15 Ogos 1943

15 Ogos 1943



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15 Ogos 1943

Perang di Udara

Pesawat Eight Air Heavy Bomber Mission No. 82: 327 dihantar untuk menyerang lapangan terbang Luftwaffe di Vlissingen (Flushing), Poix, Amiens, Vitry, Merville dan Lille / Vendeville. Dua pesawat hilang.

Itali

Marsekal Badoglio, pemimpin Itali yang baru, menghantar utusan perdamaian ke Madrid

Pasifik

Pasukan Amerika dan Kanada mendarat di Kiska (Kepulauan Aleutian), untuk mencari orang Jepun telah pergi

Pengebom Jepun menyerang Tsili Tsili (New Guinea) untuk pertama kalinya

Kekuatan utama pasukan AS mendarat di Vella Lavella, di hujung barat Kepulauan New Georgia, melewati pangkalan utama Jepun di Kolombangara.

Bahagian Depan Timur

Jeneral Infantri Dr Lothar Rendulic mengambil alih Tentera Panzer Kedua

Buku



Perang Dunia II: Rwe Schweinfurt-Regensburg

Raid Schweinfurt-Regensburg pertama berlaku semasa & gtWorld War II (1939-1945).

Pesawat Amerika menyerang sasaran di Schweinfurt dan Regensburg pada 17 Ogos 1943.

Komander Pasukan & amp:

Ringkasan Schweinfurt-Regensburg:

Musim panas tahun 1943 menyaksikan pengembangan pasukan pengebom AS di England ketika pesawat mula kembali dari Afrika Utara dan pesawat baru tiba dari Amerika Syarikat. Pertumbuhan kekuatan ini bertepatan dengan permulaan Operasi Pointblank. Dirancang oleh Marsekal Udara Arthur "Bomber" Harris dan Jeneral Jeneral Carl Spaatz, Pointblank bertujuan untuk menghancurkan Luftwaffe dan infrastrukturnya sebelum pencerobohan ke Eropah. Ini harus dicapai melalui serangan pengebom gabungan terhadap kilang-kilang pesawat Jerman, kilang bantalan bola, depot bahan bakar, dan sasaran lain yang berkaitan.

Misi Pointblank awal dilakukan oleh Sayap Bombardment 1st dan 4th USAAF (1st & amp 4th BW) yang berpusat di Midlands dan East Anglia. Operasi ini menyasarkan kilang pejuang Focke-Wulf Fw 190 di Kassel, Bremen, dan Oschersleben. Walaupun pasukan pengebom Amerika mengalami korban yang besar dalam serangan ini, mereka dianggap cukup efektif untuk menjamin pengeboman kilang Messerschmitt Bf 109 di Regensburg dan Wiener Neustadt. Dalam menilai sasaran ini, diputuskan untuk menugaskan Regensburg ke Angkatan Udara ke-8 di England, sementara yang terakhir akan diserang oleh Angkatan Udara ke-9 di Afrika Utara.

Dalam merencanakan serangan di Regensburg, Angkatan Udara ke-8 memilih untuk menambah sasaran kedua, bola galas menanam di Schweinfurt, dengan tujuan mengalahkan pertahanan udara Jerman. Rancangan misi meminta BW ke-4 menghantam Regensburg dan kemudian menuju selatan ke pangkalan di Afrika Utara. BW ke-1 akan mengikuti jarak pendek di belakang dengan tujuan untuk menangkap pejuang Jerman di lapangan mengisi minyak. Setelah berjaya mencapai sasaran mereka, BW ke-1 akan kembali ke England. Seperti semua serangan jauh ke Jerman, pejuang Sekutu hanya dapat memberikan pengawal sejauh Eupen, Belgia kerana jarak tempuh yang terbatas.

Untuk menyokong usaha Schweinfurt-Regensburg, dua set serangan pengalihan dijadwalkan terhadap lapangan terbang dan sasaran Luftwaffe di sepanjang pantai. Pada asalnya dirancang untuk 7 Ogos, serbuan ditangguhkan kerana cuaca buruk. Digelar Operation Juggler, Tentera Udara ke-9 menyerang kilang-kilang di Wiener Neustadt pada 13 Ogos, sementara Tentera Udara ke-8 tetap berada di landasan kerana masalah cuaca. Akhirnya pada 17 Ogos, misi dimulakan walaupun sebahagian besar England diliputi kabut. Selepas kelewatan sebentar, BW ke-4 mula melancarkan pesawatnya sekitar jam 8:00 pagi.

Walaupun rancangan misi mengharuskan Regensburg dan Schweinfurt dipukul secara berturut-turut untuk memastikan kerugian minimum, BW ke-4 diizinkan untuk berangkat walaupun BW ke-1 masih dikuasai oleh kabut. Akibatnya, BW ke-4 melintasi pantai Belanda pada saat BW ke-1 di udara, membuka jurang antara pasukan mogok. Diketuai oleh Kolonel Curtis LeMay, BW ke-4 terdiri daripada 146 B-17. Kira-kira sepuluh minit setelah mendarat, serangan tempur Jerman bermula. Walaupun ada beberapa pengawal pejuang yang hadir, mereka terbukti tidak cukup untuk menutup seluruh kekuatan.

Setelah pertempuran udara selama sembilan puluh minit, Jerman melancarkan pengisian bahan bakar setelah menembak jatuh 15 B-17. Tiba di sasaran, pengebom LeMay menemui serpihan kecil dan dapat menempatkan kira-kira 300 tan bom tepat. Berpusing ke selatan, pasukan Regensburg disambut oleh beberapa pejuang, tetapi transit yang sangat tidak lancar ke Afrika Utara. Walaupun begitu, 9 pesawat tambahan hilang kerana 2 B-17 yang rosak terpaksa mendarat di Switzerland dan beberapa yang lain terhempas di Mediterranean kerana kekurangan bahan bakar. Dengan BW ke-4 berlepas dari kawasan ini, Luftwaffe bersiap sedia untuk menghadapi BW ke-1 yang semakin hampir.

Di belakang jadual, 230 B-17 dari BW 1 menyeberangi pantai dan mengikuti jalan yang serupa dengan BW ke-4. Dipimpin secara peribadi oleh Brigadier Jenderal Robert B. Williams, pasukan Schweinfurt segera diserang oleh pejuang Jerman. Menghadapi lebih 300 pejuang semasa penerbangan ke Schweinfurt, BW ke-1 mengalami korban berat dan kehilangan 22 B-17. Ketika mereka mencapai sasaran, Jerman melepaskan diri untuk mengisi bahan bakar sebagai persiapan untuk menyerang pengebom pada perjalanan pulang mereka.

Mencapai sasaran sekitar jam 3:00 PM, pesawat Williams menghadapi serangan besar di seluruh kota. Semasa mereka melancarkan bom, 3 B-17 lagi hilang. Pulang ke rumah, BW ke-4 sekali lagi menemui pejuang Jerman. Dalam pertempuran yang sedang berjalan, Luftwaffe menjatuhkan 11 B-17 yang lain. Sampai di Belgium, pengebom itu disambut oleh pasukan pejuang Sekutu yang memungkinkan mereka menyelesaikan perjalanan mereka ke England yang relatif tidak terganggu.

Gabungan Schweinfurt-Regensburg Raid berharga USAAF 60 B-17 dan 55 kapal udara. Krew yang hilang berjumlah 552 orang, yang separuh menjadi tawanan perang dan dua puluh orang ditahan oleh Swiss. Di atas pesawat yang selamat kembali ke pangkalan, 7 awak pesawat terbunuh, dengan 21 yang lain cedera. Sebagai tambahan kepada pasukan pengebom, Sekutu kehilangan 3 P-47 Thunderbolts dan 2 Spitfires. Sementara kru udara Bersekutu menuntut 318 pesawat Jerman, Luftwaffe melaporkan bahawa hanya 27 pejuang yang hilang. Walaupun kerugian Sekutu teruk, mereka berjaya menyebabkan kerosakan besar pada kedua-dua kilang Messerschmitt dan kilang galas bebola. Walaupun orang Jerman melaporkan penurunan 34% pengeluarannya dengan segera, ini dibuat dengan cepat oleh kilang lain di Jerman. Kerugian semasa serbuan itu menyebabkan para pemimpin Sekutu memikirkan kembali kelayakan serbuan siang hari yang tidak disekat di Jerman. Jenis serbuan ini akan ditangguhkan buat sementara waktu setelah serangan kedua di Schweinfurt mengalami 20% korban pada 14 Oktober 1943.


