luar Augustus, pengembangan sempadan kerajaan yang pesat yang telah mencirikan abad-abad sebelumnya sebahagian besarnya berhenti. Secara umum, Augustus lebih memusatkan perhatian untuk memantapkan apa yang sudah dimiliki Rom daripada mendapatkan tanah baru.

Koin denarius perak Rom kuno yang menampilkan Augustus. (Imej: Eduardo Estellez / Shutterstock)

Perang saudara telah menghasilkan sejumlah besar pasukan. Salah satu cabaran awal terhebat Augustus adalah apa yang dilakukan dengan gerombolan tentera yang memandangnya untuk memberi penghargaan kepada perkhidmatan mereka. Dia mengurangkan jumlah legiun menjadi 28 dan mengeluarkan ratusan ribu veteran.

Sebilangan besar dari mereka dianugerahkan geran tanah dan menetap sebagai petani dalam beberapa siri jajahan yang ditubuhkan Augustus di seluruh wilayah Mediterranean. Ini mengubah mereka menjadi pengaliran ekonomi menjadi warga negara yang produktif dan melanjutkan proses Romisasi wilayah asing yang telah diperoleh oleh Rom.

Rom menguasai wilayah provinsi damai yang berterusan yang mengelilingi Laut Mediterranean. Augustus juga menyemak gulungan Senat yang kembung, mengurangkan keanggotaannya dengan beberapa ratus, menjadi sekitar 600 orang.

Bencana Tentera untuk Rom

Percubaan utama Augustus untuk memperluas sempadan kerajaan mengakibatkan salah satu bencana ketenteraan terbesar di Rom. Di seberang Sungai Rhine dari wilayah Gaul terletak wilayah Germania, yang dihuni oleh suku-suku perang. Selama pemerintahannya, orang Rom secara berkala melakukan serangan ke wilayah ini.

Pada tahun 9 M., tiga pasukan di bawah komando seorang jeneral Rom bernama Varus dihantar dalam ekspedisi seperti itu. Sayangnya bagi orang Rom, Varus telah membuat reputasinya di pengadilan, bukan di medan perang dia adalah jenderal yang tidak kompeten, dan juga orang yang mudah tertipu.

Seorang bangsawan Jerman bernama Arminius, yang berpura-pura menjadi sekutu Rom, memikat Varus dan tiga pasukannya untuk menyerang di Hutan Teutoburg yang lebat. Bangsa Romawi bertempur dengan baik di tanah terbuka, di mana disiplin mereka memberi mereka kelebihan, tetapi Varus terpikat ke dalam hutan rawa dan berhutan tebal, di mana orang-orang Arminius dapat menyerang formasi Rom yang tidak teratur.

Di Hutan Teutoburg, pasukan Germane yang dipimpin oleh Arminus (garis hijau) menyerang pasukan Rom yang dipimpin oleh Varus (garis merah) berhampiran terusan Rhine (garis biru). (Imej: Cristiano64 & # 8211 Karya sendiri / Domain awam)

Varus dan ketiga-tiga pasukan itu musnah. Ini adalah kekalahan yang memalukan, dan Augustus berusaha keras kehilangan pasukan. Satu sumber mengungkapkan bahawa selama sisa pemerintahannya, dia cenderung memukul kepalanya ke dinding sambil mengerang, "Varus, kembalikan legiunku!"

Warisan Augustus & # 8217s: Kejayaan dan Kegagalan

Bencana Varian adalah noda yang jarang terjadi pada pemerintahan Augustus yang panjang dan berjaya. Sistem politik yang dirancangnya akan ditiru oleh maharaja Rom berikutnya untuk sisa sejarah Rom.

Augustus menjadi paradigma maharaja yang baik yang diukur oleh semua maharaja yang kemudiannya — baik Rom dan juga dari budaya lain —. Augustus suka melihat dirinya sebagai pengasas kedua Rom selepas Romulus. Ada kebenaran untuk gambaran ini kerana dia memang bapa kepada Kerajaan Rom.

Empayar Rom di bawah Maharaja Augustus. hijau gelap: wilayah Rom, hijau muda: kawasan bergantung, hijau pucat: Provinsi Germania. (Imej: Louis le Grand / Domain awam)

Untuk ini sahaja, dia dianggap sebagai salah satu tokoh terpenting dalam sejarah Rom. Namun, untuk semua kecemerlangannya, ada satu bidang di mana kebijakannya gagal dengan teruk: Memilih pengganti.

Seperti sistem pemerintahannya, metode yang digunakan Augustus dalam memilih siapa yang akan mengikutinya sebagai maharaja juga akan ditiru selama berabad-abad, dengan hasilnya Roma mengalami beberapa pemimpin yang tidak kompeten dan bahkan tidak seimbang dari segi mental.

Soalan Lazim Tentang Warisan Augustus & # 8217s

Warisan Augustus & # 8217 adalah salah satu yang terbaik dari semua pemimpin Rom. Transformasinya terhadap Rom dengan pekerjaan awam pengangkutan awam, pengiriman pos, dan penciptaan kedamaian di Rom dengan mengakhiri perang saudara, menyebabkan dia dianggap sebagai dewa di pantheon Rom.

Warisan Augustus & # 8217s menyatakan bahawa terdapat dua pernyataan yang berbeza yang diucapkannya di ranjang kematiannya. Secara rasmi dia harus mengatakan, & # 8220Saya menjumpai Rom sebagai kota tanah liat tetapi meninggalkannya sebagai kota marmar, & # 8221 tetapi isteri dan anaknya mencatat mesej yang berbeza di mana dia berkata, & # 8220Pakah saya memainkan peranan dengan baik? Kemudian tepuk tangan ketika saya keluar. & # 8221

Warisan Augustus & # 8217s menyatakan bahawa pertama dan paling utama, dia adalah Maharaja Rom yang pertama dan juga yang terhebat.

Augustus menjadi salah satu maharaja terhebat kerana dia dijadikan dewa di kubah Rom. Inilah kegemilangan legasi Augustus & # 8217s .


Pengguguran Rom Purba & # 038 Kristian

Pengguguran dilakukan secara berkala di kalangan golongan miskin, hamba, saudagar dan golongan kerajaan. Bagi orang-orang kuno dan orang Rom, pengguguran adalah tidak bermoral. Tidak ada apa-apa dalam undang-undang Rom atau di hati Rom yang mengatakan, "Adalah salah untuk membunuh bayi anda dalam kandungan." Tertullian, peminta maaf Kristian awal, menerangkan bagaimana doktor pada masa itu melakukan pengguguran:

"Di antara alat bedah ada instrumen tertentu yang dibentuk dengan bingkai fleksibel yang disesuaikan dengan baik untuk membuka rahim pertama sekali dan tetap terbuka. Ia dilengkapkan lagi dengan pisau anulus dengan cara anggota badan anak di dalam rahim dibedah dengan penjagaan yang cemas tetapi tidak berubah & # 8230

Embriotom — digunakan untuk memotong kepala, kaki dan lengan bayi

... lampiran terakhirnya adalah cangkuk yang tertutup atau tertutup, di mana seluruh janin diekstraksi dengan kelahiran ganas & # 8230

Double Crochet - Alat pengguguran ini digunakan untuk mengambil dan mengeluarkan bayi dari rahim

& # 8230. Terdapat juga (instrumen lain dalam bentuk) lonjakan, di mana kematian sebenarnya dapat dikendalikan dalam rompakan hidup yang mendesak ini. Mereka memberikannya, dari fungsi pembunuhan bayi, nama embruosphaktes yang bermaksud 'pembunuh bayi' yang tentunya masih hidup. '' Perjanjian mengenai Jiwa 25

Cranioclast - Jenis instrumen ini, mirip dengan fungsi yang dijelaskan di atas, digunakan untuk menghancurkan tengkorak bayi untuk memudahkan pengekstrakan.

