Martin Baltimore yang rosak di Tunisia

Martin Baltimore yang rosak di Tunisia


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Martin Baltimore yang rosak di Tunisia

Martin Baltimore terbang di atas Tunisia pada musim bunga 1943. Pesawat ini boleh menjadi salah satu versi Baltimore yang kemudian dari IIIA hingga V, yang semuanya membawa turet senapang berkembar yang sama dan sangat serupa di luar. Perhatikan kerosakan kemudi, yang dialami semasa serangan di lapangan terbang Jerman.


Zerstörergeschwader 26

Zerstörergeschwader 26 (ZG 26) "Horst Wessel" adalah sayap pejuang berat Luftwaffe pada Perang Dunia II.

Dibentuk pada 1 Mei 1939, ZG 26 pada mulanya dipersenjatai dengan pemintas mesin tunggal Messerschmitt Bf 109 kerana kekurangan pengeluaran dengan pesawat kelas Messerschmitt Bf 110 Zerstörer. Sayap itu bertugas di Front Barat yang tidak aktif semasa peringkat Perang Phoney pada tahun 1939 dan 1940. Semasa fasa ini ZG 26 dilengkapi dengan Bf 110. Ia membentuk sebahagian daripada Luftflotte 2 dan bertempur dalam Pertempuran Belanda, Pertempuran Belgia dan Pertempuran Perancis pada bulan Mei dan Jun 1940. Sayap itu terus beroperasi dalam Pertempuran Britain, walaupun berperanan jauh lebih rendah kerana kerugian.

Pada tahun 1941 ZG 26 berkhidmat lagi dengan kejayaan dalam pencerobohan Jerman ke Yugoslavia dan Pertempuran Yunani dan kemudian Pertempuran Kreta pada bulan April dan Mei. Dari bulan Jun 1941, sebahagian besar ZG 26 berperang di Front Timur dari Operasi Barbarossa yang memulakan perang ke atas Soviet Union. ZG 26 menyokong Army Group Center dan Army Group North. Sekumpulan ZG 26 terbang dan berkhidmat dalam Kempen Pertempuran Mediterranean dan Afrika Utara dari Januari 1941 hingga Mei 1943.

Dari pertengahan 1943, ZG 26 berkhidmat dan bertempur melawan Angkatan Udara Kelapan AS dan Tentera Udara Kelima Belas dalam kempen Pertahanan Reich dengan kejayaan sederhana sehingga pejuang jarak jauh AS membuat operasi lebih jauh terlalu mahal. ZG 26 dibubarkan pada bulan September 1944 dan dilantik semula sebagai unit Bf 109, Jagdgeschwader 6.


Benteng pertama yang ditugaskan oleh pemerintah A.S., Fort McHenry diuji semasa Perang 1812 ketika British berusaha mengambil alih Baltimore. Walaupun telah dihujani oleh tentera Inggeris selama beberapa hari, kubu muda itu menghalang musuh untuk maju. Penyair amatur Francis Scott Key menulis & # 8220Pertahanan Fort McHenry & # 8221 sebagai penghargaan atas kemenangan itu. Puisi itu kemudian dijadikan muzik dan menjadi lagu kebangsaan kita.

Benamkan diri anda dalam sejarah dengan enakmen semula, ceramah bendera, program renjer dan peluang untuk menaikkan replika Banner Star-Spangled yang asli.

Berikut adalah beberapa fakta menarik mengenai Fort McHenry:

  • Setiap kali bendera baru dirancang untuk digunakan oleh Amerika Syarikat, pertama kali dikibarkan di atas Fort McHenry, di atas benteng yang sama yang disebut dalam Lagu Kebangsaan kita.
  • Bendera yang melayang di atas kubu semasa Perang 1812 adalah bendera garnisun terbesar yang pernah dikibarkan, berukuran 30 kaki tinggi dan lebar 42 kaki, sehingga Inggeris tidak boleh ketinggalan. Ingin mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai bagaimana bendera itu dibuat? Lawati Rumah Bendera Banner Star-Spangled.

Fort McHenry mengibarkan replika bendera yang sama dari Perang 1812 dengan 15 bintang dan 15 jalur.


Peristiwa Bersejarah pada 28 April

    -May 7th) Utrecht dihancurkan oleh api Nichiren, seorang sami Buddha Jepun, mengemukakan nama Nam Myoho Renge Kyo untuk pertama kalinya dan menyatakannya sebagai inti pati Buddhisme, yang akhirnya mendirikan Buddhisme Nichiren. Parlimen Inggeris menuntut pengawasan perbelanjaan kerajaan Bahasa Inggeris & "Parlimen Baik" akan bermesyuarat di London, akan berlangsung hingga 10 Julai, kemudian Pertempuran parlimen Inggeris yang paling lama berlangsung di Cerignalo: Tentera Sepanyol di bawah pemerintahan Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba mengalahkan pasukan Perancis yang diketuai oleh Louis d'Armagnac, Duke of Nemours Treaty of Worms: Maharaja Charles menamakan saudaranya Ferdinand Archduke dari Belanda-Austria Kuasa penyelidikan Belanda meluaskan Penubuhan Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, Universiti Katolik Filipina, universiti tertua yang ada di Asia dan universiti Katolik terbesar di dunia Gabenor Virginia John Harvey dituduh melakukan pengkhianatan dan dikeluarkan dari pejabat Jeneral Laut Inggeris Robert Blake (dia tidak pernah bergelar Laksamana) mengalahkan armada lanun Afrika Utara

Bersejarah Penemuan

1770 Kapten British James Cook, di atas kapal Endeavour, mendarat di Botany Bay di Australia

Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat

1788 Maryland menjadi negara ke-7 untuk mengesahkan perlembagaan AS


4 Mitos pinjaman VA telah rosak: Apa yang perlu diketahui sebelum anda pergi

Dihantar pada 29 April 2020 16:08:01

Sekiranya seseorang bertanya kepada saya apakah nasihat terbaik untuk seseorang yang membeli kediaman, saya harus mengatakan & # 8220mendidik diri sendiri. & # 8221 Saya menyedari bahawa kedengarannya kabur, tetapi terdapat maklumat yang JAUH, lebih penting lagi, maklumat yang salah di sana dan setiap keadaan keluarga adalah unik. Saya & # 8217m sukar untuk mengatakan apa yang paling penting, tetapi memecahkan halangan untuk memulakan adalah yang pertama. Malangnya, saya melihat banyak mitos berulang setiap hari, kadang-kadang dari rakan profesional gadai janji! Saya akan terus berkongsi maklumat yang sukar dicerna, tetapi pertama, saya perlu mengeluarkan mitos-mitos umum ini, sehingga tidak ada keluarga ketenteraan yang terhalang untuk memulakan:

Tidak ada had nisbah hutang kepada pendapatan.

Faktor penentu VA & # 8217s mengenai sama ada anda mampu atau tidak pinjaman adalah berdasarkan & # 8220 penghasilan baki & # 8221 (hlm.57), yang bermaksud berapa banyak wang yang tersisa setiap bulan setelah kewajipan hutang anda dipenuhi. Ini adalah formula berdasarkan jumlah pinjaman, lokasi geografi dan ukuran keluarga yang tidak selalu menjadi jawapan satu ukuran. Beberapa pemberi pinjaman mempunyai & # 8220 overlays, & # 8221 yang merupakan syarat tambahan yang melampaui kehendak VA sendiri, itulah sebabnya mitos DTI masih melayang. Perjalanan besar di sini adalah jika anda diberitahu oleh satu pemberi pinjaman bahawa DTI anda terlalu tinggi, mereka mungkin mempunyai syarat tambahan di atas apa yang dinyatakan oleh VA, dan anda harus BERBELANJA SEKITAR! Tidak semua pemberi pinjaman diciptakan sama.

Keperluan tempat tinggal.

VA mempunyai satu syarat tempat tinggal (hlm.12-13), iaitu anda berniat untuk menjadikan kediaman sebagai kediaman utama anda dan menduduki & # 8220dalam jangka masa yang munasabah & # 8221 & # 8211 biasanya dianggap sebagai 60 hari. Pasangan atau anak tanggungan dapat memenuhi syarat tinggal ini, tetapi tidak ada anggota keluarga yang lain. Saya terus menerus melihat mitos & # 8220 satu tahun, & # 8221 beredar, tetapi itu hanyalah mitos. Pergerakan dan pesanan pada saat-saat terakhir berlaku, VA mengetahui bahawa, dan mengikut garis panduan mereka, anda tidak terikat untuk tinggal di rumah mana-mana untuk jangka masa yang tidak berfungsi untuk keluarga anda & # 8211.

Had pinjaman daerah masih berlaku untuk gandaan.

Undang-undang Veteran Tentera Laut Biru Laut Biru Sek.6 (a) (1) (C) (ii) yang berkuat kuasa Januari 2020 telah mencabut had pinjaman VA daerah untuk berapa banyak wang yang boleh anda pinjam, tetapi itu hanya jika anda mempunyai kelayakan penuh. Peminjam boleh mengeluarkan banyak pinjaman VA sekaligus, tetapi jika ada hak semasa digunakan, had pinjaman daerah berlaku untuk hak bonus. Anda mungkin dikenakan syarat bayaran pendahuluan sekiranya melebihi kelayakan yang ada.

Sejarah kerja & # 8211 apa yang penting?

