Haiwan peliharaan di Amerika Kolonial

Haiwan peliharaan di Amerika Kolonial

Haiwan peliharaan di Amerika Kolonial dijaga oleh penjajah dengan alasan yang sama seperti mereka di Eropah: untuk persahabatan dan, dalam kes anjing, untuk perlindungan, memburu, dan menggembala. Kucing mengawal haiwan liar di rumah dan lumbung sehingga abad ke-18 ketika mereka menjadi haiwan peliharaan.

Penjajah memelihara banyak haiwan yang berbeza sebagai binatang peliharaan, bagaimanapun, termasuk tupai, burung liar, rakun, rusa, kuda, ular, katak, dan kura-kura, antara lain. Peneroka membawa anjing, kuda, dan kucing mereka sendiri dari Eropah dan kemudian menjinakkan haiwan lain - seperti rusa, berang-berang, dan berang - yang mereka temui di Amerika Utara.

Jauh sebelum kedatangan orang Eropah pertama, orang Asli Amerika juga memelihara binatang peliharaan, terutama anjing dan kalkun walaupun ada bukti bahawa bobcats juga dijinakkan. Orang Asli Amerika memelihara anjing untuk tujuan yang sama dengan penjajah tetapi juga menggunakannya untuk mengangkut barang melalui kereta luncur yang dilekatkan pada tali pinggang keledar yang diikat pada batang tubuh mereka. Catatan penjajah awal menggambarkan anjing digunakan dengan cara ini tetapi, akhirnya, penduduk asli menggunakan kolar anjing dari orang Eropah dan tali pinggang digunakan kurang kerap.

Setiap suku mempunyai jenis anjing yang berbeza yang digunakan untuk tujuan yang berbeza dengan cara yang sama mereka mengamati pelbagai tradisi yang berbeza antara satu sama lain. Tidak ada seekor anjing Asli Amerika di Amerika Utara. Penjajah, sebaliknya, lebih seragam dalam penggunaan anjing - dan binatang peliharaan secara umum - dan model Eropah akhirnya menjadi standard di seluruh negara. Pada masa kini, pemilik haiwan peliharaan masih mematuhi model yang sama yang diamati di Amerika Kolonial.

Anjing Asli Amerika

Tepat ketika dan di mana anjing pertama kali dijinakkan terus diperdebatkan tetapi dianggap bahawa mereka bukan berasal dari Amerika Utara tetapi tiba dengan Paleoindians yang berhijrah ke daratan di seberang Jambatan Tanah Bering (juga dikenali sebagai Beringia) lebih dari 14.000 tahun yang lalu. Ulasan Scholar Marion Schwartz:

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Anjing luar biasa kerana mereka sensitif secara unik terhadap sifat budaya orang yang dengannya mereka tinggal. Anjing bukan sahaja merupakan produk budaya, tetapi mereka juga turut serta dalam budaya manusia. Sebenarnya, anjing adalah haiwan pertama yang tinggal bersama manusia dan satu-satunya haiwan yang terdapat dalam masyarakat manusia di seluruh dunia. Kerana keberadaan di seberang batas budaya, anjing telah menjadi perkara biasa sehingga sejarahnya sepertinya tidak memerlukan pertimbangan yang sedikit. Namun sejak dua belas ribu tahun yang lalu, anjing telah memainkan peranan penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Apa yang paling luar biasa mengenai anjing adalah kemampuan mereka untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan keperluan orang yang dengannya mereka tinggal. Anjing telah membuktikan diri mereka makhluk yang sangat fleksibel, dan ini berlaku di Amerika seperti di tempat lain di dunia. (2)

Anjing pertama yang memasuki Amerika Utara dianggap sejenis dingo, walaupun tuntutan ini telah ditentang, dan ada kemungkinan terdapat beberapa keturunan yang datang dengan pendatang manusia awal. Anjing digunakan untuk melindungi rumah dan desa, untuk berburu, mengangkut barang melalui kereta luncur, dan dalam kasus keturunan Salish pantai barat (versi Pomeranian yang lebih besar), bulu mereka digunakan untuk membuat tikar dan selimut. Beberapa suku menjadikan anjing sebagai haiwan peliharaan dan juga sebagai sumber makanan, yang lain terutama sebagai penjaga dan pemburu, tetapi semua menganggap anjing sebagai aset berharga.

Anjing dianggap sebagai perantara antara dunia yang dilihat & tidak kelihatan, alam manusia & dewa.

Anjing dianggap sebagai hadiah dari para dewa, dan walaupun terdapat banyak mitos yang berbeza mengenai bagaimana anjing itu hidup di antara manusia, kisah Anjing dan Perubatan Hebat dari Cheyenne di tengah barat adalah tipikal. Great Medicine yang dijadikan dewa pencipta menjadikan manusia setelah mencipta dunia dan memperlihatkan kepada umatnya tanah yang diliputi ladang jagung dan tebal dengan kawanan kerbau. Cheyenne menghargai pemberian itu tetapi tidak dapat mengikuti kerbau untuk memburu mereka atau mengangkut jagung setelah ia dituai. Kadang-kadang mereka diserang pada waktu malam oleh puak-puak lain yang dapat menyelinap mereka sehingga sebilangan kecil jagung dan kerbau yang dibawa ke kampung dapat diambil. Perubatan Hebat menunjukkan kepada mereka bagaimana menangkap serigala muda untuk dibesarkan sebagai haiwan peliharaan. Haiwan-haiwan ini kemudian berkembang menjadi anjing peliharaan yang akan memperingatkan desa tentang serangan, dapat mengangkut jagung, dan akan membantu orang-orang mengesan kerbau serta memburu permainan lain.

Dalam beberapa cerita kesukuan, anjing itu adalah makhluk pertama yang diciptakan, yang lain seperti Cheyenne, ia adalah hadiah yang diberikan untuk menjadikan hidup lebih mudah bagi orang-orang. Anjing dianggap sebagai perantara antara dunia yang dilihat dan yang tidak dapat dilihat, alam manusia dan dewa-dewa, kerana mereka merangkumi alam liar dan alam domestik. Pandangan anjing ini berbeza dengan pemahaman Eropah tentang anjing sebagai makhluk ciptaan yang tujuannya hanya untuk melayani orang.

Penjajah & Anjingnya

Menurut orang-orang Eropah Kristian, anjing tidak mempunyai jiwa - dan juga binatang lain - sebagai jiwa abadi hanya menghidupkan manusia yang akan menjawab perbuatan yang dilakukan dalam hidup setelah mereka mati dan muncul di hadapan takhta Tuhan untuk dihakimi. Oleh itu, anjing itu tidak dipandang sebagai sesuatu yang istimewa dan rujukan kepada anjing dalam Alkitab mendorong pandangan ini kerana anjing umumnya dikaitkan dengan kemiskinan dan status sosial yang rendah. Untuk memetik hanya satu contoh, walaupun kisah alkitabiah tentang Lazarus dan Orang Kaya dari Lukas 16: 19-31 telah ditafsirkan sebagai menunjukkan anjing dengan cahaya positif (sebagai penyembuh yang menjilat luka orang miskin), mereka dikaitkan dengan kemiskinan dengan tindakan ini.

Walaupun begitu, penjajah tidak memandang rendah anjing tetapi merawatnya dengan mendalam. Undang-undang pertama mengenai penganiayaan anjing (atau haiwan apa pun) di jajahan Inggeris adalah Peraturan menentang Kezaliman atau Kekejaman dari Massachusetts Bay Colony pada tahun 1641. Kekejaman yang disengajakan terhadap haiwan boleh dihukum denda atau hukuman dalam stok dan pilori. Penjajah yang membiakkan anjing, terutamanya, sangat berbangga dengan mereka dan menaikkan anjing mereka di atas jiran mereka dengan kolar yang sering berhias dan, di antara kelas atasan, agak mahal.

Kerah kulit dengan piring tembaga yang terukir dengan nama anjing, nama pemilik, dan kadang-kadang epigram pithy popular di Eropah dan dicerminkan di awal Kolonial Amerika. Pemilikan anjing dikaitkan dengan tahap kekayaan yang mana seseorang mampu memberi makan kepada anjing dan juga keluarga, dan kolar gembok dikembangkan, sebahagiannya, untuk membuktikan pemilikan tersebut. Kolar gembok adalah cincin logam berengsel yang dilekatkan di leher anjing dengan jepit dan diikat dengan gembok kecil yang hanya pemiliknya memegang kunci itu. Sekiranya anjing itu hilang atau dicuri, seseorang dapat membuktikan pemilikannya dengan mengeluarkan kunci dan membuka kerah kerana potongan itu tidak mungkin dikeluarkan sebaliknya tidak membahayakan anjing tersebut.

