Pertempuran Novara, 8 April 1500

Pertempuran Novara, 8 April 1500


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Pertempuran Novara, 8 April 1500

Pertempuran Novara (8 April 1500) adalah kemenangan Perancis yang mudah yang mengakhiri percubaan Ludovico Sforza untuk mengusir mereka dari Duchy of Milan (Perang Itali Kedua / Perang Itali Louis XII).

Pada tahun 1494 Ludovico, yang merupakan bupati kepada Duke Milan yang muda, telah berpihak kepada Charles VIII dari Perancis pada awal pencerobohannya ke Naples (Perang Itali Pertama / Perang Itali Charles VIII), tetapi pada tahun 1495 dia berpindah, bergabung dengan pakatan anti-Perancis yang memaksa Charles meninggalkan Naples dan berjuang pulang ke rumah. Louis XII masa depan banyak terlibat dalam pertempuran melawan pasukan Milan di utara Itali.

Pada tahun 1498 Charles meninggal dan Louis naik takhta. Sejak awal pemerintahannya, dia mengaku sebagai Raja Napoli dan Duke of Milan, dan dia menghabiskan tahun pertama untuk mempersiapkan pencerobohan. Pencerobohan itu berlaku pada bulan Ogos 1499, dan pada awal September Ludovico terpaksa melarikan diri dari Milan ke pengasingan di Tirol. Pada bulan Oktober-November Louis mengunjungi Milan. Ketika Louis meninggalkan Gian Giacomo Trivulzio ditugaskan di Milan.

Ludovico dapat mengumpulkan pasukan sekitar 20,000 orang di Tyrol, dengan sebuah pasukan Swiss yang kuat dan 1,500 pasukan dari Burgundy. Pada bulan Januari tentera ini melancarkan serangan ke atas Milan. Orang Perancis lebih banyak jumlahnya, dan pada 3 Februari 1500 Trivulzio meninggalkan Milan dan mundur ke barat menuju Novara dan Mortara.

Ludovico kembali ke Milan pada 5 Februari, dan mendapat sambutan yang penuh semangat. Orang Perancis masih memegang Istana Milan, jadi dia terpaksa memecah tenteranya. Sebahagiannya ditinggalkan untuk mengepung istana, sementara yang lain bergerak ke selatan ke Pavia, kemudian ke barat ke Vigecano, yang mereka ambil dari Perancis. Sasaran seterusnya adalah Novara, yang jatuh setelah pengepungan selama dua minggu (pengepungan Novara, 5-21 Mac 1500).

Orang Perancis tidak aktif dalam tempoh ini. Pada 23 Mac Louis de la Tremouille sampai di Mortara dengan 500 orang bersenjata dan beberapa artileri. Dia menggantikan Trivulzio yang tidak popular, meningkatkan semangat tentera Perancis.

Pada masa yang sama keadaan dalam tentera Ludovico semakin buruk. Pay hampir habis, dan kesetiaan pasukan Swissnya diragukan - Louis telah menandatangani perjanjian rasmi dengan Kanton Swiss sebelum perang dan ada kemungkinan tentera Swissnya menolak untuk memerangi negaranya.

Pada 8 April Perancis menyerang Ludovico di Novara dan tenteranya bubar. Ludovico cuba melarikan diri di antara orang Swiss yang berundur, tetapi ditangkap pada 10 April, menghabiskan sepuluh tahun baki hidupnya dalam kurungan Perancis. Orang Perancis masuk semula ke Milan, memulakan tempoh penguasaan Perancis secara berkala terhadap tentera duchy yang berlangsung hingga tahun 1530-an. Louis kemudian bersiap untuk bahagian kedua pengembaraan Itali, pencerobohan bersama Franco-Sepanyol ke Naples.


Peluang permainan masih terhad. Kelab ini tidak dibuka, tetapi kami kini boleh bermain permainan bersemuka di rumah setiap dua minggu sekali. Sekurang-kurangnya ia & # 8217s sesuatu!

Dia juga seorang pejuang perang dan bekas ahli Southg Scotland Wargames Club, yang bertemu di Edinburgh pada malam Khamis.
Lihat www.seswc.co.uk untuk maklumat lebih lanjut.