Maharaja Hirohito mengumumkan penyerahan Jepun

Walaupun Tokyo telah menyampaikan kepada Sekutu mengenai penerimaan syarat penyerahan Persidangan Potsdam beberapa hari sebelumnya, dan pengumuman perkhidmatan berita Jepun telah dibuat untuk itu, orang Jepun masih menunggu untuk mendengar suara yang berwibawa berbicara yang tidak dapat diucapkan: bahawa Jepun telah dikalahkan.

Suara itu adalah maharaja & # x2019s. Pada 15 Ogos, suara itu & # x2014 mendengar gelombang udara radio untuk pertama kalinya & # x2014 mengaku bahawa musuh Jepun & # x2019 telah mula menggunakan bom yang paling kejam, kekuatannya untuk melakukan kerosakan memang tidak dapat dihitung, mengambil tol banyak nyawa yang tidak bersalah. & # x201D Inilah alasan yang diberikan untuk penyerahan Jepun & # x2019. Memoir lisan Hirohito, yang diterbitkan dan diterjemahkan selepas perang, membuktikan maharaja & # x2019 ketakutan pada masa itu bahawa & # x201Bangsa Jepun akan musnah jika perang berterusan. & # X201D

Titik utama dalam penyerahan Jepun adalah status Hirohito sebagai maharaja. Tokyo mahukan status maharaja & # x2019s melindungi Sekutu yang tidak mahu ada prasyarat. Terdapat kompromi. Maharaja mempertahankan gelarannya Jeneral Douglas MacArthur percaya bahawa kehadirannya sekurang-kurangnya upacara akan menjadi pengaruh yang stabil di Jepun selepas perang. Tetapi Hirohito terpaksa melepaskan status ketuhanannya. Jepun kalah lebih daripada perang & # x2014it kehilangan tuhan.


Hampstead, NH & # 8211 19 Ogos 1943

Tidak banyak maklumat mengenai kemalangan ini.

Pukul 4:30 petang pada petang 19 Ogos 1943, tentera AS C-49J, (# 43-1971), dilihat mengelilingi Island Pond di Hampstead, New Hampshire, pada ketinggian antara 1.000 hingga 1.500 kaki dengan roda dipanjangkan, ketika tiba-tiba berpusing dan merempuh kawasan berhutan.

Kelima-lima lelaki di dalamnya terbunuh.

Cuaca pada masa itu & # 8220 rosak hingga tersebar, 3-4000 kaki, jarak penglihatan tidak terhad. & # 8221

Menurut laporan siasatan kemalangan Air Corps, juruterbang tersebut disenaraikan sebagai salah satu R. T. Tersembunyi, & # 8220 juruterbang komersial & # 8221. Di bawah & # 8220pilot & # 8217s misi & # 8221 dalam laporan itu dinyatakan & # 8220Army ATTF Transition training. & # 8221

Anggota kerahan termasuk:

Letnan Charles Appier ke-2. Dia dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Star of Hope di Huntington, Indiana.

Letnan ke-2 Robert W. Barron. Dia dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Holy Cross di Escanaba, Michigan.

Pfc. Robert A. Bell. Dia dikebumikan di Tanah Perkuburan Union di Flandreau, South Dakota.


Pautan berguna dalam format yang boleh dibaca oleh mesin.

Kunci Sumber Arkib (ARK)

Rangka Kerja Interoperabiliti Imej Antarabangsa (IIIF)

Format Metadata

Gambar

Statistik

Buletin Brownwood (Brownwood, Tex.), Vol. 43, No.302, Ed. 1 Ahad, 15 Ogos 1943, akhbar, 15 Ogos 1943 (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth1094743/: diakses pada 21 Jun 2021), Perpustakaan Universiti Texas Utara, Portal ke Texas Sejarah, https://texashistory.unt.edu mengkreditkan Perpustakaan Awam Brownwood.

Mengenai Isu Ini

Cari Di Dalam

Baca Sekarang

Cetak & Kongsi

Petikan, Hak, Penggunaan Semula


The Sunday Record (Mineola, Tex.), Vol. 31, No. 20, Ed. 1 Ahad, 15 Ogos 1943

Surat khabar mingguan dari Mineola, Texas yang merangkumi berita tempatan, negeri dan nasional bersama dengan iklan.

Penerangan Fizikal

empat halaman: sakit. halaman 21 x 15 in. Digit dari 35 mm. mikrofilem.

Maklumat Penciptaan

Pencipta: Tidak diketahui. 15 Ogos 1943.

Konteks

Ini surat khabar adalah sebahagian dari koleksi yang bertajuk: Texas Digital Newspaper Program dan disediakan oleh Perpustakaan Peringatan Mineola ke The Portal to Texas History, sebuah repositori digital yang dihoskan oleh Perpustakaan UNT. Ia telah dilihat 39 kali. Maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai isu ini dapat dilihat di bawah.

Orang dan organisasi yang berkaitan dengan penciptaan akhbar ini atau kandungannya.

Pencipta

Penonton

Lihat Laman Sumber untuk Pendidik kami! Kami telah mengenal pasti perkara ini surat khabar sebagai sumber utama dalam koleksi kami. Penyelidik, pendidik, dan pelajar mungkin menganggap isu ini berguna dalam karya mereka.

Disediakan oleh

Perpustakaan Peringatan Mineola

Terletak di kota Texas Timur Mineola di Wood County, Perpustakaan Peringatan Mineola mula membuahkan hasil pada tahun 1950 dan sejak itu berkembang dengan memasukkan lebih dari 46,000 buku, surat khabar digital, dan banyak bahan lain. Yayasan Tocker menyediakan dana untuk pendigitalan bahan perpustakaan.


Selepas

Dalam menjalankan Operasi Dragoon, Sekutu menewaskan sekitar 17.000 orang yang terbunuh dan cedera sementara mengalami kerugian berjumlah kira-kira 7.000 terbunuh, 10.000 cedera, dan 130.000 ditangkap di Jerman. Tidak lama selepas penangkapan mereka, kerja mula memperbaiki kemudahan pelabuhan di Toulon dan Marseille. Kedua-duanya dibuka untuk penghantaran pada 20 September. Ketika jalan kereta api yang menuju ke utara dipulihkan, kedua pelabuhan itu menjadi hab bekalan penting bagi pasukan Sekutu di Perancis. Walaupun nilainya diperdebatkan, Operasi Dragoon menyaksikan Devers dan Patch mengosongkan selatan Perancis dalam masa yang lebih cepat daripada yang dijangkakan sambil secara efektif mematikan Army Group G.


Perjalanan Rupee sejak Kemerdekaan: Berapakah nilai tukar dolar ke INR pada 15 Ogos 1947?

New Delhi, 14 Ogos: Hari Kemerdekaan India disambut secara beragama di seluruh negara setiap tahun. India akan menyambut Hari Kemerdekaan ke-74 pada 15 Ogos 2020. Tahun 2020 menandakan Hari Kemerdekaan ke-74 yang akan disambut di tengah wabak coronavirus yang sedang berlaku di negara ini.

Namun, sejak kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1947, India telah menghadapi dua krisis kewangan utama dan dua penurunan nilai rupee: 1966 dan 1991. Banyak perkembangan geopolitik dan ekonomi telah mempengaruhi pergerakannya dalam 74 tahun terakhir.

Terdapat beberapa laporan bahawa ketika India mendapat kebebasan pada 15 Ogos 1947, nilai rupee setara dengan dolar Amerika tetapi hari ini kita harus membelanjakan 66 INR untuk membeli INR 74.82 USD. Walau bagaimanapun, tidak ada titik data sebenar yang menunjukkan kesahihannya.