Anjing digunakan untuk memburu, menjaga rumah, dan dalam sukan darah seperti pertempuran anjing atau menggigit. Keturunan merangkumi pelbagai anjing, bulldog, mastiff, pointer, setter, spaniel, terrier, dan lain-lain. Baka yang lebih kecil dikenal sebagai "anjing keselesaan" dan disukai oleh wanita dan orang tua sebagai teman. Tuan-tuan kelas atasan, seperti George Washington (l. 1732-1799) dan Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), menyimpan inventori keturunan dan Washington membanggakan pengetahuannya tentang anjing. Jeneral Perancis Lafayette (l. 1757-1834), sekutu Washington semasa Revolusi mengakui ini dan memberikan Washington dua Basset Hounds sebagai hadiah; dengan itu memperkenalkan Basset ke Amerika Utara. Anekdot lain yang terkenal mengenai Washington dan seekor anjing juga berasal dari zaman Perang Kemerdekaan Amerika (1775-1783) dan menceritakan bagaimana, setelah Pertempuran Germantown pada tahun 1777, Washington menemukan anjing lawannya, Jenderal William Howe (l. 1729-1814), dan mengembalikannya kepadanya dengan pujiannya. Washington tahu itu anjing Howe dari tulisan di kolar anjing itu.

Apabila seekor anjing hilang, jika mereka tidak mempunyai pengenalan diri seperti anjing Howe, iklan akan disiarkan di rumah pertemuan, gereja, atau kedai makan yang menawarkan hadiah untuk kembalinya, seperti yang dilakukan orang hari ini. Di Colonial Williamsburg, hadiah untuk anjing ditawarkan dalam jumlah 20 shilling (upah sembilan hari) antara 1774-1777 yang menandakan nilai pemilik diberikan pada anjing mereka. Iklan di New York City semasa Revolusi mengikuti model yang sama seperti pegawai Britain yang memposting banyak untuk mengembalikan anjing mereka yang hilang. Potret lelaki kelas atas pada masa itu sering menunjukkan mereka berpose dengan anjing pemburu kegemaran dan wanita kelas atas yang sama dengan anjing keselesaan mereka. Anjing, sebenarnya, muncul dengan kerap dalam potret keluarga dari c. 1700 dan seterusnya.

Haiwan Peliharaan Lain

Anjing bukan satu-satunya haiwan peliharaan yang menikmati statusnya yang meningkat pada abad ke-18; kucing juga menjadi lebih dihargai sebagai pendamping sedangkan sebelumnya
mereka dianggap kurang lebih sebagai kawalan perosak utilitarian. Zaman Pencerahan mendorong orang untuk mempertanyakan banyak kepercayaan dan tradisi masa lalu, dan di antaranya adalah pandangan kucing sebagai hampir jahat. Kucing dikaitkan dengan budaya kafir dan, dicatat, tidak disebutkan di mana-mana dalam Alkitab, membuat mereka curiga. Mereka berguna dalam mengawal populasi tikus dan tikus, bagaimanapun, dan lebih ditoleransi untuk sebahagian besar daripada yang dirawat.

Pada abad ke-18, kucing menjadi haiwan peliharaan rumah yang dimanjakan yang biasa dilakukannya pada masa kini.

Walau bagaimanapun, pada abad ke-18, kucing itu menjadi haiwan peliharaan rumah yang dimanjakan oleh orang biasa. Potret keluarga dan juga kepingan tunggal sering menampilkan kucing orang atau keluarga, dan mereka mula muncul dalam puisi dan sastera. Kucing itu sebagai kegemaran penyihir yang biasa, tentu saja, dikenali secara meluas, dan mereka tidak dipeluk sebagai anggota keluarga seawal anjing, tetapi pada masa Revolusi Amerika, mereka sekurang-kurangnya sama dengan anjing sejauh potret berkenaan.

Rusa juga dipaparkan dalam potret dan menjadi salah satu haiwan peliharaan Colonial America yang paling dicari dan popular. Rusa memakai kolar dan diikat dengan tali leher, dan berdasarkan gambaran mereka dalam lukisan, tinggal di rumah keluarga dengan selesa seperti kucing atau anjing. Rusa sering dijinakkan dan dilonggarkan di kebun-kebun tanah kolonial untuk menghiburkan tetamu di pesta, dan salah satu contohnya ialah Dr. Benjamin Jones dari Virginia Colony yang melatih lebih dari seratus rusa untuk harta tanahnya untuk tujuan ini dan juga untuknya keluarga untuk dinikmati. Potret rusa memperlihatkannya dalam pose seperti greyhound pada zaman itu dengan warna tembaga yang sering kali berbentuk gembok.

Haiwan peliharaan lain yang sering ditampilkan dalam potret adalah tupai yang mudanya menjadi lebih popular daripada anak anjing atau anak kucing dengan anak-anak pada masa itu. Orang merompak sarang tupai dari anak muda mereka, menjinakkannya, dan menjualnya di pasar sebagai haiwan peliharaan rumah. Tupai-tupai rumah ini dikerah, disikat, dan berjalan seperti anjing keselesaan. Tupai terbang sangat digemari oleh budak lelaki yang melatih mereka untuk duduk di bahu mereka semasa berjalan di bandar. Populariti tupai sebagai binatang peliharaan dikeluhkan oleh isteri dan ibu pada masa itu, yang mengadu makhluk itu mengunyah almari, pakaian, dan linen dan tidak dapat dibendung kerana mereka dapat makan melalui kotak kayu atau kandang. Tin pandai menggunakan ini dengan membuat sangkar logam dengan roda latihan dan barang-barang lain di dalamnya sehingga tupai masih dapat menghiburkan keluarga tetapi tetap dibendung.

Burung peliharaan sangat digemari oleh gadis-gadis muda dan wanita, yang menyimpan kardinal dan yang lain di kandang yang sering terperinci di ruang tamu mereka. Dipercayai bahawa seseorang dapat mengajarkan lagu kepada burung dengan mengulanginya dan seruling kecil yang dikenal sebagai flageolet menjadi terkenal di kalangan pemilik burung. Orang itu akan mengulang nada sederhana pada alat musik sepanjang hari, dan disangka burung itu akan belajar menyanyikannya. Tidak ada catatan mengenai praktik ini yang benar-benar berjaya, bagaimanapun, kecuali dalam kes burung liar.

Berang-berang juga terkenal, terutama di kalangan lelaki dan lelaki, dan dilatih untuk menangkap ikan dan membawanya pulang. Berang-berang dilatih untuk mengambil permainan yang jatuh ke dalam air, dengan cara yang sama seperti anjing pemburu sebelumnya. Nelayan, terutama, suka berang-berang terlatih yang akan menyelam di bawah air dan kembali dengan ikan. Rakun, yang juga dijinakkan, paling tidak popular karena kebiasaan mereka memecah dan memasuki pantri dan mencuri makanan atau pelbagai barang dari rumah. Tidak peduli seberapa terlatih, seekor rakun juga mampu membunuh ayam keluarga, yang akhirnya menyebabkannya dijatuhkan sebagai binatang peliharaan dan dilihat lebih banyak sebagai pemangsa dan gangguan.

Haiwan lain, seperti ular dan monyet kecil, tetap menjadi popular walaupun mereka mempunyai masalah sendiri. Ular sangat tidak popular di kalangan wanita, walaupun wanita dan gadis adalah pemilik utama monyet yang jauh lebih mengganggu dalam menjaga rumah yang rapi dan bersih. Haiwan lain yang popular terutama di kalangan gadis muda ialah anak domba yang sering digambarkan dalam lukisan yang memakai pita di lehernya. Ayam, tentu saja, juga berfungsi sebagai binatang peliharaan walaupun tidak ada potret yang menggambarkannya dihiasi seperti domba dan monyet.

Kesimpulannya

Perubahan dalam pemilikan haiwan peliharaan, mengenai jenis haiwan yang dipelihara di rumah, datang dengan Revolusi Industri pada akhir abad ke-18 dan awal abad ke-19. Perindustrian Britain, Samuel Slater (l. 1768-1835) memperkenalkan kilang tekstil Inggeris ke AS c. 1789. Dia dibantu oleh perindustrian Moses Brown (l. 1738-1836) yang mendirikan kilang berkuasa air pertama di Amerika di Pawtucket, Pulau Rhode pada tahun 1790. Pengenalan kilang tekstil terbukti cukup menguntungkan bagi pengusaha dan mendorong pengembangan lebih banyak lagi teknologi penjimatan tenaga kerja, yang menyebabkan urbanisasi ketika orang berpindah ke bandar untuk bekerja. Apabila perindustrian dan pembandaran meningkat, pemilikan haiwan menjadi lebih ketat mengenai pilihan; pangsapuri bandar tidak ada tempat untuk rusa, kuda, atau anak domba sebagai haiwan kesayangan. Mereka yang berada di luar bandar masih menjadikan haiwan ini sebagai binatang peliharaan, tetapi mereka tidak lagi muncul dalam potret pada abad ke-19, dan tupai sepertinya mengikuti penurunan popularitas yang sama.