Saya berulang kali melihat siaran di media sosial mengenai anggota perkhidmatan yang beralih, menerima pekerjaan baru (atau tawaran pekerjaan), dan mereka tidak fikir mereka layak mendapat pinjaman sehingga dua tahun memasuki pekerjaan itu. Ini benar-benar palsu! Tugas aktif tentera dikira dalam sejarah pekerjaan. VA membolehkan pendapatan pekerjaan masa depan dikira jika pemberi pinjaman dapat mengesahkan tawaran pekerjaan yang tidak bertentangan, termasuk tarikh mula dan gaji. Bayaran persaraan dan kecacatan yang didokumentasikan juga dikira sebagai pendapatan yang layak, tetapi faedah bil GI tidak.

Media sosial dapat memberikan akses segera kepada pengalaman orang lain, tetapi beberapa jawapan untuk pertanyaan pinjaman VA anda hanya dapat dijumpai di profesional berlesen. Pastikan anda bercakap dengan pemberi pinjaman yang berminat untuk mendidik anda dan keluarga, membolehkan anda membuat keputusan kewangan yang bijak. Tidak semua institusi kewangan meminjamkan & # 8220dengan buku ini, & # 8221, jadi tanyakan lebih daripada satu pemberi pinjaman sekiranya sesuatu yang tidak betul, atau anda & # 8217 tidak berpuas hati dengan jawapannya. Sebanyak satu pencegahan, dalam kes ini, semestinya bernilai lebih daripada satu pon penawar!

Lebih lanjut mengenai Kami adalah Yang Perkasa

Lebih banyak pautan yang kami suka

SEJARAH MUNGKIN

Peristiwa Bersejarah pada 3 Mei

    Ferdinand I secara rasmi melantik Maharaja Rom Suci setelah saudaranya Charles melepaskan jawatannya pada tahun 1556 Perjanjian Loudun mengakhiri perang saudara Perancis

Kejadian dari Minat

    Armada perak Sepanyol berlayar ke Panama Pemimpin huguenot Perancis, Duke De Rohan menandatangani perjanjian dengan Sepanyol English Upper house menerima Act of Attainder Bridge di Rowley, Massachusetts mula mengenakan tol untuk haiwan Sweden, Poland, Brandenburg & amp Austria tanda Peace of Oliva Johannes Hevelius memperhatikan transit ketiga Merkuri pernah dapat dilihat piagam Diraja yang diberikan kepada Connecticut

Kejadian dari Minat

1715 Edmond Halley memerhatikan fenomena gerhana total & quotBaily's Beads & quot

    Perdana menteri Pierre de Marivaux & quot; La Double Inconstance & quot di Paris Willem IV yang dilantik sebagai wakil ketua Holland / Utrecht 1st North American College dibuka di Philadelphia Perlembagaan 3 Mei diisytiharkan oleh Sejm Besar (Parlimen) Komanwel Poland-Lithuania, menjadi moden pertama perlembagaan di Eropah Washington, DC digabungkan sebagai bandar

Ketiga Mei 1808

1808 Hari yang digambarkan oleh pelukis Sepanyol Goya dalam & quot; Ketiga Mei & quot, yang dilukis pada tahun 1814

    Perang Finland: Sweden kehilangan kubu Sveaborg kepada Perang Semenanjung Rusia: Pemberontak Madrid yang bangkit pada 2 Mei ditembak berhampiran bukit Príncipe Pío

Kejadian dari Minat

1810 penyair Inggeris Lord Byron berenang di Hellespont (zaman moden Dardanelles)

    Pertempuran di Tolentino: Austria mengalahkan Raja Joachim dari Naples Society for the Propagation of the Faith yang ditubuhkan di Lyon, Perancis Perkhidmatan penumpang kereta wap berkala pertama bermula Universiti Athena ditubuhkan New Zealand mengisytiharkan koloni yang bebas daripada peguam Amerika Selatan New South Wales, Macon B Allen, masuk ke bar di Massachusetts Fire membunuh 1.600 di teater popular di Canton, Tentera Mexico China memulakan Pengepungan Benteng Texas berhampiran Brownsville, Texas, semasa Perang Mexico-Amerika Pemberontakan Mei di Dresden bermula - yang terakhir Revolusi Jerman tahun 1848

Kejadian dari Minat

1915 John McCrae menulis puisi & quotIn Flanders Fields & quot

    Nasionalis Ireland Patrick Pearse, Thomas MacDonagh dan Thomas Clarke dieksekusi oleh pasukan penembak berikutan penglibatan mereka dalam Easter Rising

Sukarelawan Membantu Mengalahkan Serangan Umum

1926 Kongres Kesatuan Sekerja Britain menyeru mogok umum pertama di negara ini, bermula pada 1 minit hingga tengah malam untuk menyokong penambang arang batu, berlangsung selama 9 hari

    Hadiah Pulitzer diberikan kepada Sinclair Lewis (Arrowsmith) Marinir AS di Nikaragua (9 bulan setelah pergi), tinggal sehingga kekejaman Jepun pada tahun 1933 di Jinan, China. Prussia melarang anti-fasis 24 pelancong memulakan percutian carter udara ke-1 (London-Basle, Switzerland) Nellie T Ross pengarah wanita pertama dari US Mint memegang jawatan sebagai Front Rakyat Perancis memenangi pilihan raya

Kejadian dari Minat

1936 NY Yankee Joe DiMaggio membuat debut liga utama, mendapat 3 hits

Kejadian dari Minat

1937 Margaret Mitchell memenangi Hadiah Pulitzer untuk & quotGone With the Wind & quot

Kejadian dari Minat

1938 Vatican mengiktiraf Franco-Spain

Kejadian dari Minat

1941 Kentucky Derby ke-67: Eddie Arcaro menaiki Whirlaway, pusingan pertama Triple Crown yang berjaya

    Pasukan Jepun menyerang Tulagi, Gavutu & amp; Tanambogo, Kepulauan Solomon semasa Perang Dunia II Jerman Luftwaffe mengebom Exeter, memusnahkan pusat bandarnya Nazi melaksanakan 72 OD sebagai pembalasan di Sachsenhausen, Nazi Belanda menghendaki orang Yahudi Belanda memakai bintang Yahudi

Kejadian dari Minat

Hadiah Pulitzer 1943 diberikan kepada Upton Sinclair (Dragon's Teeth)

    Serangan ke atas kubu buruh wajib berakhir, setelah 200 orang yang terbunuh di bahagian perisai AS menduduki catuan Daging Tunisia Mateur berakhir di AS

Filem Perdana

1944 & "Going My Way", diarahkan oleh Leo McCarey dan dibintangi oleh perdana menteri Bing Crosby di New York (Anugerah Akademi untuk Gambar Terbaik, 1945)

    Bahagian Perisai Poland ke-1 Angkatan Bersenjata Poland di Barat menduduki Wilhelmshafen di Jerman Sekutu menangkap ahli fizik Jerman Werner Heisenberg Pasukan Britain bergabung dalam Perang Dunia II Rangoon: Kapal Jerman & "Cap Arcona" yang dipenuhi dengan tahanan yang dijatuhkan oleh Tentera Udara Diraja di Laut Timur, 5,800 terbunuh - salah satu daripada kerugian nyawa maritim terbesar Tribunal tentera antarabangsa di Tokyo memulakan Kentucky Derby ke-73: Eric Guerin di atas kapal terbang Jet Pilot menang dalam 2: 06.8

Kejadian dari Minat

1947 Perlembagaan Jepun pasca perang berkuatkuasa, memberikan hak hak sejagat, melepaskan Kaisar Hirohito dari semua kecuali simbolik kuasa dan melarang hak Jepun untuk berperang

Kejadian dari Minat

Hadiah Pulitzer 1948 diberikan kepada James Michener & Tennessee Williams

    Siaran pertama & quotCBS Evening News & quot- rancangan berita rangkaian paling lama berjalan di AS Tembakan pertama roket Viking AS mencapai 80 km Gil McDougald mengikat rekod liga utama dengan 6 RBI dalam 1 inning NY Yankee Gil McDougald berada di tangga ke-5 untuk mendapatkan 6 RBI dalam inning (9th) Royal Festival Hall dibuka di London Festival of Britain dibuka & "Call Me Madam" ditutup di Imperial Theatre NYC setelah 644 pertunjukan mendarat dengan kapal terbang di Kutub Utara geografis 78 Kentucky Derby: Eddie Arcaro di atas Hill Gail memenangi rakamannya yang kelima Derby WTVO TV saluran 17 di Rockford, IL (NBC) mula menyiarkan persidangan Westchester Persatuan Perpustakaan Amerika mengisytiharkan & quotFreedom to Read & quot KTEN saluran TV 10 di Ada-Ardmore, OK (ABC) mula menyiarkan

Kejadian dari Minat

Hadiah Pulitzer 1954 diberikan kepada Charles A Lindbergh & John Patrick

    Saluran TV WHA 21 di Madison, WI (PBS) mula menyiarkan muzikal Frank Loesser & "Most Happy Fella" dibuka di Imperial Theatre NYC untuk persembahan 678 Pelbagai gunung baru yang ditemui di Antartika (2 lebih dari 13,000 ') Kentucky Derby ke-84: Ismael Valenzuela di atas Tim Tam menang dalam 2:05 WINS menangguhkan Alan Freed kerana menyebabkan rusuhan di Boston, dia berhenti