Menurut laporan, kurs ditukar ke pound sterling pada Rs. 13.33 atau Rs. 4.75 / dolar pada bulan September 1949. Ini tetap tidak berubah hingga Jun 1966, ketika rupee turun nilai 36.5% menjadi Rs. 21 / paun atau 1 $ = Rs. 7.10. Sistem ini berlanjutan hingga tahun 1971, ketika sistem hutan Bretton runtuh dengan penangguhan pertukaran dolar oleh AS.

Di sini, carta akan menunjukkan perubahan nilai 1 USD kepada INR:


Tunisia 1942 - 1943

Kempen Tunisia menarik dari segi sejarah sebagai yang pertama di mana pasukan Inggeris dan Amerika Syarikat dikerahkan bersama dalam pertempuran. Ini adalah kali pertama dalam Perang Dunia Kedua ketika tentera A.S. beraksi di teater Eropah atau Mediterranean. Sebilangan besar masalah dan ketegangan yang timbul selama kampanye ini adalah terus melalui kampanye di Sisilia, Itali dan Eropah Barat Laut, tetapi Kempen Tunisia memberikan landasan untuk kejayaan akhirnya Sekutu dalam mengalahkan Paksi. Komander Sekutu Utama termasuk EISENHOWER, BRADLEY, PATTON dan CLARK semuanya menyaksikan perkhidmatan aktif pertama mereka di Tunisia.

Negara-negara Maghribi, Algeria dan Tunisia adalah semua tanah jajahan Perancis di Afrika Barat Laut. Mereka menyesuaikan diri dengan pemerintah Perancis Vichy berikutan kekalahan Perancis pada tahun 1940. Perancangan dimulakan pada awal tahun 1942 untuk pasukan ekspedisi yang mampu melakukan pendaratan amfibi di Afrika Utara Perancis. Pengalaman serbuan Dieppe pada bulan Ogos 1942 membuktikan cabaran menyerang pantai yang dipertahankan. Dengan kemasukan Amerika Syarikat ke dalam perang, penting untuk mulai mengerahkan pasukan A.S. dalam pertempuran, jadi Afrika Utara Perancis adalah pilihan yang logik.

Pendaratan dilakukan pada 8 November 1942 di tiga lokasi. Pasukan Petugas Barat terdiri daripada formasi A.S. yang telah berlayar terus dari Amerika Syarikat ke Maghribi. Pasukan Petugas Pusat terdiri daripada formasi A.S. yang mendarat di Oran dan Pasukan Petugas Timur terdiri daripada satu bahagian infanteri Inggeris dan satu bahagian infanteri A.S. yang mendarat di Algiers.

Pasukan Vichy Perancis bersetuju untuk gencatan senjata pada 9 November, yang meninggalkan & # 8216vacuum & # 8217 di Tunisia, dengan gabenor Perancis bahkan menyerahkan urusannya dengan pasukan Paksi dan Sekutu. Pada hari yang sama dengan gencatan senjata, pasukan Jerman mulai mendarat di Tunisia. HITLER memutuskan untuk mengirim pasukan ke Tunisia untuk mengelakkan dikelilingi Korps Afrika, untuk mempertahankan beberapa kawalan di Laut Mediterranean, dan menahan Tunisia untuk mencegah pencerobohan ke Itali. Pada akhirnya, itu adalah komitmen kakitangan dan sumber daya yang tidak berbahasa sehubungan dengan kekuatan Paksi. Bagi orang Jerman, ini terjadi pada masa yang sama dengan pertempuran besar di Stalingrad, dan merupakan pembahagian sumber utama. Sebagai contoh, pesawat yang digunakan untuk membawa lelaki dan bahan ke Tunisia oleh itu tidak tersedia untuk membekalkan tentera ke-6 Jerman di Stalingrad.

Perlumbaan diteruskan untuk mengamankan Tunis yang dimenangi Jerman & # 8211. Pasukan sekutu sebenarnya sampai di pinggir Tunis, tetapi dengan kekuatan yang cukup untuk menahan tanah. Ini membawa kepada perjuangan keras dan pahit yang berlangsung hingga 13 Mei 1943. Pada akhirnya, sekitar 250.000 tentera Jerman dan Itali terbunuh atau ditawan, kekalahan kedua setelah yang dialami oleh Jerman di Stalingrad.

Oleh kerana ini adalah penempatan pasukan A.S. yang pertama di Barat, makalah pengenalan mengenai Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat dalam Perang Dunia Kedua dilampirkan untuk anda.
https://www.britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/124/2020/09/The-United-States-Army-in-the-Second-World-War.pdf

Buku mengenai Kempen Tunisia yang mungkin anda gunakan adalah:
ATKINSON, Rick Tentera di Dawn & # 8211 Perang di Afrika Utara 1942 & # 8211 1943 (New York, Henry Holt and Company, 2002) [ISBN 0-8050-6288-2]
BLAXLAND, Gregory The Plain Cook and the Great Showman & # 8211 Tentera Pertama dan Kelapan di Afrika Utara (Abingdon, William Kimber, 1977)
ROLF, David Jalan Berdarah ke Tunis & # 8211 Pemusnahan Angkatan Paksi di Afrika Utara November 1942 & # 8211 Mei 1943 (London, Greenhill Books, 2001) [ISBN 1-85367-445-1]


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Saya ingin terus menulis mengenai anak-anak Horace G. Adams, Sr. dan isterinya Mabel G. (Warren) Adams, keduanya terkenal dalam sejarah Maple Hill, Kansas.

Horace G. Adams, II dilahirkan pada 19 September 1897 di rumah ladang orang tuanya di timur laut Maple Hill, Kansas. Horace G. Adams, II (kadang-kadang disebut sebagai Jr) mempunyai empat kakak perempuan, Bessie, Mabel Rae, Helen dan Mary Adams.

Horace dibesarkan di peternakan di Maple Hill, dan bersekolah di Maple Hill Grade School hingga darjah enam, setelah itu dia menghadiri beberapa sekolah swasta di Topeka dan menamatkan pendidikan sekolah menengahnya di Country Day School di Kansas City, Missouri.

Saya tidak dapat belajar banyak masa mudanya, tetapi untungnya adiknya, Mary (Adams) Dugan menyimpan beberapa artikel surat khabar yang berkaitan dengan kemampuan atletnya ketika berada di Country Day School, di mana dia menulis surat dalam bola keranjang, trek, bola sepak dan bola keranjang. Bakat utamanya kelihatan dalam sukan bola sepak. Nasib baik, adiknya, Mary (Adams) Dougan menyimpan tiga artikel surat khabar yang membincangkan kemahiran bola sepaknya di Country Day. Terima kasih kepada Jill Dougan Dykes, cucu Puan Dougan dan seorang peguam di Topeka, Kansas, saya dapat menyalin artikel surat khabar dan mereka menyertakan maklumat ini.

Terdapat banyak sebutan dalam "Item Berita Maple Hill" H. G. Adams, Sr. membawa anaknya bersamanya untuk mengunjungi XI Ranch di Plains, Kansas dan juga ke berbagai pertemuan persatuan ternak di seluruh negara. Keluarga itu sangat aktif menunjukkan ternak di Royal Amerika di Kansas City, Missouri.

Saya tidak dapat mengetahui sama ada Horace G. Adams, II menghadiri atau lulus dari mana-mana kolej atau universiti. Sudah pasti dia bergabung dengan ayahnya, Horace G. Adams, Sr. di perusahaan Adams Cattle, yang merangkumi markas peternakan di Maple Hill, Kansas dan juga XI Ranch yang terletak di Meade County, Kansas dan Beaver County, Oklahoma .