Penjajahan, pengembangan ke arah barat, dan imigrasi lebih jauh juga mempengaruhi haiwan mana yang dipelihara sebagai haiwan peliharaan. Rusa secara teratur diburu sebagai makanan dan tempat persembunyian mereka walaupun mereka dijinakkan sebagai haiwan peliharaan, tetapi ketika habitat semula jadi mulai menyusut dan populasi rusa menjauh dari tempat penempatan, menangkap dan menjinakkan rusa kerana haiwan peliharaan menjadi kurang popular daripada menembak dan memakannya. untuk makan malam. Ular itu, yang sangat terkenal pada zaman Kolonial, mengikuti jalan yang sama kerana mereka dihalau lebih jauh dari kota dan kota dan akhirnya diturunkan ke ruang hiburan oleh ahli sihir dan penghibur sarkas pada pertengahan abad ke-19.

Semakin banyak tanah menjadi tenang, dan lebih banyak orang perlu diberi makan, binatang seperti berang-berang, berang-berang, dan rakun - yang telah diburu untuk kulit dan daging mereka bahkan ketika mereka dilihat sebagai haiwan peliharaan yang popular - mula dilihat sebagai sumber makanan sebagai gantinya rakan dan pembantu. Perkampungan orang asli Amerika, yang dulunya sangat banyak di pinggir pantai timur Amerika Utara dimusnahkan oleh penjajah untuk memberi ruang kepada penempatan lebih lanjut, dan setelah penduduk dipindahkan ke tempat tempahan, adalah haram bagi mereka untuk memiliki anjing seperti dulu mereka mempunyai akses kepada senjata api. Anjing asli Amerika dirampas, dan baka anjing ini akhirnya pupus daripada berkembang biak dengan anjing Eropah dan secara menyeluruh sehingga tidak jelas, hari ini, berapa banyak baka ini.

Sekatan terhadap jenis haiwan peliharaan nampaknya berlaku secara semula jadi kerana lebih banyak haiwan eksotik menjadi sukar didapat. Oleh itu, anjing dan kucing, menjadi pilihan utama bagi kebanyakan orang, dan popularitinya bertambah apabila semakin banyak rumah yang menggunakannya. Pada masa sekarang, anjing dan kucing terus menjadi haiwan yang paling popular dan biasa dipelihara sebagai haiwan peliharaan, walaupun sebilangan orang Amerika terus memelihara haiwan eksotik seperti yang dilakukan oleh nenek moyang mereka.


Elias Legarde Sunting

Elias Legarde (atau Legardo) adalah seorang Yahudi yang tiba di Jamestown, Virginia di HMS Abigail pada tahun 1621. Andaian ini hanya berdasarkan pada bunyi nama terakhir yang mempunyai ejaan yang dipersoalkan (Legardo).

Solomon Franco Edit

Yahudi pertama yang diketahui tinggal di utara Amerika Utara adalah Solomon Franco, seorang Yahudi Sephardik dari Belanda yang dipercayai menetap di kota Boston di Massachusetts Bay Colony pada tahun 1649. Franco adalah seorang sarjana dan ejen Immanuel Perada, seorang Saudagar Belanda. Dia menyampaikan bekalan kepada Edward Gibbons, jeneral utama milisi Massachusetts. Setelah perselisihan mengenai siapa yang harus membayar Franco (Gibbons atau Perada), Mahkamah Umum Massachusetts memutuskan pada 6 Mei 1649, bahawa Franco harus diusir dari jajahan, dan memberikannya "enam shilling setiap minggu dari Perbendaharaan selama sepuluh minggu, untuk rezeki, sampai dia dapat masuk ke Belanda. " [1] [2]

Solomon Pietersen Sunting

Solomon Pietersen adalah seorang saudagar dari Amsterdam yang datang ke kota pada tahun 1654. Pada tahun 1656, Pietersen menjadi seorang Yahudi Amerika yang pertama dikenali untuk berkahwin dengan seorang Kristian walaupun tidak ada catatan yang menunjukkan Pietersen secara rasmi bertobat, anak perempuannya Anna dibaptis pada masa kecil. [3] [4] [5]

Jacob Barsimson Sunting

Pada 8 Julai 1654, Jacob Barsimson meninggalkan Belanda dan tiba di atas kapal Rakan sebaya pada 22 Ogos di pelabuhan New Amsterdam (di Lower Manhattan, tempat Wall Street hari ini). Barsimson dipekerjakan oleh Syarikat Hindia Timur Belanda dan telah melarikan diri dari penempatan Portugis di Dunia Baru, yang telah menawan bekas penempatan Belanda dan menubuhkan Inkuisisi Portugis di sana.

Asser Levy Edit

Asser Levy (Van Swellem) pertama kali disebut dalam catatan umum di New Amsterdam pada tahun 1654 berkaitan dengan kumpulan 23 orang Yahudi yang tiba sebagai pelarian dari Brazil. Kemungkinan ia mendahului kedatangan mereka. Levy adalah tukang daging (halal) bagi komuniti Yahudi kecil. Dia memperjuangkan hak Yahudi di jajahan Belanda dan terkenal kerana telah menjamin hak orang Yahudi untuk diterima sebagai Burghers dan menjalankan tugas pengawal bagi jajahan tersebut.

Yang pertama kumpulan orang Yahudi di jajahan utara turun pada awal September 1654, tidak lama selepas Barsimson. Barsimson dikatakan telah menemui mereka di The Battery semasa ketibaan mereka. Kumpulan ini terdiri daripada dua puluh tiga orang Yahudi Portugis dari Belanda (empat pasangan, dua janda, dan tiga belas anak). Seperti Barsimson, mereka telah melarikan diri dari bekas penempatan Belanda yang kumpulan itu telah berhijrah dari Belanda Belanda setelah penempatan tersebut ditakluki oleh Portugis. Takut dengan Inkuisisi, orang-orang Yahudi meninggalkan Recife. Mereka pada asalnya berlabuh di Jamaica Sepanyol dan Cuba Sepanyol, tetapi orang Sepanyol tidak membenarkan mereka tinggal di sana. Kapal mereka, Ste. Catherine, pergi ke New Amsterdam sebagai gantinya, menyelesaikan keinginan pedagang tempatan dan Gereja Reformed Belanda tempatan. Gabenor kolonial Peter Stuyvesant, atas aduan kumpulan ini, berusaha mengusir orang Yahudi. Dia menulis surat kepada para pengarah Syarikat Hindia Barat Belanda bertarikh 22 September 1654:

Orang-orang Yahudi yang telah tiba hampir semua ingin tinggal di sini, tetapi mengetahui bahawa mereka (dengan riba biasa dan perdagangan tipu dengan orang-orang Kristian) sangat menjijikkan kepada hakim yang lebih rendah, dan juga kepada orang-orang yang paling menyayangi Anda sebagai Diakon juga khuatir bahawa kerana keadaan mereka yang tidak bertanggungjawab sekarang ini mungkin akan menjadi pertuduhan pada musim dingin yang akan datang, kami, untuk kepentingan tempat yang lemah dan baru berkembang ini dan tanah secara umum, dianggap berguna untuk meminta mereka dengan cara yang ramah untuk berangkat, berdoa juga dengan sungguh-sungguh dalam hubungan ini, untuk diri kita sendiri dan juga masyarakat umum pemujaanmu, agar bangsa yang menipu — musuh yang penuh kebencian dan penghujat nama Kristus — tidak diizinkan untuk menjangkiti dan menyusahkan koloni baru ini sehingga semakin merosot pemujaan anda dan ketidakpuasan mata pelajaran pemujaan anda yang paling disayangi.