Orang Rom bersetuju dengan pandangan Yunani mengenai pengguguran. Beberapa ahli falsafah Yunani yang paling terkenal dan dihormati mendorong dan membenarkan pengguguran. Aristotle (384-322 SM) mendorong pengguguran kerana dia takut letupan penduduk. Tetapi pada zaman Caesar Augustus (27 SM-14 M), dia tahu dengan banci bahawa penduduk Rom di dunia semakin menurun. Dia telah berusaha untuk mengekang moral yang lemah dan mendorong perkahwinan dengan menerapkan pada tahun 18 SM undang-undang yang menjadikan perzinaan sebagai kejahatan dan 27 tahun kemudian pada tahun 9 M. ia memberlakukan Lex Papia Poppaea untuk mempromosikan dan memberi ganjaran perkahwinan kerana bilangan lelaki Rom yang belum berkahwin lebih besar daripada jumlah lelaki yang sudah berkahwin. Dia menyalahkan kadar kelahiran yang rendah pada pengguguran, homoseksual dan lelaki yang lebih memilih kebenaran hidup tunggal daripada tanggungjawab hidup berkahwin dan anak-anak. Sebagai Caesar, Augustus melihat moral yang lemah dan kadar kelahiran yang rendah sebagai ancaman kepada Negara Rom. Dia secara terbuka menangani masalah ini di Forum.

Patung Augustus Caesar di Forum Augustus

Augustus memuji lelaki yang sudah berkahwin kerana: "... membantu menambah tanah kelahiran & # 8230. Kerana adakah yang lebih baik daripada seorang isteri yang suci, rumah tangga, penjaga rumah yang baik, pengasuh anak-anak yang dapat menggembirakan anda dalam kesihatan, untuk cenderung anda dalam keadaan sakit, untuk menjadi pasangan anda dalam keadaan baik & # 8230. Dan tidak menggembirakan untuk mengenali anak yang menunjukkan bakti kedua ibu bapa, untuk memelihara dan mendidiknya secara langsung imej fizikal dan rohani diri anda sehingga dalam pertumbuhan diri yang lain hidup lagi? & # 8230. Saya sayang awak dan memuji anda & # 8230

& # 8230 dia kemudian pergi menemui orang lain (lelaki yang belum berkahwin) & # 8230. O, apa yang akan saya panggil anda? Lelaki? Tetapi anda tidak menjalankan pejabat lelaki. Warganegara? Tetapi untuk semua yang anda lakukan, bandar ini binasa. Rom? Tetapi anda berjanji untuk menghapuskan nama ini sama sekali & # 8230. anda bertekad untuk memusnahkan seluruh bangsa kita dan & # 8230memusnahkan dan mengakhiri seluruh bangsa Rom & # 8230. anda melakukan pembunuhan kerana tidak mendapat tempat pertama dari mereka yang semestinya keturunan anda & # 8230. Lebih-lebih lagi, anda menghancurkan Negara dengan tidak mematuhi undang-undangnya dan anda mengkhianati negara anda dengan menjadikannya mandul dan tanpa anak & # 8230. Kerana itu adalah manusia yang membentuk bandar & # 8230tidak ada rumah atau portik atau pasar - tempat kosong lelaki. " Cassius Dio (155-235 M), Sejarah Rom 56.1-5

Pada abad ke-1 Masihi Maharaja Augustus, berfikir secara strategik, melihat moral yang merosakkan Rom dan kadar kelahiran yang rendah mengancam pertahanan dan kelestarian Negara Rom. Tetapi c. 300 tahun sebelumnya Aristoteles bimbang akan bahaya bagi Negara Yunani terhadap terlalu banyak anak.

Kira-kira 1.800 tahun sebelum Caesar Augustus, seorang Firaun Mesir telah memerintahkan pembunuhan semua bayi lelaki dari budak-budak Yahudinya kerana dia takut tentera budak akan menyerang dia atau tentera hamba yang meninggalkan negara mereka:

Keputusan Firaun Menenggelamkan Bayi-Michiel van der Borch, 1332

"... orang Israel (budak) sangat berbuah mereka bertambah banyak, bertambah banyak dan menjadi begitu banyak sehingga (Mesir) dipenuhi dengan mereka. Kemudian raja baru ... berkuasa di Mesir. 'Lihat,' katanya kepada orang-orangnya, 'orang Israel telah menjadi terlalu banyak bagi kita. Ayo, kita harus berurusan dengan mereka dengan bijak atau mereka akan menjadi semakin banyak dan, jika perang meletus, akan bergabung dengan musuh kita, melawan kita dan meninggalkan negara itu. '' Raja Mesir berkata kepada bidan Ibrani, yang namanya Shiphrah dan Puah, 'Ketika anda menolong wanita Ibrani semasa melahirkan di bangku bersalin, jika anda melihat bahawa bayi itu seorang lelaki, bunuh dia tetapi jika itu seorang gadis, biarkan dia hidup.' Namun, bidan takut kepada Tuhan dan tidak melakukan apa yang diperintahkan oleh raja Mesir kepada mereka agar mereka membiarkan budak-budak itu hidup. Kemudian raja Mesir memanggil bidan dan bertanya kepada mereka, 'Mengapa kamu melakukan ini? Mengapa kamu membiarkan anak-anak itu hidup? 'Bidan menjawab Firaun,' Wanita Ibrani tidak seperti wanita Mesir mereka bersungguh-sungguh dan melahirkan sebelum bidan tiba. ' lebih banyak. Dan kerana bidan takut kepada Tuhan, dia memberikan keluarga mereka kepada mereka. Kemudian Firaun memberikan perintah ini kepada seluruh bangsanya: 'Setiap anak laki-laki Ibrani yang dilahirkan, kamu mesti membuang ke sungai Nil, tetapi biarkan setiap gadis hidup.' "Keluaran 1: 7-22

Anak lelaki Ibrani, di Sungai Nil yang bergelimpangan di buaian keranjang, yang terselamat dari perintah ini adalah Musa yang menjadi salah seorang lelaki paling terkenal dan berpengaruh dalam seluruh sejarah manusia.

Budaya Mesir, Yunani dan Rom menyalahkan penyakit mereka pada percambahan kanak-kanak atau kelangkaan kanak-kanak. Dalam Republik 461a-461c Plato berpendapat bahawa dalam keadaan ideal yang diperintah oleh Philosopher Kings, wanita harus dipaksa melakukan pengguguran ketika negara kota menjadi terlalu padat. Pertumbuhan Penduduk Sifar (ZPG - 1968) dan Dasar Satu Anak China (1979) mempromosikan doktrin yang sama di dunia moden kita.

Amalan pengguguran kafir yang disokong oleh idea keutamaan Negara atas kebebasan individu sangat tertanam dalam semua budaya kafir.