Horace G. Adams, II berkahwin dengan Doris Evelyn Jamieson dari Rossville, Kansas pada 3 Julai 1919. Pernikahan itu berlangsung di rumah ladang ibu bapa pengantin perempuan, Arthur Bruce dan Susan Salome "Loma" (Wilt) Jamieson, di luar bandar Rossville, Kansas. Akaun akhbar menyatakan bahawa hanya keluarga terdekat yang hadir. Bruce dan Loma Jamieson adalah anggota masyarakat pertanian dan perniagaan terkemuka di Rossville, begitu juga dengan anak-anak mereka. Keluarga Jamieson adalah keluarga ladang yang mapan dan makmur di Ohio sebelum berpindah ke komuniti Rossville pada tahun 1880-an, di mana mereka memiliki ladang besar dan kemudian membuka beberapa perniagaan runcit di Rossville, termasuk makanan, barang kering, kedai perabot dan usaha rumah pengebumian.

Doris Evelyn Jamieson dilahirkan di ladang orang tuanya di Rossville, Shawnee County, Kansas pada 14 Mac 1900. Dalam membaca artikel surat khabar, penulis mengetahui bahawa Doris Jamieson bersekolah di sekolah-sekolah luar bandar dalam komuniti Rossville dan lulus dari Sekolah Tinggi Rossville, di mana dia berada aktif di sebilangan kelab muzik dan drama. Saya tidak dapat belajar jika dia mengikuti universiti mana pun namun dia mengambil peperiksaan daerah untuk mendapatkan sijil mengajar di sekolah luar bandar. Saya tidak belajar jika dia pernah mengajar. Saya mendapati bahawa ayahnya, A. Bruce Jamieson memang berkhidmat di dewan sekolah tempatan.

Pengumuman perkahwinan menunjukkan bahawa pasangan itu menikmati bulan madu di Colorado, dan memandu kereta pelancongan Buick baru di sana, yang merupakan hadiah perkahwinan dari Mr dan Mrs HG Adams, Sr. Selepas bulan madu, mereka tinggal di ibu pejabat peternakan di Maple Hill, dan ditunjukkan sebagai sebahagian daripada rumah tangga HG Adams pada Banci AS 1920.

Ketika Banci AS tahun 1930 diambil, Horace G. dan Doris Adams tinggal di markas XI Ranch di Meade County, Kansas di mana pekerjaannya diberikan sebagai "orang utama." Pada masa itu, Adams telah menjadi ibu bapa dua anak lelaki, Horace G. Adams, III dan Bruce E. Adams. Horace G. Adams, III dilahirkan pada 14 Julai 1921 di ibu pejabat peternakan di Maple Hill, Kansas.

Adiknya Bruce E. Adams juga dilahirkan di sana pada 23 Julai 1929. Terdapat 15 buruh yang disenaraikan sebagai ladang XI pada bancian, tetapi tidak ada anggota keluarga Adams yang lain, yang menunjukkan bahawa Horace menguruskan ladang dengan pengawasan bapanya.

Pada suatu masa selama tahun-tahun mudanya, ia dikenal sebagai "Hooly" Adams. Nama itu digunakan sepanjang hidupnya oleh keluarga dan rakan-rakannya.

Anak ketiga, Marilyn Melee Adams, dilahirkan di hospital Topeka, Kansas pada 24 Oktober 1933. Dia lulus dari Kansas State University dengan kepujian di mana dia terlibat dalam banyak aktiviti. Dia berkahwin dengan William Lee Larrabee pada 24 November 1955 setelah tamat pengajian di KSU.
William "Bill" Larrabee dilahirkan pada 15 Februari 1933 oleh Robert Lee dan Rosemary (Kinney) Larrabee. Dia adalah lulusan Sekolah Tinggi Liberal dan Universiti Kansas. Dia adalah generasi ketiga keluarganya yang memiliki dan menguruskan Star Lumber Company of Liberal, Kansas.

Marilyn dan Bill Larrabee adalah ibu bapa Steven Lee Larrabee yang lahir pada tahun 1957 dan Kevin Robert Larrabee lahir pada tahun 1964.

Marilyn M. (Adams) Larrabee meninggal pada 2 Februari 2001 dan William L. “Bill” Larrabee meninggal pada 16 Februari 2017. Mereka dikebumikan di plot Adams di Graceland Cemetery, Liberal, Kansas. Keturunan mereka terus mengendalikan Syarikat Star Lumber.

Seperti halnya dalam keluarga di mana terdapat banyak kekayaan, akaun akhbar menunjukkan perselisihan keluarga mengenai pembahagian aset harta tanah setelah kematian Horace Adams, Sr. pada 5 Februari 1933. Encik Adams meninggal tanpa wasiat yang meningkatkan kesukaran. Janda perempuannya, Mabel G. (Warren) Adams hidup hingga 23 November 1940 dan sepertinya "mengadakan" keluarga bersama dalam beberapa tahap, sehingga dia meninggal dunia. Selepas kematiannya, terdapat sejumlah litigasi tetapi akhirnya, hak milik tanah dan lembu H. G. Adams, Sr. dibahagikan di antara ketiga putra Adams yang masih hidup melalui pembelian dan perjanjian, dengan hak saudara Adams yang dibeli melalui pembelian peribadi.

Horace Adams, II dan Doris Adams dan anak-anak mereka berpindah ke Kansas Barat dan tinggal di beribu-ribu ekar terutamanya di Meade County, Kansas, sebahagian daripada bekas XI Ranch yang dimiliki oleh Horace Adams, Sr. Kemudian, minyak dan gas ditemui di Ladang XI menambah perniagaan keluarga keluarga Adams yang sudah penting.

Dua anak lelaki H. G. dan Mabel Adams, Alexander dan Raymond E. Adams, Sr., juga akan memiliki bahagian XI Ranch dan meneruskan warisan keluarga, tetapi lebih banyak keluarga dan sumbangan mereka kemudian.

Bruce E. Adams, anak lelaki Horace dan Doris Adams, terbunuh dalam kemalangan kapal terbang yang tragis pada 4 Ogos 1952. Menurut satu akaun akhbar, Encik Adams terbang di peternakan keluarga menyemburkan lembu ketika pesawatnya tiba-tiba terhenti dan terhempas. Dia telah berkahwin dengan Shirley Ann Demmitt hanya enam minggu sebelumnya pada bulan Julai 1952. Tidak ada anak.

Horace Greeley Adams, III dilahirkan pada 14 Julai 1921 di ibu pejabat Adams Ranch di Maple Hill, Kansas. Dia menghabiskan awal hidupnya di Maple Hill dan Meade County, Kansas. Semasa mudanya, dia memperoleh nama panggilan "Buck" yang dia gunakan sepanjang hidupnya.

Dia berkahwin dengan Wynona Gardine Keller pada 23 November 1943 di Synder, Texas di mana ibu bapanya memiliki sebuah kedai perabot dan harta tanah yang besar. Wynona dilahirkan pada 31 Oktober 1921 di Snyder, Texas kepada John Marshall dan Eula E. (Burt) Keller. Dia bersekolah di Synder, lulus dari Hockaday High School di Dallas, Texas dan menghadiri Texas Tech University selama beberapa tahun.

Dia dan Buck Adams pertama kali tinggal di Ibu Pejabat Adams Ranch di Maple Hill, Kansas dan kemudian pindah ke Adams Ranch di Meade County, Kansas di mana mereka menghabiskan sisa hidup mereka. Saya dapat menemui banyak maklumat mengenai keluarga Burt dan salasilahnya, dan walaupun saya tidak akan memberikannya di sini, saya dengan senang hati akan membagikannya kepada ahli keluarga yang mungkin berminat.

Buck dan Wynona Adams adalah ibu bapa Horace Greeley Adams IV, yang dikenal sebagai "Kell" Adams dan seorang anak perempuan Karen Sue "Kiki" Adams. Seperti yang telah saya katakan sebelumnya, bukan niat saya untuk menulis mengenai generasi keluarga Adams sekarang kerana tidak mementingkan privasi mereka.

H. G. "Buck" Adams dimasukkan ke Hall of Fame Cattleman pada tahun 2004. Foto dan artikel berikut muncul bersama pengumuman upacara induksi:

Horace Greely "Buck" Adams - Rancher Cattleman

"Ayah saya seorang ahli konservasi sebelum ada yang memikirkan maksudnya." - H.G. Adams IV menggambarkan dedikasi ayahnya untuk memelihara tanah.