Namun, antara pengarah Syarikat Hindia Barat Belanda termasuk beberapa orang Yahudi yang berpengaruh, yang memberi syafaat bagi pihak pelarian. Pegawai syarikat menolak Stuyvesant dan memerintahkannya dalam surat bertarikh 26 April 1655, untuk membiarkan orang Yahudi tinggal di New Amsterdam, "dengan syarat orang miskin di antara mereka tidak akan menjadi beban kepada syarikat atau masyarakat, tetapi disokong oleh mereka sendiri bangsa ":

Kami ingin melaksanakan dan memenuhi kehendak anda dan meminta agar wilayah-wilayah baru itu tidak boleh lagi dijangkiti oleh orang-orang dari bangsa Yahudi, kerana kami meramalkan kesulitan yang sama yang anda takutkan, tetapi setelah mempertimbangkan lebih lanjut dan mempertimbangkan masalahnya, kita melihat bahawa ini agak tidak masuk akal dan tidak adil, terutama kerana kerugian yang besar yang dialami oleh negara ini, dengan orang lain, dalam mengambil alih Brazil, juga kerana sejumlah besar modal yang masih mereka laburkan dalam saham syarikat ini. Oleh itu, setelah banyak pertimbangan, akhirnya kami memutuskan dan memutuskan untuk memurtadkan [anotasi] atas petisyen tertentu yang dikemukakan oleh orang Yahudi Portugis bahawa orang-orang ini boleh melakukan perjalanan dan berdagang ke dan di New Netherland dan tinggal dan tinggal di sana, dengan syarat orang-orang miskin di antara mereka tidak akan menjadi beban kepada syarikat atau masyarakat, tetapi disokong oleh bangsa mereka sendiri. Anda sekarang akan memerintah diri anda dengan sewajarnya.

Setelah penjajahan oleh orang Inggeris pada tahun 1664, hak-hak yang dinikmati oleh orang-orang Yahudi tidak terganggu, dan selama dua puluh tahun mereka nampaknya hidup seperti sebelum penjajahan Inggeris, walaupun dengan sedikit peningkatan jumlah mereka. Yahudi sebelum ini dilarang menetap di jajahan Inggeris, kerana mereka telah dilarang dari semua tanah Inggeris selama 400 tahun. Oliver Cromwell (Pelindung Inggeris dari tahun 1649 hingga 1660, melalui puteranya Richard) mencabut larangan ini, dan penubuhan penempatan Yahudi utama pertama segera diikuti di Newport, Pulau Rhode. Pada tahun 1672, Rabba Couty menjadi terkenal dengan permohonannya kepada Raja Majlis di Inggris dari keputusan yang dikeluarkan oleh pengadilan Jamaica terhadapnya, akibatnya salah satu kapalnya disita dan dinyatakan hilang. Rayuannya berjaya dan menetapkan hak orang Yahudi sebagai rakyat Britain. Ini nampaknya merupakan kes pertama di mana pemberian naturalisasi kolonial diakui sah.

Pada tahun 1685, permohonan Saul Brown (awalnya Saul Pardo) untuk berdagang secara runcit ditolak, begitu juga dengan permohonan orang Yahudi untuk bebas menjalankan agama mereka secara terbuka. Bahwa mereka melakukannya secara tertutup di beberapa tempat pemujaan yang pasti muncul dari fakta bahawa peta New York, bertarikh 1695, menunjukkan lokasi rumah ibadat Yahudi di Beaver Street, juga bahawa Saul Brown adalah menteri, dan bahawa jemaah terdiri dua puluh keluarga. Lima tahun kemudian, tapak rumah ibadat begitu terkenal sehingga dalam perjalanan harta tanah, premis tersebut disebut sebagai mercu tanda. Pada tahun 1710, menteri jemaah, Abraham de Lucena, diberi pengecualian dari perkhidmatan sipil dan ketenteraan dengan alasan fungsi menteri, dan rujukan dibuat untuk menikmati hak istimewa yang sama oleh para pendahulunya. Risalah Kongregasi Shearith Israel dari New York bermula pada tahun 1729, ketika ia berada di Mill Street, dan merujuk kepada catatan yang wujud sejak tahun 1706. Jemaah ini didirikan di Mill Street, pada tahun 1730, pada banyak yang dibeli dua tahun sebelumnya , rumah ibadat pertama di Amerika Syarikat masa depan.

Oleh itu, nampaknya hak-hak agama para peneroka Yahudi awal ini telah dijamin pada awal abad ke-18, dan bahawa mereka juga menikmati banyak hak politik. Suatu tindakan yang diluluskan oleh Majlis Umum New York pada 15 November 1727, dengan syarat bahawa ketika sumpah singkatan harus diambil oleh mana-mana orang Inggeris yang menganut agama Yahudi, kata-kata "atas iman benar seorang Kristian" mungkin dihilangkan . Tiga hari kemudian, satu tindakan diluluskan untuk menjadikannya semula jadi Daniel Nunes da Costa. Kontroversi politik yang pahit pada tahun 1737 mengakibatkan keputusan Majlis Umum bahawa orang Yahudi tidak boleh dibenarkan memilih anggota badan tersebut.

Pada tahun 1740, Parlimen meluluskan Akta Perladangan yang secara khusus membenarkan orang Yahudi dinaturalisasi di tanah jajahan. Sebelum tarikh ini, bagaimanapun, Perhimpunan Kolonial New York telah melancarkan banyak tindakan naturalisasi khas, beberapa di antaranya hanya berlaku untuk individu lain, yang lebih bersifat umum, di mana orang-orang Yahudi dapat dinaturalisasi tanpa bersumpah "atas kepercayaan sebenar seorang Kristian, "juga dimasukkan ke dalam buku undang-undang. Antara masa ini dan Perang Revolusi, komuniti Yahudi di jajahan ini meningkat secara perlahan, pendatang utama berasal dari Sepanyol, Portugal, dan Hindia Barat.

Semasa Perang Perancis dan India, Jacob Franks adalah ejen kerajaan, bekerjasama dengan sindiket Britain, kerana memberikan pasukan Britain di Amerika urusannya dengan mahkota selama tempoh ini melebihi nilai £ 750,000.

Walaupun sebahagian besar pendatang terdahulu menetap di New York City, sebilangan kecil menetap di luar batasnya, ada juga yang sejauh mana yang sekarang merupakan negara Pennsylvania. Pada tahun 1661, ketika Albany hanyalah pos perdagangan, Asser Levy memiliki harta tanah di sana, tetapi antara tarikh itu dan tahun-tahun awal abad kesembilan belas tidak ada catatan mengenai mana-mana peneroka di bandar itu. Mereka tidak ada di sana dalam jumlah yang cukup untuk membentuk jemaah hingga tahun 1838, dan mereka tidak memiliki rabi hingga tahun 1846.

Sekumpulan orang Yahudi menetap di Newport, Pulau Rhode pada akhir tahun 1600-an kerana toleransi agama secara rasmi terhadap koloni seperti yang ditubuhkan oleh Roger Williams. Di bahagian lain di New England mungkin ada pemukim sesekali pada abad ketujuh belas dan kelapan belas, tetapi intoleransi orang Puritan membuat mustahil penubuhan komuniti agama mana pun. Menurut beberapa sumber, Moses Simonson, yang menetap di Plymouth, Massachusetts pada tahun 1621, mungkin mempunyai keturunan Yahudi Belanda. [1] [2] Keperibadian yang menarik adalah keperibadian Yehuda Monis, yang menjadi mualaf dan menjadi ketua Ibrani di Harvard College dari tahun 1722 hingga kematiannya pada tahun 1764.

Disebutkan terdapat seorang Yahudi di Connecticut pada 9 November 1659, dan yang lain pada tahun 1670. Keluarga Yahudi pertama yang menetap di New Haven datang pada tahun 1772, walaupun beberapa orang yang telah menjadi mualaf tinggal di sana beberapa tahun sebelumnya. Jemaah pertama didirikan sekitar tahun 1840, jemaah-jemaah itu terdiri daripada kira-kira dua puluh keluarga Bavaria. Sejak tarikh tersebut masyarakat meningkat dengan tahap perlahan. Terdapat penempatan Yahudi juga di Bridgeport, Ansonia, Derby, Waterbury, New London, dan Hartford. Jemaah pertama di Hartford ditubuhkan pada tahun 1843. Sejak tahun 1891, sebilangan petani Yahudi telah menetap di pelbagai bahagian di negeri ini.

Penyebutan paling awal seorang Yahudi di Massachusetts bertarikh 3 Mei 1649, dan terdapat rujukan kepada orang-orang Yahudi di kalangan penduduk Boston pada tahun 1695 dan 1702 tetapi mereka hanya boleh dianggap sebagai orang-orang straggl, kerana tidak ada peneroka yang membuat kediaman mereka di Massachusetts sehingga Perang Revolusi mengusir orang Yahudi dari Newport. Pada tahun 1777, Aaron Lopez dan Jacob Rivera, bersama lima puluh sembilan yang lain, pergi dari Newport ke Leicester, dan menetap di sana tetapi penempatan ini tidak bertahan pada akhir perang. Sebilangan orang Yahudi, termasuk keluarga Hays, menetap di Boston sebelum tahun 1800. Dari jumlah itu, Michael Michael Hays adalah yang paling penting. Pada tahun 1830, sejumlah orang Yahudi Algeria pergi ke Boston, tetapi mereka segera menghilang. Sejarah masyarakat sekarang bermula pada tahun 1840, ketika jemaah pertama ditubuhkan.