Arkib

Pertempuran Novara, 1513

17 November 2016, 3 Komen

Perang Itali, Pike & amp Shotte, 28mm

Minggu ini, & # 8220Jerman Michael & # 8221 mengadakan satu lagi permainan kebangkitannya. ia dinyatakan sebagai & # 8220 pertarungan lemak besar & # 8221, dengan 64 blok pike. Malangnya tidak ada yang memberitahu Swiss, yang muncul dengan 32 orang bersaiz biasa. Namun, ia kelihatan baik, terutama unit Perancis dan Landsknecht Michael & # 8217. Sebagai permainan, ia masih banyak yang diharapkan. Beberapa orang tetap (anda tahu siapa anda) tidak hadir, kerana mereka bekerja atau menyimpan serbuk wargaming mereka pada hujung minggu. Namun, kami mempunyai tiga pemain di sisi, dan meja yang cantik, dikuasai oleh sebuah kampung berdinding. Di paling kiri Donald memerintahkan blok pike Basel dan Berne, disokong oleh beberapa unit yang lebih kecil, dan beberapa senjata. Menghadapinya adalah Michael & # 8217s Bande Tidak landkneckts, dan beberapa perempah Gascony Perancis, serta senjata api dan pembakar api yang biasa. Kayu besar & # 8211 dan kampung & # 8211 dengan berkesan membahagikan medan perang kepada dua. Di sebelah kanannya adalah Pengawal Swiss, yang diperintahkan oleh Jack, disokong oleh senapang dan panah, sementara di sebelah kanannya muncul pasukan berkuda saya & # 8211 campuran orang Itali dan orang-orang stradiot. Menghadapi kami adalah arahan Ken & # 8217 & dua unit gendarmer elit Perancis, dan lima unit crossbowmern dan argoulet yang dipasang. Jadi & # 8211 dua sisi medan perang, dan dua pertempuran. Oleh kerana tidak ada pasukan yang mampu menduduki kampung, agak anehnya kosong sepanjang permainan.Dalam pertempuran Novara yang sebenar, orang Perancis (dengan bantuan Venesia) di bawah Louis de la Tremoille mengepung kota kecil Novara, di sebelah barat Milan. Orang Switzerland (dengan bantuan Milan) menyerang mereka, menyerang orang Perancis dari arah yang berlainan untuk membuat mereka tidak berjaga-jaga. orang Perancis menarik diri ke kem mereka, di mana mereka akhirnya dikalahkan. Itu adalah pertempuran yang cukup berdarah, bahkan menurut standar periode itu, dan termasuk pelaksanaan besar-besaran dari pasukan yang ditangkap berjuang untuk Perancis. Pertempuran kami tidak akan sama seperti yang sebenarnya, tetapi akan mengandungi sedikit rasa, melalui penggunaan blok pike yang besar. Tentu saja rancangan itu hancur berkat kekurangan Swiss.Bahagian kita di medan perang & # 8211 pasukan berkuda & # 8211 atau kanan Swiss dan kiri Perancis & # 8211 akan selalu menjadi tontonan. Pertarungan sebenarnya akan diputuskan oleh sepasang blok pike Swiss dan Perancis yang sepadan di seberang meja. Oleh itu, kami menghabiskan sebahagian besar waktu petang untuk menyelesaikan masalah. ken maju dan memotong salah satu unit stradiot saya, yang cukup gegabah untuk mengejar ahli panah yang dipasang & # 8211 dan mendarat terpencil. Kemudian kedua-dua pihak melakukan gerakan, menembakkan senapang mereka, dan menangkis tuduhan ganjil, tetapi tidak ada yang penting berlaku sehingga setengah jam terakhir permainan. Kemudian pasukan Milan saya bertindak melawan gendarmer Perancis. Satu unit gagal dalam jarak dekat, dan harus mengambil ujian rehat. Saya melancarkan & # 82203 & # 8221 pada 2D6, yang bermaksud kebiasaan. Walaupun Ken mengatakan bahawa saya tidak perlu, saya rasa saya juga perlu menggunakan unit Milan kedua yang menyokongnya. Saya melancarkan & # 82203. & # 8221 Lift-off. Pada ketika itu pertempuran berkuda habis. Ken dengan jelas memenangkannya, tetapi sekurang-kurangnya kami menjauhkan para penjaga elit dari blok pike Switzerland & # 8230Di seberang meja, Donald maju dengan pemain Swissnya, terus menuju lawan Perancis dan Landsknecht. Mereka juga maju, disokong oleh tembakan artileri dan tembakan yang cukup tepat. Ketika kedua-dua belah pihak bertembung kelihatan sangat spektakuler, tetapi cangkul mana pun yang akan dilancarkan oleh Swiss hanya akan diturunkan oleh lawan mereka berkat beberapa gulungan yang lebih buruk. Perlahan-lahan landknechts mendorong Bernese ke belakang, sementara lebih dekat ke tengah meja, pikemen Gascon dengan luar biasa menahan mereka sendiri melawan Baselers. Ketika permainan berakhir Donald & # 8217s dua blok besar akan berhenti, dan Perancis dan Jerman yang gembira mengikuti mereka, untuk terus menekan mereka. Oleh itu, pada pukul 10 malam kami menamatkan permainan, dan menyatakannya sebagai kemenangan Perancis yang jelas. Sejarah dibalikkan & # 8211 sehingga masa berikutnya. Walaupun pertempuran ini tidak melibatkan tentera Venesia kecil saya, beberapa pasukan berkuda Venesia muncul, berlipat ganda sebagai orang Milan. Lain kali & # 8211 dengan keberuntungan & # 8211 pasukan La Serenissima dapat memainkan peranan mereka dengan betul.