Tetapi seperti semua umum, selalu ada pengecualian. Adalah penuh teka-teki untuk mencari Ovid, wanita kuno utama, penghina wanita dan kebebasan cinta, bukan sahaja menentang pengguguran tetapi berharap agar perempuan simpanannya yang baru saja mencuba pengguguran meninggal dalam proses:

"Dia yang pertama kali mengusir dari rahimnya buah lembut yang ditanam di dalamnya, berhak binasa dalam perjuangan yang diajaknya .... Sekiranya di zaman kanak-kanak dunia ibu mengikuti kebiasaan jahat ini, umat manusia akan lenyap dari muka bumi… .Siapakah yang akan menggulingkan kerajaan Priam (Troy) jika Thetis, dewi laut, tidak bersedia membuahkan hasilnya hingga istilah yang diperuntukkan oleh alam semula jadi? Sekiranya Ilia menghancurkan kembar yang ditanggungnya (Romulus dan Remus), pengasas kota yang berkuasa di dunia (Rom) tidak akan pernah dilahirkan. Sekiranya Venus membunuh Aeneas di dalam rahim, bumi pasti akan kehilangan Caesars. Dan engkau (nyonya Ovid), yang dilahirkan dengan adil, akan binasa sekiranya ibumu melakukan perbuatan itu yang baru saja kamu coba… .Mengapa dengan tangan kejam merobek buahnya sehingga sudah matang?… .Biarkan ia bertambah sesuka hati untuk membawa kehidupan baru ke dunia adalah pahala untuk kesabaran selama beberapa bulan… .O wanita, mengapa anda akan menodai diri anda dengan instrumen kematian? Mengapa menawarkan racun yang menakutkan kepada bayi yang belum dilahirkan? & # 8230. Tigresses Armenia tidak berperilaku demikian, dan tidak berani singa betina memusnahkan keturunannya sendiri .... Sering kali dia membunuh dirinya sendiri yang membunuh keturunannya di dalam rahim. Dia mati sendiri dan dengan rambut yang berantakan dilahirkan di atas tempat tidurnya yang menderita, dan semua yang melihatnya menangis, 'Baiklah azabnya pantas.' " Kekasih 2.14

Saturnus Memakan Anaknya — Francisco Goya (1746-1828), Muzium Prada

Dalam budaya Barat-Judeo-Kristian kita yang moden, bahkan Anti-Pengguguran yang paling kuat tidak akan menginginkan wanita mati kerana pengguguran. Apa yang harus dibuat dari pagan Ovid yang namanya selalu dikaitkan dengan pergaulan dan keizinan.

Minta maaf Kristian awal, Minucius Felix (sekitar 150-270), dengan mendakwa para dewa Rom menulis: “Saya melihat bahawa anda mengekspos anak-anak anda kepada binatang buas dan burung… dan bahawa anda menghancurkan mereka ketika dicekik dengan jenis yang menyedihkan kematian .... perkara-perkara itu pasti turun dari tuhan-tuhanmu .... Saturnus (alias Kronos Yunani) tidak mendedahkan anak-anaknya tetapi melahapnya. " Octavius ​​30

Terhadap butir dunia kafir, Tuhan dan ajaran Yahudi-Kristian sangat menentang kedua-dua pengguguran dan pembunuhan bayi:

“Kamu tidak boleh menyembah TUHAN, Allahmu dengan cara mereka (kafir), karena dalam menyembah tuhan-tuhan mereka, mereka melakukan segala macam hal yang membenci Tuhan. Mereka bahkan membakar anak-anak lelaki dan anak perempuan mereka dalam api sebagai korban kepada dewa-dewa mereka. " Ulangan 12:31 (sekitar 1450 SM)

"Jangan membunuh anak dengan pengguguran atau membunuhnya ketika dilahirkan." Didache 2.2 (sekitar 50-100 Masihi)

Flavius ​​Josephus (32-100 Masihi)

"Hukum (Mosaik), lebih-lebih lagi, memerintahkan kita untuk membesarkan semua keturunan kita dan melarang wanita untuk melakukan pengguguran dari apa yang diperanakkan atau untuk menghancurkannya sesudahnya dan jika ada wanita yang tampaknya telah melakukannya, dia akan menjadi pembunuh anaknya dengan memusnahkan makhluk hidup dan mengurangkan jenis manusia. " Josephus, Menentang Apion 2.25 (sekitar 80 Masihi)

Oleh itu, embrio menjadi manusia di dalam rahim sejak bentuknya selesai. Hukum Musa, sesungguhnya, menghukum dengan sewajarnya lelaki yang akan menyebabkan pengguguran, selagi sudah ada dasar manusia yang telah memaksakannya hingga kini keadaan hidup dan mati, kerana sudah bertanggung jawab kepada masalah kedua-duanya, walaupun, dengan tetap tinggal di ibu, sebahagian besarnya berkongsi keadaannya sendiri dengan ibu. " Tertullian, Rujukan mengenai Jiwa 37 (sekitar 200 Masihi)

"Sekiranya lelaki melawan dan menyakiti seorang wanita dengan anak sehingga dia melahirkan sebelum waktunya, namun tidak ada bahaya, dia pasti akan dihukum sesuai seperti yang dijatuhkan oleh suami wanita itu kepadanya dan dia akan membayar sebagaimana yang ditentukan oleh hakim. Tetapi jika ada bahaya yang berlaku (kematian ibu atau anak), maka anda harus menghidupkan seumur hidup. " Keluaran 21:22, 23

"Anda tidak boleh menggugurkan anak, atau sekali lagi, melakukan pembunuhan bayi." Surat Barnabas 19.5 (sekitar tahun 130 Masehi)

Pengguguran dan pembunuhan bayi dilarang setelah zaman Maharaja Kristian Constantine dari c. 313–337 Masihi. Adat dan amalan yang berkaitan dengan dewa dan dewi kafir mereka yang sudah biasa selama ribuan tahun dinyatakan tidak bermoral dan salah secara hukum.Sandra Sweeny Perak

Solidus dari Constantine the Great— Dihentam di Antioch, Syria sekitar tahun 3224 Masihi ($ = Tidak ternilai)


Empayar Rom berkembang untuk merangkumi kawasan yang luas di dunia.

Penggantian maharaja yang mengikuti Augustus berjaya mengembangkan kuasa Rom yang empayar dengan menaklukkan negeri-negeri asing.

Di bawah Maharaja Trajan, kerajaan mencapai puncaknya pada tahun 117 Masehi, mencaplok sebahagian besar Eropah timur dan Timur Tengah. Sebelumnya di bawah Claudius, orang Rom telah menjelajah ke Britain, dan pada tahun 122 AD Hadrian's Wall dibina untuk menandakan sempadan utara kerajaan. Pada masa ini, Empayar Rom menguasai seluruh Laut Tengah dan sebahagian besar Asia barat.

Walaupun menghadapi ancaman dari berbagai kelompok, Rom dengan cepat memadamkan percikan pemberontakan, yang sering menyebabkan pertumpahan darah. Sebenarnya, ancaman terbesar terhadap kestabilan empayar datang dari dalam kota itu sendiri, dengan pemimpin yang bercita-cita bersaing untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan teratas. Contohnya, 'Tahun Empat Kaisar' yang cukup jelas, adalah salah satu tempoh paling bergolak pada Zaman Emas.

Meskipun demikian, Pax Romana bertahan hingga akhir abad ke-2, ketika pemerintahan Kaisar Commodus menandakan berakhirnya Zaman Emas Rom. Kekuatan, pengaruh dan kestabilan yang dimenangi selama 200 tahun pertama imperialisme Rom secara beransur-ansur mulai berkurang, walaupun terus menguasai di Mediterania.

Commodus digambarkan sebagai penguasa yang kejam dalam filem 2000 'Gladiator'. melalui MaskofMonsters


Luke dan Empayar

Ketika kita mengalihkan perhatian kita kepada Injil Lukas, ada baiknya kita mempertimbangkan pendekatan luas yang dia lalui sebelum melihat dua teks utama yang berkaitan dengan keadaan di sekitar pemerintahan Rom. Sebanyak mana Kerajaan dapat menenangkan banyak subjeknya, itu juga merupakan penenangan paksa - sering diterima sebagai satu-satunya pilihan. Banyak di pelbagai wilayah (terutama di luar Rom) kecewa dengan keadaan mereka, tidak kurang juga dari banyak orang Yahudi.

Seperti yang dinyatakan di atas, kecuali mereka yang memilih pilihan pertama untuk berkompromi dengan Empayar, mereka yang tinggal di Israel tidak sepenuhnya berpuas hati dengan keadaan itu. Ketidakpuasan ini mendapat suara dalam Injil Luke.