Pendatang Yahudi ke Vermont dan New Hampshire tidak pernah banyak, walaupun ada jemaat di Burlington, Vermont dan di Manchester, Nashua, Concord, Portsmouth, dan Dover, New Hampshire. Tidak banyak yang penting dapat dikatakan mengenai kehidupan komunal Yahudi di New England, dan jumlah mereka meningkat tetapi perlahan-lahan sehingga selepas bermulanya penghijrahan Rusia yang hebat pada tahun 1882, ketika limpahan dari New York dan juga penghijrahan melalui Kanada mulai aliran ke New England.

Pembukaan Barat dan sifat pertanian yang tidak menguntungkan yang dihasilkan di New England menarik diri dari bahagian Amerika Syarikat ini banyak petani berjimat cermat, yang meninggalkan ladang mereka yang tidak berbuah untuk peluang yang lebih menarik di negeri-negeri barat. Yang menarik sehubungan dengan peralihan penduduk ini adalah kenyataan bahawa banyak ladang yang ditinggalkan ini, terutama di Connecticut, telah diambil oleh orang Yahudi Rusia, yang, terutama sebagai petani tenusu, telah menambahkan elemen baru dan berguna kepada masyarakat pertanian .

Nampaknya hanya beberapa orang Yahudi yang menuju ke Maryland pada separuh pertama abad ke-17, dan bahawa peneroka pertama koloni ini datang sebagai individu, dan tidak dalam jumlah yang banyak, seperti yang berlaku di New York , Newport, Savannah, dan Charleston. Untuk menilai dengan nama-nama saja, nampaknya beberapa orang Yahudi tinggal di Maryland sejak awal jajahan. Tokoh yang paling terkenal, yang tidak diragukan lagi adalah seorang Yahudi, adalah Dr. Jacob Lumbrozo, yang telah tiba pada 24 Januari 1656, dan, pada tahun 1658, diadili karena penistaan ​​agama, tetapi dibebaskan dengan alasan amnesti umum yang diberikan untuk menghormati aksesi Richard Cromwell (3 Mac 1658). Surat penolakan dikeluarkan kepada Lumbrozo pada 10 September 1663. Selain berlatih perubatan, dia juga memiliki perkebunan, melakukan perdagangan dengan Orang Asli Amerika, dan melakukan hubungan aktif dengan pedagang London. Dia adalah salah satu pengamal perubatan terawal di koloni, dan kerjayanya memberi banyak sejarah dan sifat toleransi agama di Maryland. Dengan kekuatan keperibadiannya, dia dapat mengabaikan hampir semua undang-undang yang akan menjadikan kediamannya di jajahan itu mustahil, dan dia sepertinya telah memperhatikan imannya walaupun ini, menurut undang-undang, dilarang. Persekitaran yang tidak baik menjadikan kemasukan orang Yahudi ke Maryland menjadi sukar, dan sehingga Perlembagaan tahun 1776 menetapkan hak agama semua, hanya sedikit orang Yahudi yang menetap di tanah jajahan.

Terdapat catatan bahawa orang Yahudi dari New Amsterdam berdagang di sepanjang Sungai Delaware seawal tahun 1655. Mungkin ada sebilangan peneroka di bahagian tenggara wilayah yang dikuasai oleh William Penn pada tahun 1681. Sebilangan besar penjajah awal Pennsylvania adalah Yahudi Jerman. The first Jewish resident of Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who was living there in 1703. Another early pioneer and one of considerable prominence was Isaac Miranda. He was the first to settle at Lancaster, at which place, as also at Shaefferstown, there was an early Jewish immigration. Miranda became a convert to Christianity and held several state offices. A number of Jews settled in Philadelphia in the first half of the eighteenth century, and became prominent in the life of the city. Among these were David Franks, Joseph Marks, and Sampson Levy. The Non-Importation Resolutions of 1765 contained the signatures of eight Jews, an indication of the importance of the Jewish community at this time. As early as 1747 a number of persons held religious services in a small house in Sterling alley, and afterward in Cherry alley—between Third and Fourth streets. They were mostly German and Polish Jews and their differences as to the liturgy to be followed prevented, at the time, the formation of any regular congregation. Attempts, indeed, were made in 1761 and 1773 to form one, but none was established until the influx of Jews from New York during the Revolutionary War, with the arrival of Gershom Mendes Seixas, gave the community sufficient strength to carry out this cherished object. A lot was purchased and a synagogue erected, the dedication occurring in September 1782. A number of Philadelphia Jews served in the army of the Revolution and the inestimable services rendered by Haym Salomon to Robert Morris in the finances of the Revolution make his name stand out as the most prominent character in American Jewry.

Jews have lived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, since at least 1730, before the town and county were organized. Joseph Simon was the best known of the first arrivals. Meyer Hart and Michael Hart were among the earlier settlers at Easton, where they arrived previous to the Revolutionary War. A synagogue was established there in 1839. Shaefferstown had a few Jewish settlers at an early date, and a synagogue and cemetery in 1732. For a considerable number of years preceding the Revolutionary War a number of Jews of Pennsylvania were engaged in the exploitation and sale of western Pennsylvania lands. Among the more prominent of these were Jacob and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

The Jewish settlement in Georgia dates almost from the very foundation of the colony and the early history of Georgia is practically the history of the growth and development of Savannah, Jewish life centering in that city. It would appear that a movement was set on foot in London to settle some Jews in the colony even before James Oglethorpe, in June, 1733, led his first band of followers to the point which soon after became the city of Savannah. The second vessel which reached the colony from England (on July 11, 1733) had among its passengers no less than forty Jewish emigrants. Although their arrival was unexpected, the liberal-minded governor welcomed them gladly, notwithstanding that he was aware that the trustees of the colony in England had expressed some opposition to permitting Jews to settle there. These first settlers were all of Spanish, Portuguese, and Prussian extraction, though within a year of their arrival others, who were apparently German Jews, also took up their residence there. These two bands of settlers received equally liberal treatment from Oglethorpe, and were the progenitors of one of the most important communities of Jews in the U.S. Many of their descendants are still living in various parts of the country. The first male white child born in the colony was a Jew, Philip (Uri) Minis on July 11, 1734.

Among the first immigrants was Dr. Nunis, who was made welcome because of his medical knowledge, and because he, with a number of others, brought sufficient wealth to the colony to enable the immigrants to take up large tracts of land. A congregation was organized as early as 1734. Three years later Abraham de Lyon, who had been a vigneron in Portugal, introduced the culture of grapes. The cultivation and manufacture of silk and the pursuit of agriculture and of commerce were the chief occupations of these early settlers. A dispute with the trustees of the colony respecting the introduction of slaves caused an extensive emigration to South Carolina in 1741, and resulted in the dissolution of the congregation. But in 1751 a number of Jews returned to Georgia, and in the same year the trustees sent over Joseph Ottolenghi to superintend the somewhat extensive silk-industry in the colony. Ottolenghi soon attained prominence in the political life of his associates, and was elected a member of the Assembly in 1761 and in succeeding years. There seems to have been little if any distinction made socially between the Jews and the other settlers, and educational and philanthropic institutions seem to have been supported by all alike.

The liberal charter which John Locke drew up in 1669 for the governance of the Carolinas should have operated to attract Jews there at an early date, since "Jews, heathen, and dissenters" were by the terms of Locke's charter granted full liberty of conscience. Although political changes modified Locke's original plans considerably, the spirit of tolerance was always retained. Nevertheless, no Jews in any numbers appear to have come to South Carolina until the exodus from Georgia from 1740 to 1771, already referred to. However, one Simon Valentine, one of four Jews who applied for citizenship in 1697, became the first documented Jewish landowner, which entitled him to vote. [3] A few others followed him, for in 1703 a protest was raised against "Jew strangers" voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

In 1748, some prominent London Jews set on foot a scheme for the acquisition of a tract of 200,000 acres (80,937 ha) (809 km 2 ) of land in South Carolina. Nothing came of this, however, though on November 27, 1755, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres (40,469 ha) (405 km 2 ) of land near Fort Ninety-six for £2,000. Twenty years later Salvador sold 60,000 acres (24,281 ha) (243 km 2 ) of land for £3,000 to thirteen London Sephardic Jews. This land was known as the "Jews' Lands." Another of the Salvadors (Francis Salvador, the nephew of Joseph) purchased extensive tracts of land in the same vicinity in 1773–74. [3] Moses Lindo, likewise a London Jew, who arrived in 1756, became actively engaged in indigo manufacture, [3] spending large sums in its development, and making this one of the principal industries of the state.