3 Respons & # 8220Perang Novara, 1513 & # 8221

Mungkin itu adalah 2 pertempuran, kerana pihak anda membiarkannya menjadi begitu. Orang Swiss anda mungkin berlindung lindung nilai atau menceburkan diri ke kampung di belakang tembok. Tidak ada yang terfikir untuk menumpukan kekuatan anda untuk menyerang pada titik lemah kita. & # 8230 Dan jangan tentukan alasan perintah, pertempuran ini mempunyai lebih banyak perintah daripada sebelumnya!


Eropah 1849: Pertempuran Novara

Perasaan revolusioner masih kuat di negara-negara Itali, mendorong Paus untuk melarikan diri dari Rom pada bulan November dan menyebabkan republik diisytiharkan di Rom dan Tuscany pada bulan Februari. Namun air surut. Pada bulan Mac, Sardinia melepaskan gencatan senjata dengan Austria tetapi dengan cepat dikalahkan pada Pertempuran Novara dan dipaksa untuk berdamai, sementara pada waktu yang sama Naples memulakan penaklukannya atas Kerajaan Sisilia yang berpisah.

Acara utama

5 Jan 1849 Orang Austria menangkap Buda-Pest & # 9650

Selepas kemenangan ke atas pemberontak Hungaria di Pertempuran Mor, pasukan Empayar Austria berjaya menawan ibu kota Hungaria, Buda dan Pest yang berdekatan. dalam wikipedia

9 Feb 1849 Republik Rom (Abad ke-19) & # 9650

Majelis Konstituen di Roma, di negara-negara Kepausan, mengisytiharkan Republik Rom. dalam wikipedia

18 Feb 1849 Republik Tuscan & # 9650

Pada 18 Februari 1849, Republik Tuscan diisytiharkan di Florence, dengan Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi dilantik sebagai diktator. Pada hari yang sama, Duke Leopold II melarikan diri ke Gaeta. dalam wikipedia

4–7 Mac 1849 Mac Perlembagaan Austria & # 9650

Count von Warthausen, Menteri Dalam Negeri Empayar Austria, mengisytiharkan Perlembagaan Mac, merebut kembali kekuasaan Habsburg setelah konsesi tahun 1848, mengurangkan hak penduduk bukan Jerman Empayar, dan mencabut Undang-Undang April di Hungaria. dalam wikipedia