Luke's Jesus menjumpai kisah hidupnya bermula pada masa pemerintahan Caesar Augustus. Seluruh hidupnya berlaku dalam konteks menjadi sebahagian daripada orang yang dikuasai, yang percaya bahawa mereka adalah kumpulan orang istimewa di mata Pencipta mereka. Menjadi rakyat di bawah pemerintah asing bukanlah perkara baru bagi orang Yahudi menjelang masa yang digambarkan oleh Injil Lukas.

Mereka tunduk kepada Babel, Asyur, Parsi, orang Yunani, dan akhirnya Rom. Orang-orang Parsi yang memungkinkan orang-orang Yahudi untuk kembali ke tanah air mereka setelah bertahun-tahun diasingkan namun mereka sekarang akan ditubuhkan sebagai negara pelanggan. Kebebasan belum tiba, hanya jenis pengasingan baru. Pengertian diri ini menjadi jelas dalam penulisan intertestamental.

Sebagian besar, Israel tidak pernah merasa bahwa mereka telah dibebaskan dari pengasingan, jadi menuju ke era Perjanjian Baru adalah harapan yang tertanam di mana "eksodus baru" akan membebaskan umat Tuhan dari "penekanan kekaisaran." Seperti yang akan kita lihat dalam teks pilihan kita, Injil Lukas mengambil kesempatan penuh untuk menempatkan Yesus dalam realiti ruang waktu pemerintahan Rom, dan menunjukkan berulang kali bagaimana "kerajaan Yesus menumbangkan dan menjatuhkan kerajaan Rom." [36]

Subversi ini tidak berlaku melalui kekuatan seperti pemberontakan. Sebaliknya, keinginan Rom untuk dominasi di dunia ditentang oleh Ketuhanan Yesus, yang ditunjukkan melalui kerendahan hati. [37]

Dari perspektif Lukas, Yesus mencabar norma sosio-politik yang merupakan hasil pemerintahan Rom. Menariknya, Lukas mengaitkan "kerajaan dunia" dengan aturan syaitan dalam narasi godaan (lihat Lukas 4.5-6). Cassidy mengatakan bahawa "Syaitan membanggakan bahawa dia mengatur kekuatan semua kerajaan menyiratkan tuntutan bahawa dia mengarahkan dan memanipulasi pihak berkuasa Rom." [38] Perspektif Lukas adalah bahawa sistem Rom berada di bawah kawalan syaitan [39] dan namun ia berlaku dengan alasan.

Maharaja dan sistemnya sememangnya berada di bawah pengaruh kejahatan dan layak dihakimi. Namun, Tuhan telah memilih untuk menjaga penguasa-penguasa seperti itu agar dunia tidak mengalami anarki. Umat ​​Tuhan dipanggil untuk belajar hidup dalam sistem pemerintahan, sambil berpegang pada piawaian Tuhan yang tinggi dan menghadapinya dalam menghadapi ketidakadilan. [40]


Jenayah dan hukuman

Ketika Nero menghukum orang Kristian setelah 64 AD, mengapa rasul Paulus dipenggal tetapi Petrus disalibkan?

Mozek dari damnatio ad bestias dari vila Zliten berhampiran Tripoli

Rom adalah masyarakat tentera pada masa yang kejam. Dengan pertama kali Republik dan kemudian Kerajaan dalam keadaan perang yang berterusan selama berabad-abad, berkhidmat sebagai pegawai tentera adalah langkah pertama yang penting dalam karier politik "awam". Tidak hairanlah jika orang-orang yang menetapkan peraturan masyarakat Rom itu diperkuat dengan apa yang orang-orang kontemporari akan menganggap perlakuan biadab terhadap mereka yang melanggar undang-undang. Hukuman mati adalah standard dalam masyarakat ini yang membina penjara terutama untuk menahan tertuduh yang menunggu perbicaraan. Pembunuhan dilakukan secara terbuka, dan cara pelaksanaannya sengaja menyakitkan bagi orang yang dihukum dan sering menghiburkan. Adegan pelaksanaan bahkan digunakan untuk hiasan rumah tangga. Walaupun begitu, Rom menetapkan piawai bagi peradaban Barat untuk mengatur undang-undang bertulis daripada kehendak penguasa sekarang.

Kedaulatan undang-undang dan bukannya keperibadian
Mungkin salah satu warisan terbesar Rom adalah pembentukan sistem perundangan berdasarkan kod undang-undang tertulis. Pada tahun 530 M, Maharaja Justinian saya mempunyai hampir seribu tahun undang-undang Rom (saya kita) disusun dalam Buku Undang-Undang Sivil (Codex Iuris Civilis), yang tetap menjadi asas banyak undang-undang Eropah hingga tahun 1700-an.

Hakim mengawasi mahkamah di mana pertuduhan dibawa dan dibahaskan oleh pendakwa dan peguam bangkit untuk berdebat dalam membela tertuduh. Rekod disimpan dari kes-kes pengadilan, dan hasilnya mengubah bagaimana undang-undang tersebut akan diterapkan pada kasus serupa di masa depan. Dalam beberapa kes, yang dihukum bahkan mempunyai hak untuk mengajukan banding kepada pihak berkuasa yang lebih tinggi.

Bermula dengan Dua Belas Meja pada tahun 449 SM, apa yang menjadi kebiasaan ditulis dan menjadi undang-undang yang ditentukan dengan baik untuk mengatur tingkah laku Rom. Selama satu milenium, penambahan dan pengubahsuaian undang-undang bertulis dibuat dengan resolusi Senat (senatusconsulta), keputusan maharaja, dan keputusan hakim. Amalan undang-undang adalah profesion formal yang dihormati. Banyak orang Rom terkenal, seperti Cicero, mendapat kemasyhuran hebat sebagai peguam percubaan.

Peguam bagi kedua-dua pendakwaan dan pembelaan, penyampaian bukti serta hujah, juri rakan sebaya: ini mencirikan sekurang-kurangnya beberapa walaupun tidak semua proses perbicaraan. Walaupun kadang-kadang diabaikan atau disalahgunakan oleh maharaja dan gabenor, undang-undang bertulis itu membiarkan warganegara Rom dan, sampai tahap tertentu, bahkan bukan warganegara tahu apa yang diharapkan sekiranya mereka melanggarnya.

Pendekatan Rom untuk keadilan jenayah dirangkum dalam dua kata: hukuman dan pencegahan. Bagi kebanyakan orang, perbicaraan datang dengan cepat, dan hukuman lebih cepat setelah penghakiman dijatuhkan. Ia juga bersifat umum dan sangat mengerikan sehingga orang yang dituduh yang menjangkakan hukuman boleh membunuh diri. Kelas atasan sering diberi peluang kelas bawah, mungkin tidak.

Penjara adalah untuk menahan tertuduh untuk diadili dan yang bersalah menunggu hukuman mati. Idea untuk menjalani hukuman penjara yang ditentukan untuk pembalasan atau pemulihan diikuti dengan pembebasan adalah asing bagi pemikiran Rom. Pemenjaraan bukanlah hukuman yang dijatuhkan secara sah, walaupun seorang tertuduh di wilayah-wilayah itu mungkin dikurung lama menunggu hakim datang ke kota. Di provinsi-provinsi, seorang gubernur memiliki kemampuan untuk menghukum bukan warganegara, dan tindakan kehakiman mungkin tidak cepat atau adil. Gabenor kadang-kadang mengecam tahanan agar dipenjarakan atau dipenjara, tetapi itu bukan hukuman rasmi "rasmi" bagi warga Rom.

Bergantung pada status sosial tertuduh dan kesalahan tertentu, hukuman biasanya merupakan denda wang, pekerjaan pada projek awam, pengasingan, atau hukuman yang menyebabkan kematian cepat atau berlama-lama.