During the Revolutionary War the Jews of South Carolina were to be found on both sides and the most eminent of the revolutionists was Francis Salvador, who was elected a member of the First and Second Provincial Congresses which met 1775–76, the most important political office held by any Jew during the Revolution. [3] Two-thirds of a company of militia commanded by Richard Lushington was made up of Charleston Jews.

After the fall of Charleston in 1780 the majority of Jews left that city, but most of them returned at the close of the war. The Sephardic Jews established a congregation in 1750, and the Jews of German descent another shortly thereafter. In 1791, when the Sephardic congregation was incorporated, the total number of Jews in Charleston is estimated to have been 400.

To judge by names alone, it would appear that a few Jews wandered into Virginia as early as 1624. A small number seem also to have been there before the end of the seventeenth century, but for nearly 100 years no traces of Jewish settlement are found. At least one Jewish soldier—possibly two—served in Virginia regiments under Washington in his expedition across the Allegheny Mountains in 1754. It is probable that Jews drifted into the colony from Baltimore and other points in Maryland at an early date. By 1785, Richmond had a Jewish community of about a dozen families of Spanish-Portuguese descent, which organized a Sephardic congregation in 1791. This congregation remained in existence until 1898.

A few Jews were among the traders who settled in Tennessee, near the Holston River, in 1778, but they were mere stragglers and made no permanent settlement.

Of the remaining states of the southern group east of the Mississippi River the principal Jewish settlements have been made in Alabama and Mississippi. An occasional Jew made his way into the territory which is now Alabama during the early part of the eighteenth century. One Pallachio became prominent in 1776.

It is likely that there were a few Jews in the Natchez district of Mississippi before the close of the eighteenth century, but no congregation was organized until that of Natchez was established in 1843.

Before and during the American Revolutionary War the Jews had representatives of their people upon both sides of the controversy, though the majority joined the colonial side. On the Non-Importation Agreement of 1769 the names of not less than five Jews are found this is also the case with respect to other agreements of a similar nature. The outbreak of the Revolutionary War dissolved the congregation in New York and upon the eve of the British occupancy of the town the majority of the congregation, headed by Gershom Mendes Seixas, took all the belongings of the synagogue and removed to Philadelphia, where they established the first regular congregation, the Mickvé Israel, in 1782. The small number who remained in New York occasionally held services in the synagogue. Most of those that left for Philadelphia returned to New York after the war. Haym Solomon or (Salomon), (1740–1785) was possibly the prime financier of the American side during the American War of Independence against Great Britain. He was born in Prussia and died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Although the Jews participated prominently in the events leading up to the Revolution, it would appear that even in the midst of absorbing political discussions they were able, in 1774, to start another congregation. They were not all, however, to be found on the colonial side during the war, for Mordecai Sheftall, Levi Sheftall, Philip Jacob Cohen, Philip Minis, and Sheftall Sheftall were in the first days of the Revolution disqualified by the authorities from holding any office of trust in the province because of the pronounced revolutionary ideas which they advocated. The community was dispersed during the Revolution, but many Jews returned immediately after the close of the war.


George Washington Bred Hunting Dogs for Speed

George Washington and Lord Fairfax, mounted on horses, on a fox hunt with a slave managing a team of hunting dogs.

Koleksi Smith / Gambar Gado / Getty

Washington, Hager adds, wanted a speedier hunting dog, and hoped to breed that speed into the hounds he already owned.

“When his good friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, heard about this, he sent General Washington a group of French hound dogs in the care of young John Quincy Adams,” he says. “These dogs were much more aggressive than Washington’s usual hounds, and were eventually bred with them. This created the new breed, although it’s important to note that Washington wasn’t thinking about the breed in any sort of legacy way. He just wanted to improve his personal collection of hunting dogs.”

According to Mary Thompson, research historian at Mount Vernon, many dog breeds were developed through selective breeding over many years.

“The fact that American foxhounds have a lighter build and longer legs than English Foxhounds suggests that Washington and others who were developing this new breed wanted a good hunting dog that was faster than the English dogs,” she says. Thompson added that American foxhounds also work more individually than as a pack, with each dog being willing to take the lead.

The American Kennel Club recognizes Washington as the father of the American foxhound, noting the breeds of Bluetick Coonhound, American English Coonhound and Treeing Walker Coonhound were also “likely influenced by his quest for a superior dog.”

Thompson adds that Washington kept many dog breeds, each with their own speciality. There were herding dogs, hounds, non-sporting dogs, terriers, toys and working dogs at Mount Vernon.

“In fact, we can document the presence and/or knowledge of breeds in every group currently recognized by the American Kennel Club among the dogs in Virginia in the 18th century,” she says. Breeds at Mount Vernon included Briards, Dalmatians, English foxhounds, French hounds, Greyhounds, Italian Greyhounds, mastiffs, Newfoundlands, pointers, spaniels and terriers.

Washington often gave his dogs names, too. Some of note: Sweet Lips, Venus, Trulove, Taster, Tippler, Drunkard and Madame Moose.

According to Thompson, many of the dog names seem to relate to singing or music: Droner, Hearkwell, Music and Singer, for example.

�h foxhound had a distinctive voice, which was important as a way to tell one dog from another when hunters were following behind them after prey animals,” she says. “Sweet Lips may have gotten her name because Washington liked the sound of her voice as she was hunting.”


Spirits of Our Forefathers - Alcohol in the American Colonies

The above statements by three of the Founding Fathers reflect the prevailing attitude toward alcohol in the 18th century and throughout much of our country's early existence. Alcohol has played a major role in our nation's history, and its use is a part of our heritage. In colonial times, Americans probably drank more alcohol that in any other era. Spirits were an integral part of daily life throughout the colonies no matter the geographic or economic differences. It was reported that the average American drank eight ounces of alcohol a day. And it didn't matter what. Americans drank beer, and cider with breakfast rum and wine with dinner claret, ratafias, creams, punches, and other concoctions in the evening. (Robinson, 2001)

"Revolutionary War era persons drank a phenomenal amount. We have here an account of a gentleman's average consumption: 'Given cider and punch for lunch rum and brandy before dinner punch, Madeira, port and sherry at dinner punch and liqueurs with the ladies and wine, spirit and punch till bedtime, all in punchbowls big enough for a goose to swim in.'" (As cited in Washington and Kitman, 1970)

There are a number of reasons for all of this tippling. Our English heritage declared that water was bad for a person's health. Given the sanitary standards of the day this was probably true. Beer consumption especially, was seen as a healthy substitute for water. Beer was considered a food, which showed social status (only the most destitute drank water) and allowed for persons to put in a full days work. Franklin while working in a printing house in London was known as the "water American", because of his affinity to water, by his fellow printers who were

Americans of the period believed it was particularly healthier to drink lukewarm alcohol during hot weather rather than drink cold water. Signs were displayed at public wells warning individuals of the dangers of cold water during the summer. The rationale for this is that when a person sweated, heat was conducted from the inside of the body. Therefore, the stomach needed warmth, which could be provided by alcohol. (Barr, 1999)

The bias against water was so great that a recent immigrant from Italy, Phillip Massei, caused a stir at a large dinner party where he asked for a glass of water. I perceived some confusion among the servants, and the water did not arrive. The host, next to who I sat, whispered in my ear, asking with a smile if I could not drink something else, because the unexpected request for a glass upset the entire household and they did not know what they were about." (As cited in Barr, 1999)

Beer usually replaced water as the daily drink. An early morning tankard of beer was typical in colonial America, even for children. This tradition, as stated earlier, came from England. The Pilgrims loaded more beer than water on the Mayflower. And, there is some evidence that they were put off at Plymouth, rather than Virginia, because the ship's crew wished to make sure they had enough beer to consume on the return voyage. (Royce, 1981)

The ingredients for beer did not grow well in New England. As a substitute, the Puritans made do with hard cider. The many apple orchards of the area were planted for its production. Men usually began the day with a quart or more at breakfast.

Beer and cider were not readily available on the frontier. Settlers west of the Allegheny Mountains converted their corn into whiskey as a substitute and to make their crop transportable. Life was hard on the frontier. The pioneers called their whiskey the "Good Creature of God", giving them the strength needed to dull the pain of the brutal manual labor of making a home in the wilderness. (Powell, 1999)

". there is unquestionably too much spirituous liquors drank in the newly settled parts of America, but a very good reason can be assigned for it. The labor of clearing the land is rugged and severe, and the summer sweats are sometimes so great that it would be dangerous to drink cold water. "(As cited in Barr, 1999)

The first businesses established on the frontier were often simple taverns located along trails and roads to take care of the needs of travelers. Tradition of the time dictated that a drink be had at every halt in a journey. One story tells of two travelers on a seventy-mile trek by coach who drank a quart of liquor at each of the eight stops that were made.