Kejadian dari Minat

1960 Rumah Anne Frank dibuka di Amsterdam, Belanda

    Warren Spahn melempar 2 pemukul setelah melempar kereta api ekspres yang terhempas dengan runtuhan sebuah kereta api komuter & sebuah muatan, membunuh 163 orang, mencederakan 400 di Tokyo, Jepun Leslie Narum hanya Baltimore Oriole yang menjadi tuan rumah pada pertamanya di pejabat kelawar Birmingham yang tinggi selang tekanan dan anjing pada protes perang salib kanak-kanak terhadap pengasingan yang menyebabkan kecaman meluas penggunaan pertama TV satelit, Pertunjukan Hari Ini di Early Bird Satellite Cambodia menjatuhkan hubungan diplomatik dengan AS Don Steele, memulakan kerjaya radio selama 40+ tahun di KRTH (Los Angeles California) KTCI Saluran TV 17 di St. Paul-Minneapolis, MN (PBS) siaran pertama Pulitzer hadiah diberikan kepada Irwin Unger (Greenback Era) WDHO (sekarang WNWO) saluran TV 24 di Toledo, OH (ABC) mula menyiarkan pelajar Afrika Amerika merampas bangunan kewangan di Stesen Radio Pirate Northwestern University Holland VRON menjadi Radio Veronica Intl & quotTrumpets of the Lord & quot ditutup di Brooks Atkinson NYC selepas 7 persembahan Kentucky Derby ke-95: Bill Ha rtack pada Majestic Prince menang dalam 2: 01.8 Kejuaraan NBA ke-24: NY Knicks mengalahkan LA Lakers, 4 perlawanan hingga 3 penghantaran Saluran Paip Trans-Arabian dari Arab Saudi ke Mediterranean terganggu di Syria, mendorong kadar tangki minyak ke tahap tertinggi sepanjang masa & "Semua Perkara Yang Dipertimbangkan &" perdana perdana di 112 stesen Radio Awam Negara

Kejadian dari Minat

Hadiah Pulitzer 1976 diberikan kepada Saul Bellow (Humboldt's Gift)

    1977 Draf NFL: Ricky Bell dari pilihan pertama USC oleh Tampa Bay Buccaneers & quotSun Day & quot - acara tenaga suria diadakan di AS Pertandingan perlawanan ujian kriket terakhir untuk Bobby Simpson, di Kingston WI sudah bersedia untuk kehilangan ujian kriket v Aust di Kingston sehingga rusuhan mengakhiri permainan E-mel komersial pukal pertama yang tidak diminta (& quotspam & quot) dihantar oleh wakil pemasaran Digital Equipment Corporation ke setiap alamat ARPANET di pantai barat AS MLB Cleveland Indian Bobby Bonds mencecah HR ke-300 (ke-2 mempunyai 300 HR & amp; 300 pangkalan dicuri) Martin Sherman & quotBent & quot perdana di London 1979 Draf NFL: Tom Cousineau dari Ohio State pilihan pertama oleh Buffalo Bills 106th Kentucky Derby: Jacinto Vasquez on Genuine Risk menang dalam 2:02

Kejadian dari Minat

Pemain bas pertama Giants 1980, Willie McCovey memperoleh HR terakhir ke-521 & terakhirnya


Martin Baltimore yang rosak di Tunisia - Sejarah

Terima kasih atas kata-kata baik anda tetapi saya bimbang pengetahuan saya tidak begitu mendalam pada FG ke-82 seperti yang anda fikirkan! Catatan terperinci anda pada pertempuran 5 Mei 1943 adalah sesuatu yang baru bagi saya dan sangat dialu-alukan kerana ia menunjukkan siapa lawan di 'pihak lain' dari pertunangan yang teruk itu.

Dalam kes ini, seperti biasa, saya bergantung pada 'ADORIMINI - Sejarah Kumpulan Fighter ke-82 dalam WW2' oleh Steve Blake dan John Stanaway. Juga 'KREDIT USAAF (MTO) Frank Olynyk untuk Pemusnahan Pesawat Musuh dalam Tempur Udara-ke-Udara WW2'.

Skuadron Fighter ke-95 FG ke-82 terbang ke enam B-25 dari 321 BG (M) dalam serangan anti-penghantaran. Tujuh belas P-38 diatur dalam empat penerbangan yang diketuai oleh Kapten Osher. Ketika melihat formasi musuh (& quot; pengangkutan SM 82 Itali dan beberapa pejuang pengiring & quot) Osher mengetuai dua penerbangan P-38 ke dalam serangan. Tuntutan berikut dihasilkan

Kapten Ernest K. Osher One SM 82 dan satu MC 200 musnah.
2 / Lt. Richard F. Kenney Dua SM 82 dan satu Bf 109 musnah.
2 / Lt. Guido F. Lucini Satu SM 82 dan satu Bf 109 musnah.
1 / Lt. Charles R. Langdon One SM 82 musnah dan satu Bf 109 rosak.
1 / Lt. Julius F. Schoenberg One SM 82 musnah.

FS ke-95 kehilangan dua juruterbang dan P-38 mereka. Kedua-dua lelaki itu cukup berpengalaman. Mereka adalah

2 / Lt. Allen E. Ellerbee
2 / Lt. Edgar L. Weddle

Tidak ada petikan, kecuali misi nampaknya bermula pada jam 07.45, waktu AS (F. Olynyk).

Saya akan bertanya kepada Steve Blake, ahli FG ke-82, apakah dia mempunyai apa-apa lagi dalam pertempuran ini. By the way, adalah SM 82 dari Sepuluh. Setti rosak oleh pejuang sebelum dia terpaksa mendarat?

Saya tidak menganggap liputannya berprasangka buruk, tetapi dalam beberapa kes pengarang mungkin membuat andaian mengenai penyebab kerugian. Contohnya, pada 4 April 1942, JG 26 mendakwa (15) Spitfires ditembak jatuh berhampiran pantai Perancis.

Kerugian RAF yang diketahui adalah:
- Perlanggaran udara Spitfire BM191 (64 Sqn) di Circus 119.
- Spitfire BL721 (72 Sqn) ditembak jatuh oleh flak di Circus 119.
- Spitfire BL935 (72 Sqn) hilang dari Circus 119, menyebabkan tidak menentu.
- Spitfire AB258 (72 Sqn) hilang dari Circus 119, menyebabkan tidak menentu.
- Misi ASR Spitfire ----- (72 Sqn), ditembak jatuh oleh pejuang Jerman.

BM191 ekornya dipotong oleh Spitfire yang tidak dikenali, mungkin BL935?

perbincangan mengenai hubungan antara tuntutan dan kerugian sebenar selalu rumit dan kompleks. Di sini saya lebih suka melangkau konfrontasi antara tuntutan Luftwaffe dan tuntutan penerbangan lain & # 8211 dalam kurungan. Saya menganggap tuntutan Luftwaffe rata-rata lebih tepat

Sekiranya anda merujuk kepada juruterbang pejuang maka saya meragukannya, kecuali pada tahun 1941. Jika tidak, buktinya kurang. Anda telah mengabaikan unit anti-pesawat Jerman yang mereka anggap banyak pesawat Bersekutu. Pelabuhan yang dikendalikan paksi, bandar pesisir, kawasan bekalan, dan lapangan terbang dipenuhi dengan senjata api dan pejuang Sekutu juga harus menghadapi tembakan balik dari kapal Jerman.

Sebilangan besar kerugian Sekutu disebabkan oleh sebab-sebab yang belum ditentukan dan malangnya beberapa penulis yang tidak bertanggungjawab ingin memberi kredit kepada semua pejuang Jerman. Atas alasan apa pun, mereka enggan mengenali statistik kemalangan dan semua perniagaan yang tidak kemas masih banyak yang belum diterokai.

Banyak tuntutan palsu kemenangan udara? Itu bukan perkara baru di unitnya.

Pada tahun 1942, JG 2 adalah antara pesalah terburuk di Front Barat. Tidak ada alasan logik mengapa ini akan berubah pada tahun 1943. Semua orang semestinya menjangkakan ini akan meningkat di Afrika Utara, dan itu berlaku, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh buku anda. Juruterbang lebih jauh dari rumah dan pemeriksaan pihak atasan mereka. Kedua-dua pihak tidak mempunyai pasukan pendudukan / pasukan polis / pengawal rumah yang besar dan boleh dipercayai untuk membantu mengesahkan kemalangan.

Di manakah bukti bahawa B & # 252hligen memusnahkan salah satu daripadanya?

Saya telah membaca perbincangan ini dengan banyak minat. Sebagai pengarang bersama The Focke-Wulf 190 di Afrika Utara, ditulis dengan Morten Jessen, saya fikir saya mungkin menyumbang pendapat saya, dan yang paling penting, beberapa fakta.

Saya harus mulakan dengan beberapa definisi.

Tuntutan berlebihan, tuntutan terlalu banyak kemenangan secara tidak sengaja ("semangat yang terlalu bersemangat" seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Jim P.), berlaku dalam kebanyakan pertarungan. Juruterbang percaya mereka telah menembak jatuh pesawat musuh, tetapi sebenarnya pesawat itu hanya rosak, atau tidak terkena tembakan. Ini tidak dapat dielakkan dalam kekeliruan pertempuran.