Satu undang-undang dan keadilan untuk semua? Tidak.
Dalam sistem Rom, hukuman untuk jenayah tertentu bergantung pada status kewarganegaraan dan kelas sosial anda. Secara amnya, hukuman untuk perintah senator dan ekuestrian lebih ringan daripada hukuman bagi rakyat biasa. Di Republik dan Kerajaan awal, hukuman bagi warganegara (sivis) kurang teruk berbanding dengan peregrine bukan warganegara (peregrinus = orang asing, asing, asing), dan warganegara mempunyai hak banding yang tidak terbuka kepada peregrine. Sekiranya orang itu adalah hamba, hukuman sering kali lebih berat daripada pada peregrine percuma.

By the 2nd century AD, criminal law officially treated the “distinguished” and the “humble” differently. Citizens were divided into two groups: the honestiores (more honorable) and the humiliores (lower). The distinction was not based on wealth alone. The honestiores included senators, equestrians, soldiers, and local officials. Citizens not in one of these categories were humiliores regardless of their wealth. For a given crime, beheading or exile might be the punishment for a honestior, but a humilior would die by burning, beasts, or crucifixion or become a penal slave to be worked to death in the mines or quarries. The fate of the humiliores had become scarcely better than that of noncitizens.

Criminal and civil courts in Rome: Not prosecuting what you might expect
Few things remain static for over a thousand years. The Roman court system changed from Republic to Empire, and further changes occurred over the centuries of the Empire.

At the time of Cicero (early 1st century BC), there were two urban courts in the city of Rome: one for citizens and one for noncitizens. They were presided over by praetors, the second political post in the cursus honorum (course of honors) followed by senators seeking a political career. The two consuls could take jurisdiction and reverse a praetor’s ruling when they wished. A person unhappy with a ruling could also try to get the tribune of the plebs to intercede, but there was no formal process for appeal. Gradually the citizen/noncitizen distinction disappeared, the number of courts increased, and each court specialized in certain types of cases. Local courts existed throughout the province of Italia, but they could only hear civil suits with upper limits of 15,000 sesterces, and litigants could demand transfer to the courts in Rome for trial.

Many offenses that we would consider criminal were tried in Roman civil courts, especially if the persons involved were not from the senatorial or equestrian orders. Each court heard cases for specific types of crimes. Most violent crimes and virtually all property crimes involving only lower-class people were “civil” matters.

By the 2nd century BC, permanent criminal courts specializing in different types of crimes were established for upper-class offenders. These standing jury courts (quaestiones perpetuae) each dealt with a particular type of statutory offense using large juries selected from an annual list of the upper class. Their majority verdicts could not be appealed. The quaestiones were presided over by praetors. Serving first as a praetor was the requirement for service as governor of a province. Since the governor was the supreme judge in a province, the praetorship provided useful training.

These courts largely heard cases involving political crimes by the upper classes such as treason (maiestas) and bribery, especially to influence elections or political leaders. Criminal cases involving the lower classes were still prosecuted in civil courts. By the 3rd century AD, crimes involving senators were tried in the Senate with a jury of their peers. The emperor sometimes tried cases himself.

During the Principate (from Augustus to Carinus in AD 285) the standing jury courts were gradually replaced by “extraordinary” courts with delegates of the emperor presiding. walaupun quaestiones were no more, the extra ordinem courts retained the same standard legal charges and penalties.

Trials in the provinces: Almost anything goes
In the provinces, legal matters were under the control of the governor, who had already served as a praetor in Rome. All suits involving Roman citizens came to him. Civil suits restricted to noncitizens might be handled by municipal courts in accordance with local laws and customs.

In criminal cases, the governor had sole authority, and he had no limitations on how he treated noncitizens. During the Republic, limitations were set for citizens by the right of appeal to the people (provocatio ad populum) that would transfer the case to a court in Rome. In the early Empire, this turned into an appeal to Caesar, and any citizen could appeal to have his case transferred to Rome. As a Roman citizen, Paul appealed to Caesar, as reported in the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament, and went to Rome to be heard by Nero. Noncitizens had no right of appeal.

A provincial governor was not limited by the statutory offenses governing the courts in Rome. During the Republic, he could try on any pretext and inflict any penalty he wanted to maintain order in his province. His power was not significantly changed in the early Empire, but the rules were somewhat different, depending on the type of province. In senatorial provinces, which were away from the frontier and generally peaceful, the governor had to handle capital offenses but could appoint a delegate for less serious cases. In the imperial provinces, where the governor was the commander (legate) of at least one legion and often consumed with military affairs, the emperor might appoint a legatus iuridus to carry the daily burden of legal matters.

While a governor had extreme power over the residents of his province, he was expected to behave with some level of honor. Excessive corruption could lead to trial when he returned to Rome, especially if citizens were the victims.

Law Enforcement
Rome did not have a civilian police force. Enforcement was provided by ordinary military personnel in the provinces. Garrisons were scattered strategically to provide patrols. Given the thousands of miles of roads spanning the Empire, one can imagine how easy it was for bandits to strike where the soldiers weren’t. Traveling alone was a dangerous proposition and could end up with the traveler being kidnapped and sold as a slave. Kidnapping (surripio, praeripio) was a serious crime. The crime of plagium (knowingly detaining a free Roman citizen or a slave belonging to another), while serious, was a civil offense normally covered by a fine.

Special military units enforced the law within Rome proper. The urban prefect (praefectus urbi) was a senator who commanded three cohorts (500 men each under Augustus, doubling to 1000 under Vitellius, and increasing to 1500 under Severus). These were responsible for policing ordinary crime in the city and within a 100-mile radius around it.

Fire was a serious problem in a city of poorly built apartment buildings where braziers were used for heating and cooking. After a fire in AD 6, Augustus established the vigiles, a permanent fire brigade who patrolled the city. With authority to enter any building to inspect for fire hazards, they often ran across criminal activity. They served as the night watch in addition to their fire-fighting duties. Seven cohorts of 500 to 1000 men served as vigiles, under a praefect vigilum of equestrian rank. Each cohort was quartered in a different section of the city.

Christ on the Cross (1846) Eugene Delacroix

Punishments
Under the Roman legal system, the convicted criminal could not expect a well-defined prison term with possible time off for good behavior. Punishment was swift and usually inexpensive. There was no imperial budget for long-term incarceration.

Torture was not considered a legal penalty. It was a standard interrogation method for extracting truthful evidence. It was mandatory for slaves if the evidence they gave was to be admissible in court. There had to be some prior evidence for them to either corroborate or refute. If a master was killed, all his slaves were tortured to see if they were part of it. Even if they weren’t, they might all be executed because they failed to stop the murder. When Lucius Pedanius Secundus, a former consul and urban prefect at the time of his murder, was stabbed by one of his slaves in AD 61, the Senate, led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, demanded the execution of all 400 of his household slaves, as permitted but no longer required by Roman law. The common people demanded the release of the innocent slaves, but Nero used the army to ensure the executions were carried out.

Torture was optional for noncitizens. Augustus wanted to restrict torture to capital and other heinous crimes. Torture of citizens was generally not allowed during the Republic, but that changed in the later Empire after citizenship was extended to almost all free people by Caracalla. Torture was used more in the Principate (when the emperors ruled). A Roman citizen could appeal against being tortured. However, it was standard for treason, even for citizens.

During the Republic and early Empire, being a Roman citizen was tremendously valuable for anyone accused of a crime. Citizens were tried in different courts than noncitizens, and much milder punishments were meted out for conviction of identical crimes. Beheading instead of crucifixion, exile instead of slavery in the mines or quarries until you were worked to death: being a citizen had tremendous advantages.

The benefit of citizenship is dramatically displayed in the fates of the apostles, Peter and Paul. Peter, a Jew from the province of Judaea, was crucified by Nero while Paul, a Roman citizen from Tarsus in the province of Cilicia, was merely(?) beheaded.