Horace Greely "Buck" Adams, pemilik XI Ranch yang terletak berhampiran Plains, Kansas, dilahirkan di Topeka pada tahun 1921 dan tinggal di XI Ranch ketika kecil. Menjelang tahun 1923, datuk Buck telah mengumpulkan 75,000 ekar di ladang. Malangnya, keluarga terdekat Buck terpaksa berpindah pada tahun 1933 ke ladang mereka di Kansas timur kerana adiknya mengalami radang paru-paru. Buck berkahwin dengan Wynona Keller pada tahun 1943.

Dua tahun kemudian, pasangan itu berpindah ke XI Ranch, di mana mereka membesarkan keluarga mereka. Tumbuh semasa Era Depresi Besar dan Dust Bowl, Buck mengetahui betapa sukarnya gaya hidup peternakan. Dia teringat ketika keluarganya mengusahakan 5.000 heifer di 75,000 ekar mereka tetapi pada tahun 1934, mereka menjual hampir semuanya. Setelah kembali ke XI Ranch, Buck menumpukan sisa hidupnya untuk peternakan. Dia mengalami banyak masalah yang sama yang dihadapi oleh datuknya di hadapannya. Pada tahun 1950-an, musim kemarau menyebabkan Buck memelihara 150 ekor lembu di 25,000 ekar yang biasanya memiliki 1.000 ekor. Kemudian, pada musim bunga 1957, ribut salji melanda kemarau dan membunuh enam puluh kepalanya. Namun Buck tetap bertahan.

Buck percaya bahawa berjabat tangan membuat perjanjian. Anak Buck, H.G. Adams IV, tidak dapat mengingati masa ketika ayahnya mempunyai kontrak untuk menjual lembu. Dia memiliki reputasi tidak pernah mundur dalam perjanjian, walaupun harga daging sapi meningkat setelah perjanjian itu dibuat. Menjadi ahli konservasi secara semula jadi menjadikannya dalam perniagaan pertanian, walaupun pada masa-masa sukar. Dia memberitakan tentang perlunya menjaga tanah. Buck mahu menyertai litar rodeo semasa mudanya. Dia merasakan tinggi badannya 6'1 "dan berat 200 lbs. akan menjadi kelebihan dalam pertandingan mengikat tali. Buck akan selalu menoleh ke belakang dengan rasa kesal kerana dia tidak pernah mempunyai masa atau wang untuk memenuhi impian rodeo-nya. Horace Greely "Buck" Adams meninggal pada tahun 1995, meninggalkan XI Ranch kepada keluarganya dan seumur hidup pengetahuan peternakan untuk semua yang dia hubungi.
Tahun dilantik: 2004 "

H. G. "Buck" Adams meninggal dunia pada 20 Mei 1995 dan Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams meninggal dunia pada 2 November 2005.

Berikut ini adalah berita kematian Wynona G. Adams: Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams, 84, Liberal, Kansas meninggal dunia pada hari Selasa, 2 November 2002 di Southwest Medical Center, Liberal.
Dia dilahirkan pada 31 Oktober 1921 di Snyder, Texas, anak perempuan John dan Eula (Burt) Keller.
Dia lulus dari Hockaday High School, Dallas, Texas dan menghadiri Texas Tech selama beberapa tahun. Dia berkahwin dengan Horace G. Adams, III, pada 23 November 1943 di Snyder, Texas. Dia meninggal 20 Mei 1995. Dia dan Buck Adams pertama kali tinggal di Maple Hill, Kansas di ladang keluarganya sebelum berpindah ke XI Ranch di Plains, Kansas pada tahun 1947. Mereka bersara dari peternakan aktif pada tahun 1984 dan berpindah ke Liberal, Kansas.
Dia terlibat dalam banyak khidmat masyarakat, dicat dengan minyak, dan suka membaca. Dia sangat menyayangi keluarganya. Dia adalah anggota Gereja Presbiterian Pertama, Liberal.
Dia dilahirkan oleh seorang anak lelaki, Horace Greeley & quotKell & quot Adams, IV dan isterinya Wanda of Plains satu anak perempuan, Kiki Adams Dayton dan suaminya William & quotBill, & quot of Tyrone, OK dua cucu, Horace G. Adams, V, dan isterinya Regan , Kanada, Texas dan Cooper Wade Adams of Plains. Dia didahului kematian oleh ibu bapanya dan seorang adik perempuannya.
Perkhidmatan peringatan peribadi dan pembakaran akan dilakukan di peternakan keluarga.
Keluarga tersebut mencadangkan agar peringatan dihantar ke Dana Biasiswa Peringatan Wynona K. Adams, 1551 N. Western, Liberal, KS 67901.

Anak perempuan Adam, Karen Sue "Kiki" Adams dilahirkan pada 11 Januari 1952 dan tinggal bersama suaminya, William Leroy Dayton di Tyrone, Oklahoma.

H. G. "Kell" Adams, IV tinggal dan bekerja di peternakan keluarga berhampiran Plains, Kansas dan merupakan rakan kongsi di H. G. Adams dan Son Cattle Company. Dia berkahwin dengan Wanda Joanne Cook di Oklahoma pada 16 Disember 1971. Dia dan Wanda Adams telah aktif dalam usaha pemuliharaan. Wanda Adams adalah anggota pengasas Warga Prihatin untuk Udara Bersih dan Air untuk Daerah Meade, Kansas dan berkhidmat sebagai pengarah Kansas Rural Center.

H. G. dan Wanda Adams adalah ibu bapa Cooper Wade Adams dan Horace G. Adams V. Keluarga Adams terus tinggal dan mengendalikan Adams Ranch berhampiran Plains, Kansas.
Sangat menarik bahawa keturunan Horace Greeley dan Mabel G. (Warren) Adams ini terus berjaya menghormati warisan industri lembu mereka sepanjang generasi ini dan lebih dari 110 tahun setelah pembelian asalnya yang berminat dalam XI Ranch pada tahun 1902.

Artikel seterusnya adalah mengenai Alexander Warren "Alec" Adams, anak keenam dari Horace G. dan Mabel G. (Warren) Adams.

Foto 1 - Pertemuan Malam Krismas dari Keluarga Adams 1937 - bermula di pusat kiri, LR ialah Jessie (Stewart) Adams, Doris (Jamieson) Adams, Raymond E. Adams, Mary (Adams) Dougan, Horace Adams, II, Rae (Adams) Tod, Mabel (Warren) Adams, Alexander Adams, Kawan Antoinette Tod,
Antoinette Tod, Helen (Lewis) Adams, dan Frank Dougan. Ini adalah satu-satunya gambar yang saya tunjukkan kepada Horace dan Doris Adams.
Foto 2 - Keratan berita dari tahun 1917 tentang budak lelaki Adams di Country Day School, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 3 - Keratan berita dari tahun 1917 mengenai budak lelaki Adams di Country Day School, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 4 - Foto Horace Greeley Adams, III yang digunakan dengan kemasukannya ke Cowboy Hall of Fame.
Foto 5 - Ini adalah foto yang diambil di California keluarga Adams yang sedang bercuti pada tahun 1909. Horace Adams, II adalah anak lelaki yang berdiri ketiga dari hujung kanan, di sebelah neneknya, Puan Benjamin Warren.

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Maple Hill Train Wrecks – 1900 to 1902

Ted Hammarlund was going through some family photographs recently and came across two that depict train wrecks near Maple Hill. I easily found a newspaper article about the November 12, 1900 train wreck but after going through all of the local newspapers for 1902, week by week, I wasn’t able to find an article about a wreck occurring near Maple Hill.

I don’t consider the search a waste of time, because it allows me to obtain a “picture” of what was occurring in Maple Hill during 1902. It was very interesting and will no doubt be the subject of future articles on the Maple Hill page.

It was interesting to read about the vast number of train wrecks across America (and abroad) that were reported in the pages of the Alma Enterprise and the Alma Signal. During 1900 and 1902 there were hundreds of train derailments that killed hundreds of people and thousands of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs. It was obvious to me that traveling by train was not as safe as I had thought at that time. As one might expect, most of the accidents were caused by human error followed closely by mechanical and equipment failure. It was also easy to determine that riding in the engine and caboose were the two most dangerous places. Most of the deaths occurred in those two train locations.