Pemalsuan, menuntut kemenangan ketika pertempuran sebenarnya tidak berlaku (atau "tipu muslihat", seperti yang dikatakan oleh Jim P.), pastinya berlaku, tetapi jauh lebih jarang berlaku. Terdapat beberapa kes yang terkenal, terutamanya J.G. 27 juruterbang pada musim panas 1942.

Beberapa Data
Soalan asal menanyakan mengenai B hligen yang menembak jatuh P-38 ketika tidak ada kerugian yang sebenarnya dilaporkan. Di Tunisia, B hligen menuntut 12 P-38, jadi dengan jelas soalan itu merujuk pada tempoh tersebut. Berikut adalah beberapa data:

26 Disember 1942
Lt. B hligen dari 4./J.G 2 menuntut dua P-38, Lt. Marx dari 4./J.G 2 menuntut P-38, dan Oblt. Ton 3./J.G 53 menembak jatuh P-38 yang lain. Satu P-38 didakwa rosak.

FG pertama telah mengawal BG ke-97 ke Bizerta, dan unit P-38 kehilangan dua pesawat.

Oleh itu, tuntutan Jerman dalam pertempuran ini cukup tepat.

8 Januari 1943
Ini adalah salah satu II./J.G pertama. 2 pertempuran ketika terbang dari lapangan terbang Kairouan. Lt. B hligen meraih tiga P-38. Selebihnya II./J.G 2 mendakwa tujuh P-38 musnah.

FG ke-14 kehilangan tiga P-38, dan dua lagi rosak. Martin Gleeson menyatakan bahawa FG ke-82 kehilangan empat P-38. Walaupun masa misi FG ke-82 tidak diketahui, mereka semua ke kawasan Kairouan, dan II./J.G. 2 adalah satu-satunya unit tempur Jerman di rantau ini, jadi kita dapat menganggap bahawa pada satu atau lebih misi ini, FG ke-82 bertemu II./J.G. 2.

Sekali lagi, tuntutan Jerman dalam pertempuran ini cukup tepat.

Terima kasih kepada Martin Gleeson kerana memberikan sedikit maklumat mengenai tarikh ini. Ini mengisi jurang di Morten dan buku saya.

Sangat menarik untuk diperhatikan bahawa 8 Januari 1943 adalah hari terakhir Adolf Dickfeld terbang sebagai Gruppenkommandeur daripada II./J.G 2. Ini mungkin mempengaruhi beberapa peristiwa berikutnya di Kairouan.

14 Januari 1943
Lt. B hligen mendakwa P-38F ditembak jatuh, dan II./J.G yang lain. 2 juruterbang mendakwa dua B-17 rosak. Seorang juruterbang Itali juga menuntut P-38.

Penentang dalam pertempuran ini adalah FS / 1st FG ke-71, yang mengawal BG ke-301 ke Sousse dan Sfax. Dua P-38 gagal dikembalikan.

Sekali lagi, II./J.G 2 tuntutan adalah tepat.

28 Januari 1943
Oblt. B hligen dari 4./J.G 2 mendakwa P-38 50 km barat daya Kairouan. Dua yang lain dituduh rosak. Terdapat juga tuntutan Itali untuk dua P-38 yang musnah.

FG ke-71/1 FG kehilangan satu juruterbang yang ditembak jatuh, dan P-38 yang lain rosak.

Sekali lagi, II./J.G 2 tuntutan adalah tepat.

15 Februari 1943
Oblt. B hligen mendakwa tiga P-38 ditembak jatuh. Secara keseluruhan, II./J.G 2 mendakwa sepuluh P-38 ditembak jatuh, tiga Spitfires ditembak jatuh, dan satu pejuang yang tidak diketahui ditembak jatuh, dan juga B-25 yang rosak.

B-25 dan B-26 menerbangkan misi ke Kairouan, diiringi oleh FG ke-94 / FG ke-94 dan FG ke-82, dan mereka dicegat oleh FW 190 dan 109 Bf segera setelah meninggalkan kawasan sasaran (BG ke-12 dilaporkan 15/20 pejuang musuh, sementara FG ke-82 mencatat pejuang musuh 6/9). Pada pukul 17:35 USAAF melaporkan hanya satu kerugian sebagai ganti tuntutan 3-3-5. Saya tidak menyedari kehilangan Amerika lagi, walaupun saya ingin mendengar daripada sesiapa yang mempunyai perincian mengenai kerugian P-38 Amerika pada hari ini.

Ini adalah salah satu yang lebih disyaki II./J.G. 2 pertarungan.

12 Mac 1943
Oblt. B hligen mendakwa tiga P-38 ditembak jatuh, dan Hptm. Rudorffer mendakwa satu B-17 ditembak jatuh.

38 B-17 dikawal oleh 30 FG P-38 pertama ke Sousse dan Enfidaville. Tidak ada kerugian Amerika yang diketahui, baik B-17 atau P-38, dalam pertempuran ini.


Jadi satu-satunya tarikh di mana B hligen mendakwa P-38 ditembak jatuh ketika tidak ada kerugian adalah 15 Februari dan 12 Mac 1943. Pada dua hari ini dia menuntut enam P-38.


II./J.G 2 dan Overclaiming / Falsification
Sebahagian besar suspek II./J.G. 2 tuntutan di Tunisia berlaku semasa mereka berpusat di lapangan terbang Kairouan di tengah Tunisia pada Januari dan separuh pertama Februari 1943. II./J.G 2 juruterbang yang berpangkalan di Kairouan dalam tempoh tuntutan berlebihan termasuk: B hligen, Rudorffer, Werner, Karch, Sch lze, Goltzsche, Engelbrecht, von Farnholz, belbacher, Sonntag, G bler, Wei gruber, Jacobs, dan Marx .

II./J.G 2 biasanya satu-satunya unit yang berpusat di Kairouan, dan tentunya satu-satunya unit pejuang yang berpusat di sana (kecuali untuk Tikam J.G. 53 semasa operasi Kasserine). Mereka berada 150 hingga 200 km dari ibu pejabat utama Jerman di utara dan selatan Tunisia, dan melaporkan ke Fliegerf hrer Tunis sekali sehari, pada waktu petang. The II./J.G 2 detasemen biasanya paling banyak lima belas juruterbang (sebagai contoh, pada 5 Februari 1943 terdapat 13 juruterbang di detasemen Kairouan, dan sepuluh FW 190).

Oleh itu, ia adalah persekitaran yang sempurna jika II./J.G 2 juruterbang ingin memalsukan tuntutan. Rudorffer adalah pegawai berpangkat tertinggi, dan dia dikelilingi oleh juruterbang yang pernah bersama di Gruppe sekejap.

Harap maklum bahawa saya tidak mengatakan bahawa pemalsuan kemenangan oleh II./J.G 2 memang berlaku, saya hanya mencadangkan bahawa jarang sekali unit pejuang Jerman berada dalam kedudukan yang baik untuk mengemukakan tuntutan kemenangan palsu. Kemungkinan penemuan sangat tipis, selagi anda mempunyai kepercayaan dari rakan juruterbang anda.

Jurang dalam Rekod Amerika
Ini adalah alasan yang sesuai untuk II./J.G. 2 juruterbang, tetapi itu tidak benar. Kumpulan Fighter Pertama mempunyai rekod operasi yang lengkap dalam tempoh II./J.G. 2 atas tuntutan. Saya mempunyai mikrofilem FG ke-14, dan walaupun rekodnya tidak begitu terperinci seperti FG pertama, terdapat cukup maklumat untuk menampung tuntutan dan kerugian. Malangnya saya belum melihat rekod FG ke-82, jadi saya biasanya bergantung pada Shores, Ring & amp Hess untuk operasi Tunisia mereka (yang merupakan salah satu sebab mengapa Morten dan saya tidak terlalu pasti mengenai tuntutan II./JG 2 dalam buku kami) .

Martin Gleeson menyebut PRG ke-3 dengan P-38 di Tunisia. Ini adalah titik yang sah, tetapi secara amnya II./J.G 2 mendakwa banyak P-38 membunuh, dan unit PRG terbang sendiri, menghilangkannya sebagai kemungkinan dalam kebanyakan kes.

Rudorffer di Bahagian Timur
Mengenai Rudorffer di Front Timur, saya bukan pakar, tetapi saya tahu bahawa dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu pertempuran, dia dan sayapnya sangat optimis dengan tuntutan mereka. Saya harus ingat bahawa saya tidak mahu menuduhnya apa-apa (saya percaya dia masih hidup). Morten dan saya menulis kepadanya pada tahun 2001 bertanyakan apakah dia mahu memberikan maklumat untuk buku kami, tetapi dia menolak. Kami berharap kami dapat memperoleh ceritanya.