Sentences after conviction of a crime
Sentences were divided into two general categories. The convicted criminal could be condemned to physical labor or to immediate execution.

Sentenced to physical labor
For relatively minor crimes, a person might be condemned to work on public projects for a fixed period of time. Projects included building roads, maintaining aqueducts, and cleaning and maintaining sewers and public accommodations such as latrines and public baths. The convicted person did not lose Roman citizenship and was released after the labor was completed.

During the Principate (early Empire), new types of condemnation to labor were in essence slow death sentences. One such sentence was damnatio in metalla atau damnatio ad metalla. This stripped the convicted persons of citizenship and made them penal slaves. They worked in the mines or quarries until they died, which usually didn’t take long.

Senators and equestrians generally received milder sentences than the common people. The upper classes were often allowed to go into exile instead of to the mines. There were two levels of exile. Dengan relegatio, the convicted person was expelled from Rome or a province but retained citizenship and usually retained property. Dengan deportatio, the convicted one lost citizenship and property and was banished to a specific remote place.

A second mostly fatal sentence was damnatio ad gladium. The convicted person was stripped of citizenship and might be sent to gladiator school to fight as a penal slave. This was a swift death sentence if one wasn’t very skilled with weapons. A “milder” version was being condemned to the games (damnatio ad ludos). While those condemned to the sword would usually be killed during their first appearance in the arena, men condemned to the games could survive as long as they fought well enough. In theory, it was possible to earn freedom if you could avoid being killed long enough for the crowd to want you freed. Not all were given this “mild” version of the sentence. Some were executed in a serial fashion where two prisoners were paired, one armed with a sword and the other not. The armed man killed the unarmed. He was then disarmed and a new armed prisoner killed him. The process was repeated until the last prisoner was executed for the entertainment of the crowds that day.

Sentenced to death
For a Roman citizen, the most common mode of execution was beheading. Noncitizens, free or slave, were not so fortunate. There were several especially severe forms of execution called summa supplicia.

Crucifixion (crusis supplicium) was generally reserved for non-citizens and slaves. During the early Republic, it was used for incest and treason. It was always used for slave revolts. There were three great slave revolts during the Republic: two in Sicily (135-132 and 104-101 BC) and one in Italy, led by the Thracian gladiator Spartacus in 73-71 BC. The consul Crassus who defeated the slave army of Spartacus had 6000 men crucified along 350 miles of the Appian Way approaching Rome from the south. It proved an effective deterrent. That was the last major slave revolt.

Burning alive was used for arsonists and treachery. When Nero accused the Christians of starting the fire of AD 64, he chose to execute many by using them as torches in his garden.

Being fed to the beasts in the arena (damnatio ad bestias) was part of the morning program in the arenas of the Empire. Anyone fed to beasts lost all rights as a citizen, could not write a will, and had their property confiscated.

Damnatio ad gladium (condemned to the sword) sent one into the arena to die in combat. In the more extreme form, the condemned man was forced to keep fighting a new opponent until one finally killed him.

A special punishment (poena cullei) was reserved for parricide (killing one’s parent or other close relative). After a flogging, the murderer was sewn into a leather sack with a dog, a viper, a rooster, and a monkey. The viper was standard, but the other animals may have varied over time. The sack was then thrown into the nearest body of water deep enough for drowning or suffocation if the sack was sufficiently watertight. The Tiber was used in Rome, but any river or ocean could be used.

The Christian Martyrs’ Last Prayer (1863-1883) Jean-Léon Gérôme

Christians classified as among the worst criminals
While Christians were regarded as a sect of Judaism for the first few years, they were partially tolerated by the state. That soon changed. Nero used the Christians as scapegoats for the fire of AD 64 that burned large areas of Rome, killing many for his own entertainment in his private circus. Trajan expressed his approval of Pliny the Younger’s policy in Bithynia and Pontus of giving Christians three chances to recant and sacrifice to Caesar before executing them.

Why was being a follower of Jesus of Nazareth considered a heinous crime by the Roman authorities, condemning them to damnatio ad bestias in arenas around the Empire? There were several reasons based on Roman law.

1) Treason
Christians were considered guilty of treason (maiestas). When it became mandatory to honor images of the emperor with libations and incense, they refused. Jews also refused, but they were allowed to do so by special exception as members of an officially sanctioned religion. When enough Gentiles became Christians and believers broke with following the details of Mosaic Law, Christianity was no longer considered a sect of Judaism. Under the rules of the Twelve Tables, Christians followed a new, foreign, and unauthorized religion (religio nova, peregrina et illicita).

2) Sacrilege
The Christians’ refusal to worship the state gods was considered a sacrilege that might bring down the wrath of the Roman gods, threatening the Empire with disaster. The state religion was dependent on the rituals being performed correctly, regardless of the personal beliefs of those celebrating. There was a strong element of magic in the rituals, and the slightest mistake could render the ritual ineffective. The refusal of Christians to participate was, therefore, totally unacceptable.

3) Unlawful assembly
Rome did not allow freedom of assembly. During the Republic, any meeting with political overtones had to be presided over by a magistrate. The distaste for unsupervised gatherings continued into the Empire. Guilds (collegia) and associations (sodalicia), especially secret societies, were suspect for political reasons. From the mid-50s BC on, guilds and associations had to obtain a license from the state and were not permitted to meet more than once a month. Christians gathered in secret and at night, which made their gatherings “unlawful assemblies,” throwing them into the same class of crime as riots.

The use of damnatio ad bestias for the offense of merely being a Christian was embraced by Nero, but the sentence was not applied at all times and in all parts of the Empire. Other methods of execution were employed where no arena was handy. The enthusiasm with which a particular province persecuted its Christians varied with the individual governor when there was no specific imperial edict in effect. Emperors who decreed Empire-wide persecution included Marcus Aurelius (AD 177), Trajan Decius (AD 249-251) Diocletian (AD 284-305), and Maximian (AD 286-305).

Aldrete, Gregory S. Daily Life in the Roman City: Rome, Pompeii, and Ostia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004.

Angela, Alberto. A Day in the Life of Ancient Rome. Translated by Gregory Conti. New York: Europa Editions, 2009.

Carcopino, Jerome. Daily Life in Ancient Rome: the People and the City at the Height of the Empire. Edited by Henry T. Rowell. Translated by E. O. Lorimer. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1968.

Crook, J. A. Law and Life of Rome, 90 BC.―A.D. 212. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967.

Knapp, Robert. Invisible Romans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.

Webster, Graham. The Roman Imperial Army of the First and Second Centuries A.D. Edisi ke-3. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.

Image Sources:
The Christian Martyrs’ Last Prayer (1863-1883) Jean-Léon Gérôme and Christ on the Cross (1846) Eugene Delacroix are both at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD
The Zliten Leopard is a floor mosaic found at Zliten, near Tripoli in North Africa. Image in public domain.


Roman Republic vs. Roman Empire

Digital Reconstruction of a Roman Bathhouse from Cassinomagus – modern-day Chassenon, France

When the Imperial system held stable, during the reign of emperors like Augustus, Tiberius, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and others of their kind, the difference between the Republic and the Empire was a massive political shift. Yet there remained an undercurrent of the Republican system that made the position of the emperor a precarious one. Rome never entirely rejected her Republican roots. Furthermore, the government was not the only area to see changes in the shift from Republic to Empire. Roman religion added Imperial cults to their worship, as the Senate declared most of the deceased emperors to be gods.

Roman gladiators depicted on a mosaic currently in the Galleria Borghese in Rome

Roman culture also saw changes from Republic to Empire. Centralized power and the rapid expansion of Roman territory and foreign trade led to an increase of wealth in Rome. The early Romans were quite proud of their reputation as practical, hard-working, and self-sacrificing individuals. Though this ideal remained in the collective psyche, influx of money and goods lead to the development of a much more luxurious lifestyle, particularly in the city of Rome itself and the surrounding resort cities of the Italian countryside. High society in Rome consisted largely of lavish bathing and dining and public entertainment and spectacles grew ever more ostentatious.