The first photograph was taken following a wreck on November 2, 1900. Here is the article:

“Monday, November 2nd, at 8:15am while the local freight, eastbound, Train Number 32, pulled by engine 456, was switching, an eastbound extra pulled by engine 469, scheduled to run at 46 miles per hour, but running at the rate of ten miles per hour, ran into the caboose which with a flat ar and three boxcars was at a curve one-quarter mile west of Maple Hill. One of the crew of #32 had gone back the required distance and flagged the extra but the brakes of the latter would not work.

When within a short distance of #32, the engineer reversed his engine and then both he and the fireman jumped. Mrs. Lou Coleman of Maple Hill, and the conductor of #32 were the only occupants of the caboose and they escaped just in the nick of time.

When the crash came the coupling between the flat car and box cars was thrown out and the three boxcars shot down the track, while the caboose and flat car were completely demolished. The engine jumped the trace and was badly wrecked, one side of the tender remained on the ties, but after repeated efforts to set it back on the track, it had to be turned over into the ditch.

The work train from Topeka in charge of roadmaster Sullivan, arrived on the scene at noon and at 1:15pm the track was cleared and ready for traffic. At 9:00 pm the remains of the caboose and flat cars were burned by the railroad hands while the engine was hoisted onto flat cars by crane and hauled off the following day.

It is lucky indeed that no one was injured in the accident. The local freight #32 was in charge of engineer, Jack Slater, and conductor Frank Enerton, while the extra was in charge of engineer Buskirk and conductor Vanscoy.”

Ted said that on the back of the photograph was written: “West of Maple Hill toward the McClelland Farm. Joe Romick and Ed Chapman.”

The second photograph has the following written on the back:

“1902 – East of Maple Hill near Mill Creek Bridge.” From the photograph, it would appear that the wreck occurred during the summer because there are leaves on the trees. The wreck is near the bridge across Mill Creek, at or near the junction of the Maple Hill/Willard and Bouchey Roads. I wasn’t able to find any further information.

Thanks to Ted Hammarlund for providing the photos and captions.

Photo 1 - The 1900 Train Wreck

Photo 2 - The 1902 Train Wreck

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Remembering and Honoring Maple Hill’s Own Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund on Memorial Day 2021

This coming weekend will be the federal Memorial Day observance when all those who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States will be thanked and paid respect by millions of Americans. One of those who will be honored at the Old Stone Church was born at Maple Hill, Kansas, raised on a farm four miles west of town, educated at the Thayer School District #57 and Maple Hill High School, was a life-long nurse, and served in the United States Army most of her career. I am speaking of Lt. Col. (Retired) Mabel Hammarland.

Mabel was the daughter of Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund and was the sixth of eight children, born on November 2, 1910. Mabel’s siblings were Cecilia born 1901, Easter born 1902, Charles Arthur Nels born 1903, Ella Elna born in 1906, Milton Oscar born 1908, Robert Everett born 1913 and Henry Howard born 1919. Cecilia and Easter Hammarlund died as infants and are buried in the family plot at the Old Stone Church.
I will write a second article about the Hammarlund Family, but the intent of this post is to focus on Mabel and her distinguished career and life.

Mabel Hammarlund was born on November 2, 1910, on the Warren/Crouch Farm, three miles west of Maple Hill, Kansas. Her parents were Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund. At the time of her birth, the family lived in what was formerly the parsonage of the Eliot Congregational Church (Old Stone Church) which was located across the road north of the W. W. Cocks/Grant Romig stone house. The house burned in 1924, when the William Mitchell family lived there. Oscar farmed for the Warren and Crouch families and was also the road maintenance man for the Vera-Maple Hill Road. In 1921, Oscar and Lillie Hammarlund moved 1.5 miles west and rented the Albert and Ellen (Cheney) Thayer farm of 320-acres. The Hammarlund family would remain on that farm for more than four decades.

Mabel and her siblings were like other farm children, helping their parents with the chores and responsibilities that come with caring for a large farm. Her older sister Ella and Mabel helped their mother with household responsibilities, cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, and other duties. Like her brothers and sisters, Mabel began school by walking down Vera road to the south and attending the Thayer School District #57, on the banks of Mill Creek. The school building still exists but has been extensively remodeled, enlarged, and is a part of the Imthurn Ranch. Oscar T. Hammarlund was a member of the District #57 school board from 1910 until 1925 and was chair of the board several of those years. Miss Annie Crouch, Superintendent of Wabaunsee County Schools often commended District #57 for maintaining their school building and providing a barn, two outhouses, and play equipment.
Mabel went to the town school, Maple Hill High School, where she graduated with honors in 1928. As with many rural students, Mabel boarded at the Clements Hotel on Maple Hill’s Main Street while she attended high school. According to a Maple Hill News Item in 1928, Mabel was working on Saturdays and evenings as a clerk in Frank Steven’s General Store.

I haven’t been able to learn what Mabel was doing between 1928 and 1930, but in September 1930, she enrolled in Christ’s Hospital School of Nursing in Topeka, Kansas where she took a three-year course and graduated, again with honors, as a Registered Nurse. According to her nephew, Dr. Marion Hammarlund (now 92 years old) she worked for several years in the Topeka Public Health Department after graduation. He said that the family always worried about her because she had to go out and visit families when there was illness and decide whether or not they should be quarantined. She later worked for the Genn Hospital in Wamego, Kansas. Dr. Hammarlund said that she would take him and his cousins to work with her as a special treat. He remembered that she would give them a bottle of pop in the car to keep them entertained. When they would cross a railroad track, Mabel would make them put their bottle of pop between their knees so they couldn’t chip their teeth. While Mabel worked at Genn, she paid for Dr. Hammarlund and his cousins to have their tonsils taken out. She believed that tonsils were the cause of much illness. Marion has many fond memories of his Aunt Mabel.

When WWII began, Mabel decided to enlist as a second lieutenant in the Army Nurse Corps. Anyone who had successfully completed a registered nursing course at an accredited institution was automatically enlisted as an officer. Mabel’s official record of service is over 20 pages long, but let it suffice to say that she was stationed in many locations during the war and after, serving as a nurse in various hospitals. In one article I read, it stated that when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were 5,300 nurses in the Corp and when the war concluded in 1945, there were 55,000. No nurse was ever drafted into service, but all volunteered. Later on, when Mabel was an administrator in the Army Nurse Corps, she was always interested in nurse recruitment, making sure that they were paid appropriately and that Congress passed acts ensuring that nurses could be promoted to ever higher ranks as was merited. There are several newspaper and magazine articles in that regard.

After the war ended, Mabel must have decided that she was going to make Army nursing a career, because she began to structure her tenure in such a way that she became a nursing administrator rather than a clinical nurse. Mabel was assigned to several posts over the next 10 years in which she handled administrative duties and advanced in rank from a second lieutenant to a lieutenant, then captain, major, and finally Lt. Coronel. She was made a Lt. Coronel in 1958 when she was serving as Army Nurse Corp Special Force Nurse at Ft. Hood in Texas. Her next promotion brought her to the apex of her career when she was appointed Army Nurse Corp, Fourth Army Head Nurse, with responsibility for most nursing in the southern half of the United States. Her final assignment took her to Europe where she was the Army Nurse Corp, European Theater Head Nurse, in charge of all army nurses in Europe. Congress had not yet made it possible for women to hold the rank of General in the Nursing Corp, so Mabel was among 8 women that held the rank of Lt. Colonel. Mabel retired on December 31, 1963 after serving 21 years.

On September 18, 1963, President John F. Kennedy ordered and Congress approved, the awarding of the Legion of Merit to Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund for the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States from August 1955 to December 1963, reflecting her service in World War II and Korea. The Legion of Merit was at that time the highest honor that could be bestowed upon a living female service member. There were nurses who were killed in action and received the Purple Heart and the Congressional Medal of Honor.

I know of no other service person from Maple Hill, Kansas that has received a Legion of Merit award.