Justin Michael Wolfe

18 Oktober 2010 | Dihantar oleh Timothy Watson
  • Nombor DOC: 1139246. ((& # 8220Offender Locator. & # 8221 Jabatan Pembetulan Virginia 11 Oktober 2010. & ltttp: //www.vadoc.state.va.us/offenders/locator/index.cfm>.))
  • Nombor tahanan: 309126. ((& # 8220Offender Locator. & # 8221 Jabatan Pembetulan Virginia 11 Oktober 2010. & ltttp: //www.vadoc.state.va.us/offenders/locator/index.cfm>.))
  • Tempat: Prince William County. ((Wolfe lwn Komanwel, 265 Va. 193, 576 S.E.2d 471 (2003).))
  • Mangsa: Daniel Robert Petrole, Jr. ((Wolfe lwn Komanwel, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
  • Jenayah:
    • Pembunuhan modal (pembunuhan untuk disewa). ((Wolfe lwn Komanwel, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
    • Penggunaan senjata api untuk melakukan kejahatan. ((Wolfe lwn Komanwel, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))
    • Konspirasi untuk mengedar ganja. ((Wolfe lwn Komanwel, 265 Va. 193, 198, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474 (2003).))

    Dari Wolfe lwn Komanwel [penekanan saya di seluruh]:

    Defendan [Justin Michael Wolfe] adalah pengedar dadah utama di Virginia Utara. Dia kerap menjual ganja bermutu tinggi, yang disebut sebagai & # 8220 jenis tunas & # 8221 atau & # 8220kronik, & # 8221 dengan harga antara $ 4,200 hingga $ 5,000 per paun. Pembekal ganja adalah Daniel Robert Petrole, Jr, yang mula membekalkan ganja kepada defendan pada bulan November 2000, tujuh bulan sebelum dia dibunuh.

    Petrole, pembekal utama ganja bermutu tinggi di Virginia Utara, secara berkala membeli sekitar 100 paun ganja sebulan dengan harga $ 360,000. Petrole biasanya menjual defendan antara lapan hingga 18 paun ganja setiap dua minggu. Defendan menggambarkan Petrole sebagai & # 8220 orang kroniknya. & # 8221

    Untuk meneruskan aktiviti dadah mereka, terdakwa dan Petrole menggunakan sistem kredit tidak formal yang digambarkan sebagai & # 8220berhadapan. & # 8221 Ketika Petrole menjual ganja terdakwa, terdakwa memberikan sejumlah uang tunai kepada Petrole sebagai uang muka, dan terdakwa membayar baki ketika dia menerima hasil penjualan ganja kepada orang lain. Petrole menyimpan rekod penjualan ganja kepada peniaga seperti defendan, dan pembayaran yang dilakukan oleh peniaga tersebut, pada dokumen yang biasanya dikenali sebagai & # 8220owe sheet. & # 8221 Helaian & # 8220owe & # 8221 mengandungi jumlah hutang yang dikenakan dadah peniaga berhutang dengan Petrole. Kadang-kadang, terdakwa berhutang kepada Petrole sebanyak $ 100,000. Helaian & # 8220owe & # 8221 yang ditemui di badan Petrole pada malam dia dibunuh menunjukkan bahawa defendan berhutang kepada Petrole lebih dari $ 60,000.

    Defendan dan rakan-rakannya, T. Jason Coleman dan Chad E. Hough, mengadakan perbincangan mengenai menyamun pengedar dadah. Pada satu kesempatan, terdakwa, Hough dan Coleman merancang untuk merompak seorang pengedar dadah di sebuah lokasi di Washington, DC, tetapi setelah mereka melakukan pengawasan terhadap lokasi rompakan tersebut, mereka menyimpulkan bahawa tahap keselamatan yang luas di lokasi tersebut menjadikan mereka merancang terlalu berisiko.

    Janelle E. Johnson, isteri Coleman & # 8217, memberi keterangan bahawa pada musim sejuk tahun 2000, defendan dan Coleman membincangkan melakukan pencurian atau mencuri wang dari pengedar dadah lain yang menjual ganja di Virginia Utara. Untuk meneruskan rancangan ini, terdakwa dan Coleman membeli topeng ski dan pita saluran.

    Cukup memberi keterangan bahawa dia dan defendan sering bercakap tentang melakukan rompakan. Hampir setiap kali kami berkumpul, biasanya ada jenis rompakan yang berkaitan dengan dadah. & # 8221 Pada bulan Januari atau Februari 2001, terdakwa bertanya kepada Hough apakah dia ingin mendapatkan wang, dan [terdakwa] disebutkan. . . yang [Hough] dapat. . . menjana sejumlah wang dengan mengambil bahagian dalam rompakan. . . . & # 8221 Defendan mahu Hough merompak pengedar dadah ketika defendan sedang & # 8220 melakukan pembelian. & # 8221 Defendan mahu Hough mengikut pengedar dadah dan merompaknya. Defendan tidak menyebut nama pengedar dadah, tetapi Hough menyimpulkan bahawa defendan mahu Hough merompak pembekal dadah defendan.

    Owen M. Barber, IV, dan defendan telah & # 8220 berkawan baik & # 8221 selama enam atau tujuh tahun. Tukang gunting rambut, yang juga pengedar dadah, membeli ganja berkualiti rendah, disebut sebagai & # 8220shwag. & # 8221 Kadang-kadang, dia menjual sebilangan ganja kepada defendan. Defendan bertanya kepada Barber jika dia & # 8220 ingin mendapatkan [defendan & # 8217s] lelaki kronik. & # 8221 Defendan menyatakan bahawa Tukang Cukur tidak boleh hanya merompak & # 8220 orangnya yang kronik, & # 8221 tetapi Tukang gunting mesti menembaknya kerana Petrole mengenali terlalu banyak orang. Tukang gunting rambut memberi keterangan seperti berikut:

    & # 8220Q: Apakah ada saat ketika anda mengadakan perbincangan mengenai pembekal [ganja & # 8217s] pembekal tunas kronik atau jenis ganja?

    & # 8220A: Ya. Suatu hari ketika kami di [sebuah restoran] baru minum dan [defendan] bertanya kepada saya adakah saya ingin mendapatkan lelaki kroniknya.

    & # 8220Q: Dapatkan lelaki kronik?

    & # 8220A: Ya. And I was like, yeah, you know, we’ll just rob him or whatever. And I was like, all right, you know and then he said, no, no you can’t rob him. He was like, we got to shoot him because he knows too many people.

    “Q: He knows too many people?

    “A: Yeah.

    “Q: At that point in time, did he tell you who his chronic man was?

    “A: Yeah.

    “Q: Who was it?

    “A: He said Danny Petrole.

    “Q: Had you known Danny Petrole prior to that time?

    “A: No. I knew the name. I didn’t know him like personally.”

    This conversation occurred in late February or early March, 2001.

    The “next couple of days” after the defendant and Barber had the conversation about robbing and killing Petrole, the defendant and Barber planned how they “could do it and how [they would] have to find him or . . . follow him or catch him alone.” On one occasion, the defendant and Barber went to Petrole’s apartment in Washington, D.C. to determine if it was feasible to kill him at that location. The owner of the apartment building employed a doorman, and the defendant and Barber concluded that they should not kill Petrole at that location.

    Subsequently, the defendant and Barber made another attempt to locate and kill Petrole. The defendant made a telephone call to Petrole one night, and Petrole informed the defendant that Petrole intended to attend a class at the Northern Virginia Community College campus in Arlington or Annandale, Virginia. Barber was not sure of the specific campus where Petrole attended community college. The defendant and Barber got in Barber’s car and traveled to the campus. They “drove around the parking lot” looking for Petrole’s car, but they were unable to find it.

    On another occasion, the defendant spoke with Petrole, who informed the defendant that he (Petrole) planned to eat dinner at a restaurant in Washington, D.C. The defendant and Barber traveled to the restaurant in search of Petrole. Barber testified that they “went and looked for him at the restaurant . . . and we didn’t see him. Then we went back and we waited in the parking lot . . . behind his building.” Barber and the defendant did not find Petrole that evening. Barber and the defendant concluded that they were going to kill Petrole if he returned to his apartment that night. If he did not return to his apartment, they were going to wait until they had another opportunity to kill him.

    During the next several days, Barber and the defendant continued to discuss their plan to kill Petrole. On March 15, 2001, the defendant placed a telephone call to Barber, who was with a friend, Robert H. Martin, Jr. The defendant directed Barber to meet the defendant at a restaurant in Fairfax County. Barber and Martin went to the restaurant, and Barber and the defendant spoke alone in a parking lot. The defendant informed Barber that the defendant had spoken to Petrole, and the defendant planned to meet him that night. Petrole had agreed to bring a large quantity of high-grade marijuana to an apartment that the defendant shared with his girlfriend, Regina A. Zuener.

    The defendant and Barber agreed that Barber would follow Petrole once he left Zuener’s apartment. Barber returned to the car where Martin had waited, and they went to Barber’s apartment. About an hour later, the defendant, using his cellular telephone, called Barber to inform him that Petrole was “on his way” to Zuener’s apartment. Barber called the defendant and inquired whether Petrole had arrived, and the defendant informed Barber that Petrole had not.

    Barber asked Martin if he wanted to accompany Barber “on this thing [Barber] had to do,” but Martin refused. Barber testified as follows: “I think I told [Martin], you know, I’ve got to go do this thing and he was like – he said he was [willing] to beat him up or to rob him or whatever. And I was like, no, you know, it’s more than that. He’s like, no, no, I’m not going to do it. I’ll let you have my car, but I’m not going to do it.” Barber wanted to use Martin’s car to travel to Zuener’s house so that he could rob and kill Petrole because Barber’s car was too distinctive. Barber’s car was equipped with racing tires and a large noisy engine.