Tavern owners enjoyed higher social status than did the clergy during the colonial era. Taverns were the center of civic life. Because of this they were often required to be located near the church or meeting house. Religious services and court sessions were often held in taverns. Judges interrupted court to drink, and clergy were obligated to drink at every house call and were often seen reeling home. (Powell, 1999)

All of this drinking did not go on without some comment. John Adams stated: "If the ancients drank as our people drink rum and cider, it is no wonder we hear of so many possessed with devils." (As cited in History of Alcohol in America) But, among the founding fathers Adams stood pretty much alone. Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson all imbibed and enjoyed brewing or distilling their own alcoholic beverages.

Jefferson was one of the most knowledgeable wine connoisseurs ever to hold national office. And, he was the wine advisor for Washington, Madison and Monroe. He felt that wine was ". indispensable for my health." He further advocated the virtues of wine stating "no nation is drunken where wine is cheap and none sober, where the dearness of wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common beverage." (As cited in Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries)

Jefferson believed that wine stimulated conversation. There must have been quite a bit of talking at Monticello because there are records that he and his guests consumed 1,203 bottles of wine in just over two year's time. (Garr, 1997) Jefferson, though, thought of himself as a man of moderation.

". you are not to conclude I am a drinker. My measure is a perfectly sober one of 3 or 4 glasses at dinner, and not a drop at any other time. But as to those 3 or 4 glasses I am very fond." (As cited in Garr, 1997)

Jefferson's interests in wine went far beyond just drinking. He was also involved in viticulture. He planted vineyards at Monticello and encourage others to take up the practice. Jefferson's attempts were not successful since the phylloxera louse, which was not discovered until the 1860s, attacked his grapes.

The sober picture we have of Washington is not correct if we are to believe anecdotes of his day. It was said that he could dance the night away with four bottles of wine under his belt. And, that his Revolutionary War personal expense account for alcohol from September 1775 to March 1776 amount to over six thousand dollars. (Washington & Kitman, 1970) He was a devout lover of beer in particular a dark porter was always in ample supply at Mount Vernon. A typical Washington hosted dinner "included several wines, beer, cider." (Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook, 1974)

With all the drinking that went on during this era, one tends to agree with Adams' statement and wonder how we fought a war, won our independence, and established a government. Perhaps the Spirit of '76, which inspired our forefathers, was indeed spirits.

Rujukan

Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. 1999, Carroll & Graff Publishers, Inc.

Garr, Robin. "Jefferson and Wine". 1997, www.winelovers page.com/wines/tjeff.

"History of Alcohol in America" (Cider). www.2020 site.org/drinks/cider.

Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook. 1974, Mount Vernon Ladies Association.

Powell, Stephen. "The Devils Drink: 1999, www.bluemoon.net/

Robinson, Matthew. : How To Toast Like Our Founding Fathers", 2001, Claremont Institute Publications, www.claremont.org/publications/Robinson 010118.cfm.

Royce, James E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. 1981, New York Free Press.

"Thomas Jefferson: Food and Wine Connoisseur", The Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries. www.blueridge/sb-wineries.

Washington, George and Kitman, Marvin. 1970, George Washington's Expense Account. 1970, Simon and Schuster.


Spinning Patriotic Sentiment in Colonial America

“As for me, I will seek wool and flax, and work willingly with my hands and indeed there is occasion for all our industry and economy.”
—Abigail Adams, in a 1774 letter to her husband, John Adams

Did you know that the humble spinning wheel was once a symbol of patriotic fervor in America? Colonial women in the years before the Revolution created their own homespun cloth as a way to disrupt the British monopoly on the textile market. In fact, spinning played such an important role in the conflict that the Daughters of the American Revolution chose a spinning wheel as a symbol for their organization.

It all started with Britain’s attempt to protect one of their biggest industries, textiles. Colonists imported most of their textiles from Britain, and wool production in the colonies was discouraged since Britain saw America as a supplier of raw materials for England’s factories. England could then sell the manufactured goods to the colonies at a handsome profit.

But early Americans had other ideas. By the end of the 1600s, America was exporting wool, which outraged England and led to the Wool Act of 1699, prohibiting the colonies from exporting wool, wool yarn, and wool cloth.

The passage of the Wool Act lit the fires of resentment in the colonies and many people resisted by making cloth from flax and hemp—and producing their own essential clothing instead of buying British imports.

The homespun clothing movement really gained steam when the Daughters of Liberty turned to their spinning wheels. This group of patriotic women organized mass spinning “bees’’ in town squares, churches, and private homes. Once the war started, they gathered to spin and sew uniforms for the Continental Army.

During Sheep-to-Shawl at Philipsburg Manor, interpreters demonstrate 18th-century spinning and weaving techniques similar to those used by the Daughters of Liberty. Although the owners of Philipsburg Manor sided with England during the Revolution and bought their textiles from Britain, it’s certain there were patriotic spinners among the manor’s many tenant farm households!


Regions

Over time each region developed its own cuisine. It was influenced by their environment, religious practices, and British imports.

    : Growing seasons were short so they depended more on British Imports, Corn crops, Wild Game, and Seafood. Puritans dominated the population so their recipes tended to be simple. : Growing seasons were longer and they were called the &ldquobreadbasket colonies&rdquo due to the number of crops that were grown in their soil. Due to Quaker influence, cream cheese and various fruit butter were developed. : the Growing season was year-round and the population was more diverse. There was a clear difference in the diets of the wealthy and the poor.

5b. Indentured Servants

The growth of tobacco, rice, and indigo and the plantation economy created a tremendous need for labor in Southern English America. Without the aid of modern machinery, human sweat and blood was necessary for the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of these cash crops. While slaves existed in the English colonies throughout the 1600s, indentured servitude was the method of choice employed by many planters before the 1680s. This system provided incentives for both the master and servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies.

Virginia and Maryland operated under what was known as the " headright system ." The leaders of each colony knew that labor was essential for economic survival, so they provided incentives for planters to import workers. For each laborer brought across the Atlantic, the master was rewarded with 50 acres of land. This system was used by wealthy plantation aristocrats to increase their land holdings dramatically. In addition, of course, they received the services of the workers for the duration of the indenture.

This system seemed to benefit the servant as well. Each indentured servant would have their fare across the Atlantic paid in full by their master. A contract was written that stipulated the length of service &mdash typically five years. The servant would be supplied room and board while working in the master's fields. Upon completion of the contract, the servant would receive "freedom dues," a pre-arranged termination bonus. This might include land, money, a gun, clothes or food. On the surface it seemed like a terrific way for the luckless English poor to make their way to prosperity in a new land. Beneath the surface, this was not often the case.

Only about 40 percent of indentured servants lived to complete the terms of their contracts. Female servants were often the subject of harassment from their masters. A woman who became pregnant while a servant often had years tacked on to the end of her service time. Early in the century, some servants were able to gain their own land as free men. But by 1660, much of the best land was claimed by the large land owners. The former servants were pushed westward, where the mountainous land was less arable and the threat from Indians constant. A class of angry, impoverished pioneer farmers began to emerge as the 1600s grew old. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, planters began to prefer permanent African slavery to the headright system that had previously enabled them to prosper.


Brewing in the Seventeenth Century

Beermaking at 17th-century Jamestown

Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lips
Of pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips.


On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at Jamestown had their first feast. George Percy reported that among the potables was beer, and, although the Virginia Company had expressed concern as early as 1606 concerning "that odious vice of drunkenes," alcohol consumption was a way of life for the colonists long before they founded the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Beer, cider and other relatively weak fermented beverages were almost universally consumed from the earliest days of Virginia's history. The colonists, in addition to importing the beer from the Mother Country, quickly began practicing the art of brewing themselves.

Beer, the result of the slow fermentation of malted and hopped liquid, is divided into three basic categories. Stout is a dark, heavy beverage with a relatively high alcoholic content. Lager, produced by a yeast which is activated at a relatively low temperature (40° F), is the lightest form of beer. In between these two extremes in both color and alcohol content is ale, which is produced by yeast which ferments best at about 60° F. Ale, because it was produced at a temperature which was more easily maintained, was the brew of choice in colonial times.

Producing a drinkable ale was not easy, and the colonists were not always successful, as the complaint from a 17th century inhabitant of Jamestown confirms: "I would you could hang that villain Duppe who by his stinking beer hath poisoned . . . the colony." Unlike the sophisticated scientific methods employed in today's breweries, the beer-maker of the 17th century relied on taste, smell and touch. In England, one of a housewife's duties was the production of beer for her family and servants. Beer, from the Middle Ages well into the 17th century, was produced commercially by both men and women.