After Mabel retired, she returned to Topeka, Kansas where she bought a home and moved her parents there to live with her. Mabel was not finished nursing, however. In 1964, she became a member of the Topeka Unified School District’s School Nursing Corp and served until retiring in 1974, rounding out a superb career of nearly 40 years in healthcare.

I would consider myself an acquaintance of Mabel’s, but those of us who knew her will remember her as a rather quiet, unassuming, often gregarious, attentive to family, gracious, lady. Her father, Oscar Hammarlund died in 1963 after he and wife Lillie had celebrated their 60th Wedding Anniversary in 1960. Lillie Hammarlund died in 1981 at the age of 101. Both are buried in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church. Mabel Hammarlund died a year before her mother, on August 8, 1980. All are buried in the Hammarland Plot at the Old Stone Church. Mabel has a plain marble military tombstone as she would have wanted.

Although Mabel has been deceased for more than 40 years, it is important on this Memorial Day that we pause to remember her contribution to nursing, to the Army Nurse Corp and to the United States of America. Thank you Mabel and Rest In Peace!!

1. The Hammarlund Family, this photo was taken on the occasion of Oscar and Lillie's 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1950. Oscar and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund are seated in front. Standing behind them L-R are Ella and Mabel Hammarlund. Standing in the third-row L-R are Oscar Milton, Charles Arthur, Robert Everett, and Howard Henry Hammarlund.

2. The Albert Thayer stone house, built-in 1874 four miles west of Maple Hill. The Hammarlunds lived in this house and rented the farm from 1921 until they moved to Topeka in 1963.

3. Christ's School of Nursing, Topeka, Kansas. This is where Mabel Hammarlund took nurses training and lived from 1930-1933.

4. Genn Hospital, Wamego, Kansas. Mabel Hammarlund worked as a registered nurse at Genn Hospital during the late 1930s.

5. - 11. These are all photographs of Mabel Hammarlund taken during her Army Nurse Corp career.

12. This photograph is of the Topeka Unified School District School Nurses. Mabel Hammarlund is in the top row, far left.

13. Mabel Hammerland, taken after retirement from the Army Nurse Corp, in her Topeka home on Saline Street.

14. Mabel Hammarlund's military headstone in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church.

Many thanks to Ted Hammarlund, nephew of Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund, for providing the photographs for this post.

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Nicholas Clark ‎You Know You're From Wabaunsee County When.

I always get very upset with myself when I don't attend Memorial Day Services at the Old Stone Church. What a wonderful collection of memories I have surrounding all the years I have been able to attend. I wrote a story about my experiences a few years ago and I'll share it with you now.

Decoration Day Fifty Years Ago
By: Nick Clark – May 24, 2003

As I awoke this morning to find bright sunlight streaming through my window, I couldn’t help thinking that had it been fifty years ago, my mother would have been tugging at my toe and urging me to, “Get up. We need to get the jars in the car, pick flowers and get going to the cemeteries.” The next day, Sunday, would be Decoration Day, and we weren’t the only ones hurrying around—nearly every household in Maple Hill and the surrounding countryside would be doing the same thing.

By the time breakfast was over, my grandmother, Mildred McCauley Corbin would be in our kitchen, as well as my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell and at different times, others of our family and neighbors. My paternal grandmother, “Central” Mable Clark, was always running the telephone switchboard located in her home so she would send jars the night before to take to the cemeteries where her relatives were buried.

It was an important day for the entire community. It was a day to remember and honor the lives of all ancestors, but especially those who had served in the Armed Forces. Decoration Day began on May 5, 1868 when the Grand Army of the Republic (an organization honoring those who served in the Union Army) held a ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery. Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, wife of the President, gave a stirring address lauding the deeds of brave soldiers who had “served in blue” during the war between the states. After the speech making had been completed, orphans of soldiers and sailors paraded into the cemetery with baskets of flowers, strewing them on the more than 20,000 newly occupied graves. As years passed the ceremony was echoed through the entire country and became a part of the fabric of our nation’s ceremonial history.

As America engaged in other wars over time, the occasion took on significance and also changed names. After World War I, the observance became known as Memorial Day and in 1971, Congress at the urging of President Lyndon Johnson, made Memorial Day an official holiday to honor those who served in America’s Armed Forces. Although I had certainly heard or read the term Memorial Day, I don’t remember my family calling it anything other than Decoration Day until I was grown.

Activity in the household would increase on those Saturday mornings, as we loaded jars into the trunk of my grandmother Corbin’s car (as I recall a 1953 Ford). We would take big gallon jars of water along and in later years, rolls of foil to wrap around the jars. Then we would proceed to the home gardens of various family members and pick fresh flowers to put in the jars placed on graves. My great grandmother, Jeanetta Reinhardt Jones, always had beautiful big boughs of spirea. The little white crowns of flowers were striking in bouquets. We would then proceed to my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell’s home and pick up the bucket or two of multi-colored iris that she had picked earlier. My Grandmother Clark would have supplied Iris of various colors from the Central Office garden. She also had big tall spikes of larkspur in pink, purple and blue. Grandmother Corbin had a beautiful climbing red rose, a “Mary Perkins,” which bloomed early and was beautiful to include as a highlight in bouquets. All these ladies furnished varieties of colored peonies. When finished, the car would look like one following a hearse to a funeral. We would then set off to the cemeteries where various relatives were buried.

We often went to the Uniontown/Greene Cemetery southeast of Willard, Kansas first. In that cemetery are buried my paternal great great grandfather Francis Marion Jones, and my great grandmother Virgia Miller Jones, and my great uncle Louis Jones. They were the grandfather, mother and brother of Mable Clark. The cemetery was small and was usually well kept by the Greene and Viergiver Families, who lived nearby. But as they aged, the cemetery fell into an unkempt condition and it was always tricky getting into the graves without the fear of SNAKES! Great great grandfather had served in the Civil War, had a Civil War headstone and also a GAR marker. It was important that we “decorate” his grave. Always mixed in with the placing of flowers was the telling of family stories and talk of their military service. It was a great time to be 10-years-old and hear those accumulated memories—a real treasure.

Then we would usually go back to Maple Hill via gravel road, trying our best not to upset the buckets of flowers or slosh water into the trunk and back seat—where I was crowded between giant sprays of iris, peonies and larkspur. Our destination was the Old Stone Church Cemetery west of Maple Hill.

There we drove up and down the avenues of eastern red cedar trees, stopping at the graves of the Clark, Corbin, Mitchell, Lemon, Jones, and McCauley Families as well as at the graves of others who might not have family members living nearby. It was always a courtesy of many families to decorate the graves of dear friends or long-gone families. The James Elmer Romick American Legion Post members would be visiting the graves of veterans and placing little metal American Legion plaques on the graves of soldiers. In each plaque was placed a tiny America Flag.

In the evening, we would usually go to Bethlehem Cemetery, south of Paxico, where we would place flowers on the graves of Clark relatives. Sometimes, not always, we would go to the Vera Community and stop at the graves of Albert and Martha Graham Phillips, who were buried in the pasture across the road from the home of Merle and Nora Lietz. They were the parents of my cousin, Mable Phillips Herron (Mrs. Jack). They were struck by lightening and killed in their carriage in the 1870s. The horses were not injured and carried their bodies home. The telling of that morbid but fascinating story would then occupy the return trip to Maple Hill.

In my high school years (1958-1962,) the Maple Hill Community Congregational Church had a very active youth group composed of junior and senior high
young folks. Although I don’t recall the exact numbers, I would estimate that there were 20 to 30 in regular attendance. During my memory, the Pilgrim Fellowship Group was led and supervised by Jack and Bill Warren—sons of William Warren, a charter member of MHCCC. The Warren brothers lived on a farm three miles west of Maple Hill and would usually bring their farm truck into town and meet PFG members at the newly constructed Parish Hall. We would load folding chairs, a huge upright piano, hymnals, the big original bible, lectern stands and sometimes we would take the old original chairs from the church alter. Warner Adams and other men were always on hand to help. This moving was necessary because most of the original Stone Church furnishings had been destroyed in a tragic fire on May 12, 1952.