    Barber, armed with a Smith & Wesson nine millimeter pistol that he had purchased from Coleman, got into Martin’s car and drove to a cul-de-sac at the end of a street near Zuener’s apartment. Petrole arrived at Zuener’s apartment in Centreville. The defendant, Jennifer E. Pascquierllo, Nicholas Soto, and Coleman were present. Petrole knocked on the door, and Zuener let him in. Petrole was carrying a large black duffel bag filled with high-grade marijuana. Petrole and the defendant went upstairs to a bedroom. Later, Zuener went to the bedroom where she observed a large drug transaction occur between Petrole and the defendant. She saw between 10 and 15 pounds of high-grade marijuana on her bed. Petrole had a large amount of money. The marijuana was packaged in separate bags, weighing approximately one pound each. When the drug transaction was completed, the defendant and his friends went to a nightclub, and Petrole left the apartment and got in his car.

    As Petrole began to drive his car, unbeknownst to him, Barber followed Petrole as he drove through Fairfax County. Petrole parked his car in front of a house in Fairfax County and went inside. Barber, using his cellular telephone, called the defendant and informed him that Petrole “went into some house in Fairfax City.” Later, Petrole got back in his car and drove off as Barber continued to follow him. While following him, Barber temporarily lost sight of Petrole’s car, but managed to locate it and continued to follow him. Petrole drove his car to a neighborhood where he had recently purchased a townhouse and parked his car. Barber stopped the car he was driving and “jumped out.” Barber stated, “I shot him across through the passenger side window and then jumped back in the car and turned around and then left out with . . . my lights off.” Barber shot Petrole 10 times, and he was five or six feet from the victim when he discharged the pistol. Barber damaged Martin’s car during the murder. As Barber sped away, he tossed the pistol and gloves he used out of the car window.

    Issa Hassan, Walter P. Gunning, Jr., and Jeanette Lorentzen were in Petrole’s townhouse when they heard noises and ran to the window. They observed a red Ford Escort as it “sped off real fast and turned its lights as it turned around the corner.” Issa Hassan went outside, and he saw Petrole seated in the driver’s seat of the car. Hassan opened the door and shook Petrole. Petrole’s neck was “flimsy,” and he did not have a pulse. The car’s windows were shattered, and there was “glass everywhere in the car.”

    Police officers responded to the scene of the murder and found $ 965 on the victim’s body. The police officers found $ 17,460 in United States currency in the victim’s duffel bag located in the trunk of his vehicle. The police officers searched the victim’s house and found approximately $ 120,000 cash, 46 pounds of high-grade marijuana, which was “vacuum packed” in plastic bags, 4,000 tablets of metholanedioxine, an amphetamine, also known as Ecstasy, and an “owe sheet.”

    Gunning, Petrole’s roommate, testified that Petrole was angry with the defendant because he owed Petrole over $ 66,000 and that the defendant had taken “a little longer than what he expected to pay him back.”

    Dr. Frances P. Field, an assistant medical examiner, conducted an autopsy upon Petrole’s body. She gave the following testimony. The victim had nine gunshot wounds in his body. One bullet penetrated the victim’s spinal column and severed the spinal cord. Bullets damaged the victim’s ribs, abdomen, liver, kidney, large intestines, small intestines, aorta, lung, and chest. Dr. Field opined that the defendant’s death was caused by multiple gunshot wounds, and that any of the wounds which injured the internal organs such as the lung, liver, kidney, or spinal canal could have proven fatal because of bleeding from those sites.

    After he had committed the murder, Barber returned to his apartment and told Martin that he had killed Petrole. Barber used his cellular telephone to talk with the defendant, who was at the nightclub.

    Barber changed clothes, and he and Martin went to the nightclub to meet the defendant. Once Barber and Martin entered the nightclub, Barber and the defendant spoke outside of Martin’s presence. Barber told the defendant that he (Barber) “did it and it was done.” The defendant responded, “all right.” Then the defendant gave Barber “like a pound and a half hug.” The defendant “ordered a round of drinks” for himself, Barber, and Martin. The defendant commented that “we got to have a made cake now – or like a rack of cake,” a slang expression that means “we made a lot of money.” The purpose of the toast was to celebrate their “rack of money.”

    In return for his act of killing Petrole, the defendant told Barber that he did not have to pay for four pounds of marijuana that the defendant had previously sold him. Additionally, the defendant gave Barber a half pound of “chronic” marijuana, forgave Barber’s $ 3,000 debt for past drug transactions, and promised to pay Barber $ 10,000 in cash.

    Martin testified at trial, and his testimony corroborated Barber’s version of the events on the night of the murder. Martin and Barber had dinner with Martin’s parents on the evening of March 15 before the murder. After dinner, Barber and Martin went to Barber’s apartment that he shared with Coleman. They drank beer and smoked marijuana. Martin observed Barber when he had the conversation with the defendant in the parking lot of the restaurant. After the conversation, when the men were at Barber’s apartment, Barber told Martin that Barber intended to “put one in each kneecap.” Barber told Martin that Barber intended to leave the apartment with his pistol after he received a telephone call from the defendant. After Barber received the telephone call, he left the apartment, followed Petrole, and killed him.

    Martin testified that after the murder, he and Barber went to the nightclub and when they met the defendant, Barber told Martin “to go away” so that the defendant and Barber could have a private conversation. After the defendant and Barber had concluded their private conversation, Martin approached them. The defendant and Barber gave Martin an alcoholic beverage, and the defendant “told [Martin] right there you can’t say nothing about this and I’m about to make a lot of money.” Immediately, the defendant, Barber, and Martin made a toast.

    After the murder, Martin approached the defendant and asked for a discount for the purchase of marijuana. Martin told the defendant, “I know what happened.” The defendant gave Martin a discount on the purchase and forgave him of a past drug debt.

    The day after the murder, the defendant and several friends, including Barber, went shopping to purchase clothes to wear to a birthday party in honor of the defendant on March 17, 2001. The defendant and his friends purchased several bottles of expensive champagne for his birthday party that cost in excess of $ 200 per bottle.

    After his birthday party, the defendant decided that things were getting “too hot” with the police, and he fled to Florida. Police officers searched Barber’s apartment and interrogated him, but he denied any involvement in Petrole’s murder. Barber left Virginia, went to Florida, and then fled to San Diego, California. Barber contacted his former girlfriend, Jennifer Pascquierllo, and asked her to obtain money from the defendant and bring the money to Barber. The defendant gave her $ 1,000. She drove her car to meet Barber in San Diego, where he was eventually arrested by United States Marshals.

    Three days after the murder, Barber gave Martin $ 540 and directed him to repair the damage to his car and to replace the tires. Barber was afraid that the car’s tires may have created identifiable skid marks at the scene of the murder. Barber instructed Martin to take the car to Virginia Beach, Virginia, and get it repaired there. Martin told Barber that Martin was not “going to help him out.” Martin tried to return the money, but Barber would not accept it. That night, Martin contacted police officers and reported the crime.

    Pascquierllo testified that Barber relayed to her the facts relating to the murder of Petrole. Her testimony concerning these facts was consistent with Barber’s trial testimony. She also testified: “I asked [Barber] what the sum of money was, what kind of sum of money it could have been, and he told me that it was $ 10,000 and he got some weed, but that he had to flush it, and then he told me that it was also the $ 3,000 debt that involved me.” Pascquierllo testified that Barber tried unsuccessfully to obtain from the defendant the $ 10,000 that he had promised to pay Barber to kill Petrole.

    The defendant made numerous admissions during his testimony. The defendant admitted that he had been a drug dealer for four or five years before Petrole’s death. He admitted that he was guilty of the charge of conspiracy to distribute more than five pounds of marijuana. He had distributed more than 100 pounds of marijuana throughout Northern Virginia since he began selling drugs. He admitted that he had spoken to his friends about robbing a drug dealer. He admitted that he had discussed with Coleman the possibility of committing robberies. The defendant admitted that he was the last person Barber called before Barber killed Petrole and the first person Barber called after Petrole’s death. He admitted that he sold marijuana to Martin after the murder and that Martin stated, “I know what happened.” After Martin made this statement, the defendant admitted he decreased the price of the marijuana he sold to Martin.

    The defendant testified that one of his highest priorities was the “high life” that money could obtain for him. The defendant regularly spent between $ 2,000 and $ 3,000 on weekends for entertainment purposes. The defendant admitted that he owed Petrole more than $ 80,000 at the time of Petrole’s death.

    The defendant claimed that Barber testified untruthfully about him because the defendant purportedly had had sexual relations with Barber’s former girlfriend, Pascquierllo. However, the defendant admits that when asked by the police detectives, “did Owen have anything against you?,” the defendant responded, “no.” Additionally, Pascquierllo denied that she ever had a sexual relationship with the defendant. ((Wolfe v. Commonwealth, 265 Va. 193, 199-206, 576 S.E.2d 471, 474-479 (2003).))

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    Kristallnacht

    Interviewee: Lowe, Margaret (לאו, מרגרט)
    Page: 12
    Year: 1993
    Bahasa Inggeris
    Length: 0:35:14

    כל הזכויות לראיונות באתר זה שמורות למדור לתיעוד בע”פ במכון אברה הרמן
    ליהדות זמננו באוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים. השימוש בראיונות מיוע למטרות
    מחקר בלבד. נאסר שימוש שאינו מורשה. כל פרסום חייב לכלול הפניה מפורשת למקו.