Many ingredients were added during the brewing process. The first step in making beer was choosing water of a pleasing taste. Fortunately for the consumer, all the boiling which took place in subsequent steps would destroy any dangerous bacteria. The grain, which gave the beverage its body (barley was the usual ingredient, although corn, oats, wheat and rye could also be used) had to be malted (sprouted then dried in kilns) before being added to the mixture. Sugar of some type, usually in the form of molasses or honey, provided nourishment to the yeast. Hops, the fruit of a vinelike plant related to the mulberry tree, gave the ale its characteristic scent and flavor.

To make beer, malt was soaked in a large wooden mash tub at low temperatures then separated out of the liquid and ordinarily used for animal food. The liquid, called "wort," was transferred to the keeler, a large copper pot to which was added hops and other ingredients. After boiling the mixture for several hours, the brewer cooled it to about 70° F and sprinkled on the yeast, which began to digest the sugar in the solution and excrete it as alcohol. Bacteria and foreign yeast could spoil a brew, so it was important to keep the keeler covered. Stirring took place periodically, traditionally done with a bunch of broomstraw which was impregnated with yeast and quickened the action.

When fermentation was complete, the beverage would be either consumed right away or transferred to barrels for storage, leaving as much as the sediment behind in the keeler as possible.

Bonnett, Kendra. A Report on Drinking and Beer Brewing in the Seventeenth Century.


American History Timeline: 1651–1675

The American Revolution would not commence until 1765, when the Stamp Act Congress, representing the 13 colonies, disputed the right of the British parliament to tax the colonists without providing them with representation in the House of Commons. The American Revolutionary War would not begin until 1775. During the period from 1651 to 1675, however, attempts by the British government to control commerce in the American colonies gradually created an atmosphere in which rebellion was almost inevitable.

Oktober: England passes the Navigation Act that forbids goods to be imported from the colonies to England in non-English ships or from locations other than where they were produced. This action causes supply shortages hurting colonies and eventually leads to the Anglo-Dutch War, which lasts from 1652–1654.

April 4: New Amsterdam is given permission to form its own city government.

May 18: Rhode Island passes the first law in America which prohibits enslavement, but is never enforced.

After the death of Maine's founder Ferdinando Gorges ( c. 1565–1647), the Massachusetts Bay Colony revises its borders to the Penobscot Bay, absorbing the growing colony of Maine.

Julai: The first battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1654) breaks out.

In defiance of England, Massachusetts Bay declares itself independent and starts minting its own silver coins.

The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

The first Jewish immigrants arrive from Brazil and settle in New Amsterdam.

Oktober: The new governor of Maryland, William Fuller (1625–1695), nullifies the 1649 Toleration Act which gave Catholics the right to practice their religion. The colony also removes Lord Baltimore from authority.

March 25: The Battle of the Severn, considered by some historians the last battle of the English Civil War, is fought in Annapolis, Maryland, between Puritan loyalists and moderate protestant and Catholic forces loyal to Baltimore the Puritans take the day.

1 September: After a last maritime battle between the Dutch colonists led by Peter Stuyvesant (1592–1672) and forces from the Swedish government, the Swedish surrender, ending royal rule by Sweden in America.

10 Julai: Lord Baltimore is returned to power in Maryland and appoints Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as the new governor.

The first Quakers, Anne Austin and Mary Fisher, arrive in Massachusetts Bay from their colony in Barbados and are arrested and imprisoned. Later in the year, Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws to allow for the banishment of Quakers.

Quakers who arrive in New Amsterdam are punished and then banished to Rhode Island by Governor Peter Stuyvesant.

September: Massachusetts colony passes laws that do not allow for religious freedom of Quakers including the holding of their meetings.

Quaker Mary Dyer (1611–1660) is arrested in New Haven and convicted for preaching Quakerism and is among those banished to Rhode Island.

Two Quakers are punished by hanging when they return to the Massachusetts Bay Colony after being banished.

Lord Baltimore is removed from power by the Maryland assembly.

The Navigation Act of 1660 is passed requiring only English ships with a three-quarters English crew be allowed to be used for trade. Certain goods including sugar and tobacco could only be shipped to England or English colonies.

The English crown, in protest to the rules against Quakers, orders them released and returned to England. They are later forced to stop the harsh penalties against Quakers.

April 23: Connecticut governor John Winthrop Jr. (1606–1676), secures a royal charter for the colony after nearly a year of negotiation in England.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter was accepted by England as long as they extended the vote to all landowners and allows for freedom of worship for Anglicans.

The Elliot Bible, the first complete Bible to be printed in America, is published at the Harvard College in Cambridge—in the Algonquin language. The Algonquin New Testament had been published two years earlier.

The Carolina colony is created by King Charles II and has eight English noblemen as proprietors.

8 Julai: Rhode Island is given a royal charter by Charles II.

July 27: The second Navigation Act is passed, requiring that all imports to the American colonies must come from England on English vessels.

The Hudson River valley Indians surrender part of their territory to the Dutch.

The Duke of York is given a charter to control lands that include the Dutch area of New Netherland. By the end of the year, a naval blockade by the English of the area causes Governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender New Netherland to the English. New Amsterdam is renamed New York.

The Duke of York grants land called New Jersey to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley.

Maryland and later New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws that do not allow for the freeing of enslaved Black people.

New Haven is annexed by Connecticut.

The King's commissioners arrive in New England to oversee what is occurring in the colonies. They demand that colonies must comply by swearing allegiance to the King and allowing for the freedom of religion. Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island comply. Massachusetts does not comply and when representatives are called to London to answer to the King, they refuse to go.

The territory of Carolina is extended to include Florida.

Maryland prohibits the growing of tobacco for a year due to a glut of tobacco on the market.

31 Julai: The Peace of Breda officially ends the Anglo-Dutch War and gives England formal control over New Netherland.

Massachusetts annexes Maine.

1 Mac: The Fundamental Constitutions, written partly by the English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), are issued in Carolina by its eight proprietors, providing for religious tolerance.

Charles Town (present-day Charleston, South Carolina) is established on the Albemarle Point by colonists William Sayle (1590–1671) and Joseph West (died 1691) it would be moved and re-established in its present location in 1680.

8 Julai: The Treaty of Madrid (or Godolphin Treaty) is completed between England and Spain. Both parties agree that they will respect each other's rights in America.

Governor William Berkeley (1605–1677) of Virginia convinces the Virginia General Assembly to change the rules from allowing all freemen to vote to white males who owned enough property to pay local taxes.

Plymouth forces King Philip (known as Metacomet, 1638–1676), chief of the Wampanoag Indians, to surrender his weapons.

French explorer Simon François d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) claims the interior of North America for King Louis XIV, as an extension of New France.

First copyright law is passed in the colonies by Massachusetts.

The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly for the English trade of enslaved people.

Feb. 25: Virginia is granted by the English crown to Lord Arlington (1618–1685) and Thomas Culpeper (1635–1689).

May 17: French explorers Father Jacques Marquette (1637–1675) and Louis Joliet (1645–

1700) set off on their expedition down the Mississippi River exploring as far as the Arkansas River.

The Dutch launch a naval attack against Manhattan to try and win back New Netherland during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674). Manhattan is surrendered. They capture other towns and rename New York to New Orange.

Feb. 19: The Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War with the American Dutch colonies reverting back to England.

Dec. 4: Father Jacques Marquette establishes a mission at present-day Chicago.

Quaker William Penn (1644–1718) is granted rights to portions of New Jersey.

King Philip's War begins with retaliation for the execution of three Wampanoag Indigenous people. Boston and Plymouth unite to fight against Indigenous tribes. Nipmuck tribal members unite with the Wampanoags to attack settlements in Massachusetts. The New England Confederation then reacts by officially declaring war on King Philip and raising an army. The Wampanoags are able to defeat settlers near Deerfield on September 18th and Deerfield is abandoned.


1750–1775 : Diplomatic Struggles in the Colonial Period

Colonial era diplomacy focused on two issues: the European balance of power and the colonists’ appropriation of land from the Native Americans.

Rivalry in Europe, between the French and the British in particular, often influenced the course of events in their North American colonies.In an effort to increase their political and economic power, the British and the French competed to acquire the better share of the available land and control over the new trading opportunities the colonies presented.

At the same time, the European colonial governments tried to find ways to coexist with the original inhabitants of North America, often making alliances with some tribes while alienating others. Sometimes, as in the case of the French and Indian War (which in Europe was referred to as the Seven Years’ War), European politics regarding balances of power resulted in conflict in the colonies. As wars in Europe became more heated, fighting broke out between the French and the British in the American colonies. Both sides called upon Native American allies to assist them, exacerbating tensions between the tribes, as well as tensions between the tribes and colonists. Ultimately, the British Government found it necessary to pour additional troops and resources into protecting its possessions in the Americas and taxed their colonists to pay for these resources. These taxes eventually became a rallying cry for the American independence movement.


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