Although only seven at the time, I remember the Stone Church fire because it was one of those major community events that is vividly recalled to the minds of most of those who witnessed it. Ivan Yount and Walter “Punt” Romick were trimming cedar trees at the cemetery and had piled a stack of sheared limbs at the north side of the cemetery property, a good 300 yards from the building. Limbs had been burned before in the same way and the distance was presumed to be safe. Nothing burns with more vigor than red cedar and when the pile was lighted there were only light winds from the south. Suddenly gusts of wind began, the direction changed to the north and the sparks were carried to the wooden shingles of the church before anything could be done to prevent it.

I was just completing the second grade at Maple Hill Grade School and was spending a pleasant spring day at my Grandmother Corbin’s farm home located one and one-half miles southwest of Maple Hill. We were planting beans in the garden. All of a sudden, we heard the old wall telephone in the kitchen begin to continuously ring in short bursts. That was a sign to immediately “pick up” on the eight-party line, because there was something of dire importance that needed the attention of the entire community. Grandmother hurried to the house where the voice on the phone was that of my other grandmother, Mable Clark at the Central Office. She was notifying the community that help was needed at the church fire. Punt Romick and Ivan Yount had driven one-quarter mile to the Romick home, and had phoned in the alarm.

Grandfather Corbin had taken the car at the time, and we had no way to go to the fire, but we could clearly see the cemetery from the farm and could also see the column of black smoke rising high into the sky. My grandmother just sat down on the back steps and buried her head in her big apron and wept. Pretty soon, we heard someone calling to us from the road and it was Mrs. Ella Yount, Ivan’s mother, who had walked the quarter mile to my grandmothers. They both sat on the steps and wept in each others arms while I looked on—stunned. The decades-old shingles were consumed within minutes and it was only through heroic efforts that the original pump organ, pulpit and a few other treasures were saved.

The Old Stone Church Cemetery Board had raised enough money immediately following the fire to replace the roof, floor, windows and front doors. Topeka architect, Charles Marshall, cousin of Mrs. Warner Adams, donated his time to plan the restoration. Services were held in the building’s shell until 1962, when some of Maple Hill’s older citizens joined forces with the Pilgrim Youth Group to raise funds for the restoration of the Old Stone Church interior. Emily Adams made long lists of local and distant people whose relatives had attended the Old Stone Church. From January through May, I went to the Adam’s home and typed letters on an old portable Royal typewriter. Miss Adams furnished the stationary, envelopes and stamps. The response was overwhelmingly favorable. My only regret, is that the letters that accompanied donor checks were not saved as they were a tribute to the love of the Old Stone Church, held so dearly by early church and community pioneers.

Although the outer structure of the church had been replaced, the interior plaster had never been removed from the walls and that would require tedious labor. At the urging of Jack and Bill Warren, the PFG decided to spend weekends taking the old plaster off the walls. Scaffolding was placed inside and we all brought our claw hammers and worked long hours removing plaster which had been applied directly to the stone walls. We would go home in the evening with hair stiff from plaster dust. Our mothers brought lunch to the church and we had grand times playing games and exploring the cemetery. I am going to be sorry that I ever tried to list names, and my apologies to those I have omitted because of memory loss, but I recall the following helping with plaster removal: Mary Sue Kitt, Janice Yount, Patty Holmes, Norris and Horace Hoobler, Art and Kathryn Adams, Rod and Cathy Say, Eugene and Karen Travis, Tracy and Larry Ables, Larry and Lana Schulte, Mike Turnbull, Bill, Art and Ruth Ann Raine, Linda and Terry Ungeheuer, Allen and Loren Lett, Trudi and Marcia Mee, Claudia and Kenny Arnold, Larry and Cheryl Oliver, Eula and Beulah Adams, Dean and Jean Adams, and Ronnie and Herb Crawshaw.

Ronnell Bennett, a Black plasterer from Alma, Kansas was employed to put on three good coats of plaster. Mr. Bennett had learned his trade from pioneer German plasterers and had an excellent reputation. The workmanship was superb and his work remains in good condition today. I don’t remember the exact cost of the total restoration, but I do remember that Miss Adams and I were delighted when the bank account approached $4,000.00. Special thanks is owned to Ann Gorbet Adams and her father, John Gorbet, who provided expertise in choosing colors of stain for the floor and paint for the wall. In addition, the Hammarlund Family donated a beautiful cross for the front of the sanctuary that was made from the historic timbers of the St. Marys Congregational Church, St. Marys, Kansas.

After the plastering was completed, there was about $300 or $400 left in the account. Miss Adams read in the Topeka Capital-Journal that the Jewish Synagogue was being remodeled and that they had oak pews for sale. The individual that was in charge of the remodeling was Shoal Pozez, who was just starting a brand new company we know today as, PayLess Shoes. I drove Emily Adams to Topeka where we met Mr. Pozez at the Synagogue. Emily told him the story of our efforts to restore the Old Stone Church and he said, “We want to help. These are $100 pews but we’ll let you have them at the bargin price of $20 each.” I don’t recall exactly how many we purchased but it seems there were 15 or 20. Warner Adams and Jack and Bill Warren made the trip to Topeka with their trucks where we loaded the pews and took them to Maple Hill. These were massive pews in good condition, which would today cost $500 each or more—if they could even be made. And so it is—that the Old Stone Church has pews that were in a Jewish Synagogue for the first 100 years of their existence!

One of the last events in the restoration was the placing of the bell in the tower. The original church bell had been destroyed in the church fire. As I recall, Don and Hattie McClelland had the old bell from the Maple Hill Grade School at their home and donated it to be used at the Old Stone Church. The bell was extremely heavy and it required many men and special pulleys to wrench it into place. There were smiles and cheers all around when the clear peals of that bell were once again heard across the Mill Creek Valley. Everyone took turns pulling on the long sisal rope. The tower roof was then completed and the church was ready for Decoration Day Services.

The interior of the Old Stone Church was usually decorated with flowers by Emma Jeanne and Wanda Adams, sisters-in-law. Emma Jeanne and Warner Adams had beautiful flower gardens at their home in north Maple Hill. Emma Jeanne brought large wicker baskets of peonies, iris and spirea while Wanda (Mrs. Arthur Adams) would usually go to the pastures and pick all manner of wildflowers. Each of the big windows would have containers of flowers while there were one or two baskets at the front.

Lois Hammarlund was the church pianist at the time and it was the bain of her existence to have to play the old piano that had been badly water damaged during the fire. The keys didn’t all work, some stuck together, but somehow, with God’s inspiration and her natural musical talent, she was able to make beautiful music. The choir would either go to the Old Stone Church and rehearse on Saturday or early Sunday before services.

My Grandfather, Robert Corbin, and my uncles were members of the American Legion and were a part of the Presentation of Colors Ceremony when the American flag, the American Legion Flag, and the Christian Flag where carried into the church. At my earliest memories, there were probably 25 or 30 men who wore their military uniforms and participated. Just prior to services, the Legion members would march in front of the west side of the church and fire a salute to fallen soldiers. Taps would be played and tears would be shed as memories of loved ones were recalled. Then the men would bring the flags inside the church, and the church services would begin. The church was always packed so full that many times people would either stand near the windows on the outside or would just walk through the graveyard, visiting with friends and relatives who had come from a distance to decorate family graves.

Warner Adams, who took his mother’s position on the cemetery board at her death in 1946, served in that capacity for four decades. It was always Warner’s job to walk among the families and to take an offering to help pay for cemetery upkeep. In those days, the Cemetery Association didn’t have much money and the Memorial Day contributions were important in being able to keep the cemetery mowed and the church in good repair. Warner always carried his hat and people put their contributions into his hat.

And so it is—that 50 years have passed since the days of my youth. In that half century, “times” have become quicker and less melancholy while long-held traditions have changed. My dear mother, Lucille Clark, now 82, and many of her generation still do their best to carry on but the grandeur of Decoration Day Weekend fifty years ago are now just cherished memories.

1. The Old Stone Church, Maple Hill, Kansas
2. The Avenue of Flags honoring veterans.
3. The view from the front steps of the church looking west towards Buffalo Mound.


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