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    />A plane captain catches a few winks with a chock for his pillow during "stand by" to flight quarters beneath a Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat during operation "Torch." (Arkib Negara)

    Vichy French forces in Morocco were unaware of the massive invasion force steaming toward them until dawn on Nov. 8, when landing craft began hitting the beaches, along with covering fire from the Allied flotilla.

    By 0630 the French had sounded alert sirens at scattered barracks and airfields. After shore batteries near Casablanca belatedly responded, the Vichy government’s forces were called to defend its installations — and French honor.

    “Fighting Nine”(VF-9) was launched from Renjer at 0610, with commanding officer Lt. Cmdr. Jack Raby leading nine Wildcats off the deck.

    Sweeping unopposed over Cazes airfield, southwest of Casablanca, they made three line-abreast passes, destroying many French aircraft on the ground.

    Eight more VF-9 Wildcats concentrated on the Sale airfield, strafing multi-engine bombers being readied for takeoff.

    The first French Hawks to make it into the air over Casablanca, six fighters of GC II/5 led by Lt. Pierre Villacèque, encountered Vought OS2U-3 Kingfisher and Curtiss SOC-1 floatplanes that were spotting fleet gunfire.

    After one Kingfisher was shot down, the rest of the spotters retreated.

    As a second squadron from Renjer, VF-41, entered the action over Cazes and the beachhead, its F4Fs clashed with French Hawks and Dewoitine D.520s.

    />On the flight deck of the aircraft carrier Ranger while sailing to North Africa, Aviation Machinist’s Mate 1st Class R.M. Price offered Aviation Radioman 3rd Class M.S. Waterson, left, $2,340 for the latter’s rear seat in a dive bomber but was turned down. (Arkib Negara)

    Lt. j.g. Charles “Windy” Shields encountered two red-and-yellow-striped French fighters. The enemy planes came so close, he recalled,“You could see their insignia.”

    Then one of Shields’ squadron mates exclaimed over the radio: “Look at that — the bastards! That used to be an American squadron,” a reference to the Indian head insignia clearly visible on the Vichy plane.

    The sky was full of wheeling Dewoitines, Hawks and Wildcats. Shields went after one of the defenders and, in his eagerness, overshot his target. Dia ingat:

    As I went past I saw he was coming round on my tail. I pulled up and came back over in a quick turn that brought me with my nose toward him. I was too far away and too anxious but still gave him a burst from long range. Those .50-calibers got him. I could see him standing still in the air as if something had jerked him up by the tail. He looked as though he was going to stall to take evasive action, and he fell over to starboard, his wing fluttering. I followed him down, too excited to think of doing anything else.

    He hit the ground, bounced, and with his motor still running, ricocheted across the field until he came to stop in a water hole.

    I circled but there was no sign of the pilot.

    Then I remembered about keeping together, knowing I was crazy to be down there all alone. Presently I saw a Wildcat [Lt. j.g. Charles August’s] coming in across the airfield very fast and very low with two P-36s on his tail.

    The French pilots were scissoring round behind him and shooting alternate bursts. Chuck shouted over the radio, “Windy! Windy! Get those bastards off my tail quick!”

    I went down with my throttle wide open and one of the French planes saw me and broke away. I got on his tail but he managed to slip away. Those P-36s are extremely maneuverable.

    Out of the corner of my eye I saw August going up in a steep chandelle and getting his Hawk with a beautiful shot. I got my man in the sights, lost him, got him again, gave him a burst and then another. He went up into a climbing turn, a darn silly thing to do, and I only had to pull up my nose and take a simple shot at him. He staggered and rolled over, then righted himself.

    A streak of orange flame came from his starboard side, and he went down spinning and burning.

    />Fighter pilots gather in a ready room on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4) before dawn of the first day of attacks on North Africa, Nov. 8, 1942. Pilots scheduled to take off before dawn wear dark goggles to accustom their eyes to darkness. (Arkib Negara)

    Eventually the Hawks ganged up on Shields, sending bullets into his fuel lines and more that tore open the top of his wing. His cockpit filled with smoke.

    “The fumes were getting thick now, but the machine was still flying,” he remembered. “Then an incendiary bullet started a fire. A great lick of flame came up at my face and I knew it was the end. I pushed back on the hood and tried to turn the Wildcat on her back, but she wouldn’t have it. The trim tabs and aileron surfaces were not working.

    "I decided to stall her, and at that moment when she lost flying speed I braced my knees and jumped for it. The parachute opened, and as I floated down feeling angry and frustrated, a French plane came at me. I thought he was going to shoot me but he just flew past, wagging his wings, waving his hands and laughing like hell.”

    Chuck August was also battling for his life against the Lafayette Escadrille Hawks.

    After his F4F took anti-aircraft hits that caused the right landing gear to droop, the Vichy fighters were chasing him over Cazes airfield when more Wildcats came to his rescue. Somehow he managed to shake off his tormentors and get his sights on a Hawk.

    He recounted what happened next:

    My position was just right and I made a high beam attack and gave him a long burst. The .50-caliber bullets hitting at about 60 per second seemed to rip him open like a can opener. He stopped in his line of flight, turned turtle and went down in flames.

    I saw another pair of enemy planes, a P-36 and a Dewoitine 520. The pilots seemed to be talking to each other. I got close in and fired.

    The P-36 shuddered. The weight of metal you put into them with the 50-calibers seems to jar them off their line of flight. I got to within 50 yards, feeling strangely elated. I was sure of hitting him now and as I gave him a burst with all guns and pulled up over him, he was hanging in the air and rolling about with a convulsive movement, rather like an animal in pain.

    Then the red-and-yellow-nosed plane turned over in a slow roll with its engine running and began to fly on its back.

    It was like watching a beginner crash in a training flight. It went down quite slowly and a plume of dark smoke spurted from the ground where it hit.

    Still at low altitude, with friends and foes dodging in and out of view, August could see fires burning all over Cazes.

    />Testing machine guns of Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4), while sailing to North Africa in November of 1942. (National Archives)

    I climbed for better altitude and checked over the targets on the airfield. I made one run over some parked bombers.

    One of them subsided gently to the ground as if a giant had suddenly sat on it. A gun crew fired at me, and a man with a Tommy gun took a pot shot at me then shook his fist pathetically. Then suddenly, as I pulled the nose up, I found that I was losing speed.

    I cussed and stuck the nose down and checked the instruments. I had about 60 gallons of fuel but oil pressure was zero. Underneath was what looked like the world’s worst terrain for a forced landing — hills, rocks and gullies. I was at about 1,100 feet when my motor let out a noise that was like a cracked bell sounding over a radio at full blast. Then came a terrible vibration, the entire machine getting the jitters.

    It was so violent that it almost shook the stick out of my hand. Then it stopped.

    August tried but failed to turn his Wildcat over before bailing out. As a result, one of his legs hit the stabilizer when he went over the side.

    His chute opened just before he hit the ground, though he recalled: “Hit is hardly the term. I crashed very hard and painfully because I was swinging like a pendulum. When I caught my breath I found myself on my back being dragged along by the parachute.”

    />A destroyer passes astern of the aircraft carrier RANGER at sunset on Nov. 8, 1942, the first day of landings on North Africa. Note F4F Wildcat fighters on the Ranger's deck. (Arkib Negara)

    The French had taken off in ones and twos, often under fire, until they outnumbered the attackers. Lt. G.H. Carter expressed grudging respect for the enemy airmen:

    I got separated from the gang and three Vichy pilots came from nowhere on my tail. I did everything I knew to get them off, but they kept on coming.

    I got a shot at one and turned him away with smoke coming from his engine. Then another one got me at close range and hit my plane behind somewhere, and the controls became difficult.

    The best thing seemed to be to head back out to sea and try to make the carrier, but that Frenchman on my tail was smart and exceedingly aggressive. His second burst shot away my oil cooler lines.

    I began to lose altitude and was heading for the drink when a bunch of bullets hit the back of my armor plate. I couldn’t do anything so I stuck her nose down and prepared to ditch.

    The French pilot who had just shot me down showed up on my right waving and grinning. He was still overhead when I made a crash landing.

    Quite a chivalrous guy.

    />The escort carrier Santee with Douglas SBD-3 Dauntless scout-bombers and Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighters on the flight deck during Operation Torch. (Arkib Negara)

    The GC II/5 journal described the air battle with the Wildcats in melancholy terms:

    The Grummans are very tenacious, provided with invincible weapons, they are three times as numerous as us and soon gain superiority over our unfortunate Curtiss planes.

    Our pilots, in spite of their lack of training and decrepitude of their planes, fight a fierce battle and clearly defend their lives, downing numerous enemies.

    [Maj. Georges] Tricaud is killed after having downed a Grumman above the runway. Capt. [Robert] Huvet, one of our most brilliant pilots, with six confirmed victories [over Germans], is killed at his post.

    Adjutants [François] LaChaux and [Paul] deMontgolfier and Sgt. [Lucien] Heme, all superior pilots, also fall on the Field of Honor.

    Several other pilots are defeated and wounded, some seriously: Capt. [Elie] Reyné received a bullet in the right thigh Lt. [Georges] Ruchoux, after overcoming one enemy plane is wounded in one leg, burned and parachutes Lt. Fabre is seriously wounded by three bullets in his left arm Lt. Villacèque, heavily engaged against several enemy planes, defeats one of them, after which he is wounded in the face by plexiglass splinters and landed roughly.