Ancient World History

The Roman Empire was the largest in the ancient world and at its height controlled the land around the Mediterranean and most of continental Europe, with the exception of modern-day Germany, Denmark, and Russia. The incipient Roman Empire led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the accession of Octavian (better known by his posthumous title Augustus Caesar).

The first lands occupied by the Romans were in the Italian peninsula. From the days of the creation of the Roman Republic with the expulsion of the Tarquin dynasty in 510 b.c.e., the Romans had started attacking and ruling lands held by rival cities in central Italy.

Rome’s being sacked by the Gauls in 390 b.c.e. significantly weakened it in the eyes of many. It rebuilt its military strength, and its defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War (264� b.c.e.) led to Rome gaining a foothold in Sicily. From 241 until 218 b.c.e. the Romans conquered Sardinia, Corcyra (modern-day Corfu), and Lombardy (northeastern Italy).


During the Second Punic War, when Hannibal invaded the Italian peninsula in 218 b.c.e., the Romans were able to stop his attack on Rome, but their hold over the Italian peninsula was tenuous. Hannibal exploited this by forming alliances with the Gauls in northern Italy (Cisalpine Gaul) and also with predominantly Greek cities in the south, such as Capua and Tarentum.

When Hannibal was recalled to North Africa to defend Carthage and defeated at the Battle of Zama in 202 b.c.e., the Romans expanded their landholdings, taking many areas that had sheltered Hannibal during his 15 years in the Italian peninsula. The defeat of Hannibal also gave them the confidence to attack and conquer other lands, initially parts of Spain, and then attack Syria in 191 b.c.e.

This came about over tensions between Rome and the Seleucid Empire, with Rome declaring war in 192 b.c.e. and attacking in the following year. Ptolemy V of Egypt allied himself with Rome against his neighbor. A Roman fleet commanded by Gaius Livius destroyed the Seleucid navy off the coast of Greece in 191 b.c.e. and again in the following year at Eurymedon where Hannibal was helping the Seleucids in his first (and last) naval battle.

At the same time a large Roman army advanced into Asia Minor and in December 190 b.c.e., at the Battle of Magnesia, destroyed the Syrians. In an agreement signed at Apameax, the Romans returned most of the land they had taken, only retaining the islands of Cephalonia and Zacynthus (modern-day Zante).

During the conflict of the Third Macedonian War (172� b.c.e.), the Romans defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydne on June 22, 168 b.c.e. The following year the Romans took over Macedonian lands and divided them into four republics under Roman protection, establishing a protectorate over most of the Greek peninsula. Over the next 40 years the Seleucid Empire fell apart, and the power vacuum was exploited by Rome.

However, before the Romans were able to conquer the eastern Mediterranean, they had to deal with Carthage in the Third Punic War (149� b.c.e.). With the Romans preoccupied in North Africa, rebellions broke out on the Iberian Peninsula. Sparta, a city allied to Rome, was also attacked.

The Romans responded by sending soldiers to Spain and defeating the Lusitanians. They sent an army to help Sparta, which resulted in the annexation of Greece. By 146 b.c.e., Rome was in control of all of the Italian peninsula, modern-day Tunisia, modern-day Spain and Portugal, and the Greek peninsula.

Jugurthine and Mithridatic Wars

From 112 to 106 b.c.e. the Romans fought the Jugurthine War, sending soldiers back to North Africa and eventually capturing the Numidian king Jugurtha. The Cimbri and other Germanic tribes from modern-day Switzerland then moved into southern Gaul, destroyed a Roman army of 80,000 at the Battle of Arausio, and slaughtered 40,000 Roman noncombatants.

This led to war in Gaul, culminating with the Battle of Vercellae. The Roman commander Marius destroyed the Cimbri at the Battle of Vercellae, killing an estimated 140,000 tribesmen and their families and capturing another 60,000.

Although the Roman Empire had control over much of the Mediterranean and Rome became the wealthiest city in the region, problems were brewing in the Italian peninsula with the Social War (91󈟄 b.c.e.). Some cities on the peninsula were angered that their people were discriminated against for not being Roman citizens.

The Romans, with difficulty, overcame their opponents the Roman soldiers had not shown the same brutality as they had in Gaul and other places. As the Seleucid Empire faltered, the Romans sought to expand into Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).

This coincided with the emergence of Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was intent on capturing Bithynia and Cappadocia. The Roman commander and politician Sulla defeated the army of Pontus at the Battle of Chaeronea in 86 b.c.e. and the Battle of Orchomenus in the following year.

He then returned to the Italian peninsula for the Roman civil war in which Sulla had himself proclaimed dictator, later returning to Asia Minor in the Second Mithridatic War (83󈞽 b.c.e.).

The Third Mithridatic War (75󈞭 b.c.e.) saw the Romans under Lucullus defeat the army of Pontus at the Battle of Cabira in 72 b.c.e., essentially removing them as a threat to the Roman Empire in the East.

With no further threat from the eastern Mediterranean, the Romans turned their attention to Spain. Julius Caesar fought there 61󈞨 b.c.e., taking the Iberian Peninsula fi rmly under Roman control. From 58 to 51 b.c.e.

Caesar waged the gallic wars, and the Gauls were defeated in a number of large battles culminating in the Battle of Alesia in 52 b.c.e. At this battle a massive Gallic force was annihilated while trying to relieve the Gallic chief Vercingetorix in Alesia, and Gaul was brought under Roman rule.

For the next 20 years there were large numbers of Roman civil wars with, initially, Caesar fighting and defeating Pompey Mark Antony and Octavian defeating Brutus and then Octavian defeating Mark Antony. Control of the empire was split into three sections, with Octavian controlling the Italian peninsula, Gaul, the Iberian Peninsula, Dalmatia, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily.

Mark Antony was in control of Greece and Macedonia, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Cyrenaica, and Cyprus. The third member of the triumvirate, Lepidus, was in control of North Africa west of Cyrenaica. The final defeat of Mark Antony saw Octavian invade and capture Egypt and establish Roman rule there.

Octavian never used the title emperor or the name Augustus—both were added to him posthumously. However, he is recognized by historians as being the first Roman emperor, Augustus Caesar, and hence the Roman Empire officially dates from his rule, which began in 31 b.c.e. and ended with his death in 14 c.e.

Initially, Roman governors were politicians, eager to advance their political career by proving administrative ability. Octavian reformed the system by raising gubernatorial salaries and making appointments longer to encourage governors to become more familiar with the areas they controlled.

It also allowed some governors to mount challenges to central authority. Under a governor procurators were made responsible for raising revenue and for day-to-day administrative matters. The most famous procurator was Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judaea, Samaria, and Idumea from 26 to 36 c.e.

At the accession of Augustus the Roman Empire covered the entire Italian peninsula, Istria (in modern-day Slovenia and Croatia), the Greek peninsula, western Asia Minor, Syria, Cyrenaica (in modern-day Libya), the area around Carthage (modern-day Tunisia), the Iberian Peninsula (modern-day Spain and Portugal), Transalpine Gaul (modern-day France, Belgium, parts of western Germany, and southern Holland), and the islands of the Mediterranean (the Balearic Islands, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, Malta, Crete, the Ionian and Dodecanese Islands, and Cyprus).

It also had protectorates over the rest of Asia Minor, Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula and southern Palestine, the eastern part of modern-day Libya, and Numidia (modern-day eastern Algeria).

Because of its immense size Octavian devoted much of his time and energies to maintaining, rather than enlarging, the territory under the control of Rome. There was conflict along the frontier with Germany, with a massive Roman loss at the Battle of the Teutoberg Forest in September or October 9 c.e.