12 Mac 1849 Sardinia memutuskan gencatan senjata dengan Austria & # 9650

Charles Albert, Raja Sardinia, melepaskan gencatan senjata dengan Empayar Austria dan memerintah Perang Kemerdekaan Itali Pertama. dalam wikipedia

19 Mac 1849 Naples meneruskan perang di Sicily & # 9650

Kerajaan Dua Sisilia (Napoli) mengakhiri gencatan senjata dengan Kerajaan Sisilia yang memisahkan diri, menghantar tenteranya keluar dari Messina. dalam wikipedia

22–23 Mac 1849 Pertempuran Novara & # 9650

Pasukan Empayar Austria, yang dipimpin oleh Marsekal Lapangan Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, mengalahkan pasukan Sardinia di Novara, Piedmont, di Kerajaan Sardinia. dalam wikipedia


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1849: Count Marshal Field Radetzky Memenangi Pertempuran Novara

Yaitu, ia mengalahkan tentera Kerajaan Sardinia dalam Pertempuran Novara, yang berusaha memperluas wilayah pengaruhnya ke bahagian-bahagian Itali di bawah kawalan Austria.

Marshal lapangan Austria yang memenangi pertempuran itu adalah Count Marshal Field Joseph Radetzky yang terkenal. Radetzky March yang terkenal, yang disusun oleh Johann Strauss Sr., dinamakan tepat setelah Count Radetzky yang disebutkan.

Kota Novara, di mana pertempuran berlaku, terletak di antara Milan dan Turin. Turin adalah ibu kota Kerajaan Sardinia, sementara Milan adalah ibu kota Lombardy, yang berada di bawah penguasaan Austria pada masa itu (Maharaja Francis Joseph I juga adalah Raja Lombardy dan Venice).

Georg Decker: Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky sekitar tahun 1850

Lebih daripada 100,000 tentera menyertai Pertempuran Novara. Pasukan Austria mencapai kemenangan yang menentukan, yang mengakhiri sementara usaha Itali untuk membebaskan Lombardy dari pemerintahan Austria. Pasukan Austria dalam arti itu mewakili sistem konservatif, sama seperti ketika mereka menghancurkan revolusi di Hungaria, yang terjadi pada waktu yang hampir sama.

Julius Jacob von Haynau menjadi salah satu jeneral Austria yang paling terkenal di Itali dan di Hungary. Dia menggunakan kekejaman yang melampau dalam menjatuhkan pemberontakan Itali di Brescia, yang membuatnya mendapat julukan "Hyena of Brescia". Di Hungaria, dia mengatur penggantungan sepuluh jeneral pemberontak yang kejam, yang dikenal sebagai Syuhada Arad. Sangat menarik untuk diperhatikan bahawa Jeneral von Haynau adalah cucu raja Inggeris George II melalui garis tidak sah. Sudah tentu, ini juga menjadikannya saudara dari ratu Britain, Victoria, yang memerintah pada masa Pertempuran Novara.


Pertempuran Novara, 8 April 1500 - Sejarah

Novara frigat Austria berlabuh di Sydney Harbour, November 1858. Foto asal, diterbitkan dalam L. Lind (1988). Gambar kemungkinan besar diambil oleh jurugambar tempatan dan rakan sejawat dari Austria, Wilhelm Hetzer.

Pembinaan di Venice 1843-51

Ekspedisi Ilmiah Sepanjang Dunia 1857-9

Kematian Ferdinand Maximillian 1867

". Kapal paling megah." - demikian ditulis oleh Mary Caroline Australia berusia 16 tahun "Minnie" Mann dalam buku hariannya pada 16 November 1858 dengan merujuk kepada kapal frigat Austria Novara, kemudian di pelabuhan di Sydney. Sentimen yang paling disukai timbul semasa lawatan berpandu ke kapal yang diberikan Minnie pada awal hari oleh kapten kapal, Baron Frederick von P ck. Pada masa itu Novara terlibat dalam ekspedisi ilmiah dunia yang akan berlangsung dari April 1857 hingga Ogos 1859. Persinggahan singkat di Sydney pada bulan November - Disember 1858 memberi peluang untuk pembaikan kapal, rehat dan rekreasi di pihak anak kapal, dan ada yang bersosial dengan wanita muda di Colony.