    While these battles are going on, other Martlet [export version of the Wildcat] formations are machine gunning the field, burning one after the other, nearly all of the Douglas twin-engine craft [11 out of 13] of GB [Groupe de Bombardement] I/32.

    VF-41 claimed 13 aerial victories and one probable, plus six planes destroyed and eight damaged on the ground.

    In reality, six pilots from GC II/5 were shot down and died, two were wounded, one was forced to bail out, another was killed in a takeoff accident and several aircraft returned so badly damaged as to be inoperable.

    VF-41’s losses were also heavy. French pilots claimed the destruction of seven Wildcats and three more probables.

    In fact, six F4Fs and their pilots failed to return to Renjer. Two of the missing pilots (Shields and August) became POWs.

    It had been a battle of near equals. Both the Wildcats and the Hawks had a top speed of just over 300 mph both were highly maneuverable and armed with six machine guns (though the French guns were 7.5mm, closer to .30-caliber as compared to the Wildcat’s .50-calibers).

    />Pilots of Fighting Squadron 41 (VF-41) singing in their ready room on board the aircraft carrier Ranger, before zero hour of the first day of the invasion of Morocco, Nov. 8, 1942. Lt. Malcolm T. Wordell, Squadron Executive Officer, (at right) is leading the songs. Lt. Jacob W. Onstott is standing in the left center. Wordell would be shot down near Casablanca. (Arkib Negara)

    The dogfights had ended by the time a second patrol of 16 Wildcats (half from VF-9 and half from VF-41) led by Lt. Mac Wordell arrived over the beachhead.

    At the same time, five French destroyers came boiling out of Casablanca Harbor, headed toward the transports and landing craft.

    Wordell alerted his comrades, then led the unit in a strafing run.

    “I started firing at about 4,000 feet as my sights began to travel down the center line of the last ship in column,” he later reported. “I could see the tracers squirting on the decks and bouncing off, and it almost felt like I was running into my own ricochets.

    "Actually I was seeing the red pencils of their tracer fire coming up at me.”

    The Wildcats’ attack and a volley of shells from the offshore fleet stopped the foray by the French destroyers, but not before Wordell’s F4F was damaged by anti-aircraft fire.

    He recalled: “It wasn’t until I was over the leading ship that I almost subconsciously heard a noise — the same kind of noise you hear when you jam a screwdriver into a can of milk.”

    With oil streaming from his engine and the cockpit filling with smoke, he crash-landed.

    By noon the French destroyers were damaged or beached, and Wordell was riding into Casablanca behind a native Spahi cavalryman.

    Jean Bart and other French ships in Casablanca Harbor were pounded by SBD dive bombers from Renjer dan Suwanee and shelled by the battleship Massachusetts.

    Meanwhile, Task Force 34 aircraft strafed columns of French troops bound for the beachhead and also struck remote Vichy airfields.

    />Ordnancemen mount a 1000-pound bomb beneath the belly of a Douglas SBD-3 "Dauntless" on board the aircraft carrier Ranger during operation "Torch" in November of 1942. (National Archives)

    U.S. Navy air units suffered several more casualties due to flak or mechanical failure.

    Santee, which bore the brunt of the trouble, lost three aircraft in landing crashes.

    Then Lt. Cmdr. John Blackburn was forced to ditch after he experienced landing gear problems (he was rescued the following day). Lt. j.g. George Trumpeter declared an emergency over land, and was never seen again.

    Four other pilots from Santee couldn’t locate the fleet due to radio interference and landed at Safi airfield, where they were temporarily imprisoned by the French.

    Dawn of Nov. 9 found Patton’s army firmly established in Morocco. Despite heavy losses on the 8th, the French army and air force units again mounted a defense against the invaders.

    The Lafayette Escadrille pilots were airborne early on the 9th, although they had just five operational Hawk 75s.

    Renjer dispatched nine VF-41 Wildcats for low-level assignments eight VF-9 aircraft stayed close behind them, serving as top cover.

    Controllers on Renjer reported that Allied troops in the Fedhala lodgment were being strafed when a greater menace appeared: fresh enemy troops and tanks from Casablanca.

    While Lt. Cmdr. Tom Booth led VF-41 in repeated strafing runs against the French column, Fighting Nine — patrolling at 10,000 feet — spotted 15 French bombers approaching the landing craft at the beach head.

    They were escorted by 16 Hawks from GC I/5, the “Champagne” squadron. Lt. Cmdr. Raby led eight F4Fs against this new threat.

    The French bombers managed to escape while the escorting fighters engaged the Wildcats.

    />A Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat fighter taking off from the aircraft carrier Ranger to attack targets ashore during the invasion of Morocco in 1942. (National Archives)

    After one Hawk dodged an overeager attack by Ensign Marvin Franger, the Navy pilot made a tight turn and stayed with him.

    “I was able to slide in on his tail and that was the end,” Franger said. “He started smoking and I saw fire as he went down. I didn’t see him go in but our section leader, Al Martin, saw the crash.”

    The French fought courageously, but their Hawks’ 7.5mm guns were unable to inflict significant damage on the armor plated F4Fs.

    The Wildcats’ .50-calibers, on the other hand, took a devastating toll on the Vichy fighters, destroying four planes of the Champagne squadron and killing two of its pilots.

    Two other French fliers survived crash landings, while four more Hawks were damaged.

    Adjutant Georges Tesseraud was gravely wounded, and Lt. Camille Plubeau made a belly landing at Rabat, emerging unhurt.

    VF-9 lost two of its aircraft to battle damage. The only GC I/5 success, by Sgt. Jérémy Bressieux, compelled Ensign C.W. Gerhardt to ditch his F4F at sea, while Ensign Louis Menard crashed into the barrier when he landed on Renjer.

    Neither American was injured.

    />Aviation Machinist's Mate 3rd Class W. T. Chamberlain relaxes on the wing of a Grumman F4F-4 Wildcat, 9-F-12 (assigned to VF-9) during operation "Torch," in November 1942, on board the aircraft carrier Ranger (CV-4). Note how the "9" of the fuselage coding overlaps the yellow surround to the fuselage star. (Arkib Negara)

    By noon Fighting Nine was airborne again, scouting for enemy planes.

    Leading 13 Wildcats at 10,000 feet, Raby spotted many aircraft on the ground at Mediouna airfield.

    Diving by sections in echelon formation, the F4Fs swept down on the targets, concentrating on rows of fighters and half a dozen DB-7 bombers.

    After five strafing passes, all the bombers and most of the fighters were burning.

    During one low strafing run a Douglas bomber exploded just as Lt. Ed Micka passed over it — sending his Wildcat crashing into the ground.

    A French officer later described the aftermath in a letter: “We buried him on the spot with full military honors. Over the grave we put a white cross, to which we affixed the identification tag of the brave flier.”

    />Mrs. Evelyn Vandenberg Micka, widow of the Lt. Edward Micka, who was killed in action on Nov. 9, 1942. The sponsor of the ship, she holds her 10-month old daughter Barbara Lynn Micka, during launching ceremonies for the destroyer escort Micka at Port Newark, New Jersey, on Aug. 23, 1943. (U.S. Naval History and Heritage Command)

    Micka was not the only casualty.

    French gunners scored hits on several F4Fs, including Lt. j.g. Mayo A. Hadden’s, which was hit 12 times. Despite heavy damage to his plane and a shrapnel wound in one leg, Hadden managed to get his Wildcat back to Renjer.

    For the balance of the day the French air force was nowhere to be seen. Task Force 34 pilots spent the rest of their time scouring the roads ahead of advancing U.S. forces.

    In fact, the French defenders’ air strength had been so depleted in the first two days that no fighters appeared in the sky on Nov. 10.

    Task Force 34 fighters and bombers devoted the 10th to close ground support missions and attacks on Jean Bart, which continued to lob shells at targets miles away.

    Later that day, Gen. Auguste Lahoulle, the French air commander in Morocco, met with survivors of GC II/5 to give them a pep talk.

    A heated discussion ensued, with senior officers of the Lafayette Escadrille imploring the general to “understand the futility of this fratricidal struggle.”

    It must have been a relief to all concerned when, at 2200, they received a message from Casablanca ordering them to end the hostilities.

    Honor having been served, the Vichy French negotiated a truce and quickly transitioned to become the Free French.

    Reequipped with American aircraft, the air units fought valiantly against Axis forces for the balance of the war.

    Many of the U.S. Navy fliers who fought in Morocco went on to serve in the Pacific. Fighting Nine, for example, would see two tours of combat against the Japanese. And several former Task Force 34 pilots — including Blackburn, Wordell, Franger and Menard — became aces before the war’s end.

    />Photographer's Mate Second Class D. Mokos gestures as pilot Lt. C.V. Johnson prepares to take off on a photo-recon "hop" from the aircraft carrier Ranger during operation "Torch." The plane is a Douglas SBD-3 "Dauntless" form VS-41. (Arkib Negara)

    John W. “Jack” Lambert is the author of numerous books and articles about air combat during World War II. For additional reading, he recommends his own Wildcats Over Casablanca monograph. This article originally was published in the May 2011 issue of Aviation History, one of Navy Times’ sister publications. To subscribe, click di sini.