Although the Romans sent in forces to avenge the loss, they held back from a full-scale invasion of Germany, which Octavian judged would be a disaster. He was a cautious ruler, as was his adopted son and successor Tiberius (r. 14󈞑 c.e.).

Caligula, Nero, Vespatian, Titus, and Domitian

After Tiberius the emperor Caligula (r. 37󈞕 c.e.) saw no advances in the empire, but Caligula’s uncle and successor, Claudius (r. 41󈞢), invaded Britain under Aulus Plautius. Some British tribes chose to oppose the Romans, while others supported them.

Under the next emperor, Nero (r. 54󈞰), there was trouble with the Parthians, and a revolt broke out in 61 in Britain, led by Boudicca of the Iceni tribe. She was eventually defeated, but her rebellion put an end to Roman plans to send an expeditionary force to Ireland. Nero was overthrown in 68, and his three successors had brief rules before being overthrown.

The Roman army in Judaea, flushed with its victory—including sacking Jerusalem and the burning of the Jewish Temple—returned to Rome with their commander, Vespasian, at their head. He became emperor, to be following by his sons Titus and Domitian.

The rule of Vespasian (r. 68󈞻), Titus (r. 79󈞽), and Domitian (r. 81󈟌) saw a period of some internal peace in the Italian peninsula and a gradual expansion of some parts of the Roman Empire. The Romans eventually controlled all of England, Wales, and southern Scotland.

In central Europe parts of southern Germany were added to the Roman Empire, which had come to include the whole of the coast of northern Africa. Domitian’s assassination caused many to expect another Roman civil war, but the accession of Marcus Cocceius Nerva ensured that this did not occur. He nominated his son Marcus Ulpis Trajanus to succeed him.

The emperor Trajan (r. 98�) extended the empire further, in large part due to the Dacian Wars (101�) in which Roman armies attacked the Dacian king Decebalus, a powerful force in east-central Europe (modern-day Romania).

With cruelty unparalleled since Caesar’s invasion of Gaul, the Romans pushed their frontier to the Carpathian Mountains and the river Dniester. After that Trajan added Arabia Petrea (modern-day Sinai and nearby regions) to the Roman Empire. Next Trajan waged war against the Parthians, with Osroes, king of Parthia, having placed a "puppet" ruler on the throne of Armenia.

The Romans felt this violated a long-standing treaty with the Parthians, and Trajan, aged 60, attacked and captured Armenia and Mesopotamia, taking over the remainder of the former Seleucid Empire, which the Romans had attacked 200 years earlier. This gave the Romans access to the Persian Gulf.

Trajan’s successor, Publius Aelius Hadrianus (r. 117�), or Hadrian, decided to consolidate Roman rule over recently conquered areas and is best known for building a wall along the English-Scottish border, known as Hadrian’s Wall. Making peace with the Parthians, he gave up land east of the Euphrates and crushed a revolt in Mauretania and the Bar Kokhba Revolt in Judaea.

This was the last large-scale Jewish revolt against the Romans and was destroyed with massive repercussions in Judaea. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were killed. Jews were subsequently banned from entering Jerusalem.

Pius, Marcus Aerulius, and Commodus

Antoninus Pius (r. 138�) succeeded Trajan, initiating a "forward movement", pushing Roman rule back into southern Scotland and building the Antonine Wall, which stretched from the Firth of Clyde to the Firth of Forth.

This meant that Hadrian’s Wall was no longer a barrier, and it briefl y fell into disuse until the Romans discovered that they were unable to control southern Scotland. The Antonine Wall was abandoned in favor of Hadrian’s Wall.

The empire was approaching its greatest extent. At this point, the only places added to the empire were parts of Mesopotamia, which had been given to Parthia by Hadrian, and parts of Media (modern-day Iran). Of the next Roman emperors some are well known, but most had only a minor role in the history of the Roman Empire.

Marcus Aurelius (r. 161�) was known for his philosophical teachings encapsulating what many saw as the "golden age" of the Roman Empire and Commodus (r. 180�), for his brutality, decadence, misrule, and vanity.

The reign of Commodus led to infighting in the imperial court, with subsequent emperors becoming worried that regional commanders were becoming too powerful. In response they only gave them as many troops as were necessary. This in turn led to troop shortages in some areas and worry of invasion.

Trade and The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was a trading empire as well as a military empire, and Roman money was widely recognized throughout the region, and beyond. Latin became the language of the educated elite of the entire empire and of government officials and soldiers who settled in various parts of the empire. Gradually, Greek began to supplant Latin in the eastern Mediterranean, and it became the language of business and commerce in the eastern part of the Roman Empire.

Surviving tombstones show that many Romans came from distant lands. Goods were traded extensively — Rome had to import large amounts of corn and wheat to feed its growing population. Ideas also traveled throughout the Roman Empire. Initially these were connected with the Pax Romana — the Roman legal system.

Under Antoninus Pius, Roman citizenship was extended in much of the eastern Mediterranean, and Roman citizens had to be tried in a Roman court, leading to Roman law becoming the standard in the eastern part of the empire. The Romans encouraged the spread of learning, philosophy, and religion.

Christianity and the belief in Mithras rapidly spread to all corners of the empire, with archaeological evidence for both religions stretching from Spain to northern England and to the Middle East. Since the founding of Rome, the citizenry had traded with other empires.

Roman goods found their way to the Kushan Empire in southern Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Sogdians, in Central Asia (modern-day Uzbekistan), traded with both the Romans and the Chinese, and Roman coins have been found in archaeological sites in some parts of the Far East.

Diocletian, Constantine, and Theodosius

Diocletian (r. 284�) was an administrator rather than a soldier, even though he came from an army background, and sought to erode the infl uence of the army on politics. When news was received in Rome that there was an uprising or an attack on the Romans, Diocletian complained that he needed a deputy who could dispatch armies efficiently but not want to claim the throne.

In 286 he appointed an Illyrian called Maximian, the son of a peasant farmer. Maximian was posted to Milan, where he could respond to attacks in the West, especially along the frontier with Germany. Diocletian then moved to Nicomedia, in modern-day Turkey, where he would supervise the empire and respond to attacks from Parthia or Persia.

Although the empire remained undivided, there were definite lines of demarcation. These would manifest themselves years later in the division of the Roman Empire. Diocletian, however, is probably best known for his persecution of the Christians. Soon after he abdicated, Christianity would become an important part of the Roman administration.

The emperor Constantine the Great (r. 306�) provided a unity to the empire, and his mother, Helena, greatly influenced her son in Christian ideas. However, under Theodosius I (r. 379�) many felt that the western part of the empire was becoming a liability, with the eastern part being far more prosperous.

As a result, in 395 the Roman Empire split to form the Western Roman Empire, with Rome as its capital, and the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital at Byzantium (modern-day Istanbul). Only 15 years after this split the Western Roman Empire suffered a major shock when Visigoths invaded the Italian peninsula and sacked Rome. The capital had been briefl y moved to Ravenna, but the psychological damage was done.

Rome was retaken from the Visigoths, and authorities called back Roman legions guarding other parts of the western empire, withdrawing soldiers from Britain and the German frontier, to try to defend the Italian peninsula. In 476 the last Roman emperor of the West, Odovacar, the leader of the Ostrogoths, deposed Romulus Augustulus. The eastern empire continued as the Byzantine Empire, although gradually lost much territory.

The Roman Empire was founded on military glory, but its legacy was much more broad. Roman roads connected many cities and towns, most of which are still inhabited, and archaeological digs uncovered the remains of Roman walls, buildings, and lifestyle.

Roman aqueducts can be seen in many parts of the former empire, with Roman plumbing and sewage disposal being unmatched in western Europe until the Italian Renaissance. The Roman system of law is still followed by many parts of the former Roman Empire, and many other Roman customs survive.


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