Miss Mann, walaupun masih muda, layak untuk membuat penilaian atau sebaliknya mengenai kehebatannya Novara. Dia tinggal di pesisir pelabuhan, dan merupakan anak perempuan Gother Kerr Mann, ketua jurutera di limbungan Pulau Cockatoo Sydney. Sebelum lawatan peribadinya ke kapal frigat Austria pada pagi November, dia telah memperoleh banyak pengetahuan mengenai struktur dan perincian lain dari kapal perang kontemporari, dengan hak istimewa untuk melihatnya pada jarak yang dekat ketika mereka menjalani pembaikan di FitzRoy yang baru dibuka (1857) Dok di Pelabuhan Sydney. Dia juga pernah mengikuti lawatan berpandu ke kapal frigat Inggeris yang kemudian beroperasi di stesen Australia. Orang Austria Novara terpaksa memanfaatkan kemudahan limbungan sementara di Sydney kerana mengalami kerosakan dalam taufan Laut China Selatan yang dihadapi pada 18-19 Ogos dalam perjalanan ke Australia dari Shanghai. Ketika kapal frigat memasuki Port Jackson, pam-pam itu bekerja dengan kuat dan dikatakan kapal itu mempunyai senarai keputusan.

Bahagian depan untuk edisi Jerman (Scherzer, 1861-3) dari kisah tiga jilid pelayaran Nov-Round-the-dunia Novara antara 1857-59, menunjukkan kapal di bawah layar penuh. Pelbagai kawasan yang dilawati semasa ekspedisi disenaraikan di kawasan yang indah.

Dari kediamannya 'Greenwich House', yang terletak di pantai utara Pelabuhan Sydney yang menghadap ke Pulau Cockatoo, "Minnie" Mann berada dalam posisi untuk memerhatikan banyak kapal penumpang dan perdagangan dan kapal perang yang mengunjungi premier Colony pelabuhan pada tahun 1850-an. Lalu lintas laut telah meningkat dengan ketara sepanjang dekad sebelumnya kerana penemuan emas di New South Wales dan Victoria pada tahun 1851. Laju emas yang dihasilkan membawa ribuan pemburu kekayaan ke Sydney dari seluruh pelosok dunia, dan sementara Novara tidak mencari kekayaan pada tahun 1858, dia dan anak buahnya tetap mencari barang yang sama berharga - pengetahuan, pengalaman dan reputasi.

Frigat Austria ini juga pasti salah satu kelas terbaiknya yang melalui Sydney Heads dan mengikat Pulau Cockatoo sejak koloni hukuman Inggeris 'Botany Bay' ditubuhkan pada tahun 1788. Pada bulan November 1858 Novara, walaupun agak lebam dan hancur, menonjol di antara armada kapal angkatan laut Britain, kapal imigran dan kargo, dan barik perdagangan kecil dan kapal uap kemudian sering mengunjungi banyak teluk dan dermaga di pelabuhan yang paling indah ini. Dia adalah perwujudan pelayaran monarki Habsburg, penguasa kekaisaran Austro-Hungaria yang luas, yang pada masa itu, membentang dari pantai timur Laut Adriatik dan Venice dan Itali di barat, selatan melalui Bosnia-Herzegovena menuju Baltik dan Turki, utara ke Negara Jerman, dan timur sejauh Rumania dan Rusia.

Keadaan yang menandakan Novara sebagai perang-perang Austria pertama yang mengunjungi New South Wales, dan kapal terbesar yang memasuki FitzRoy Dock hingga saat itu, dapat ditelusuri kembali ke wilayah Venice yang dijajah pada tahun 1843, ketika monarki Austria memesan kapal baru untuk tentera lautnya yang kecil, walaupun terus berkembang. Dibina semasa fasa terakhir era kapal perang kayu - pada akhir 1850-an dan awal 1860-an kapal perang besi dan wap berkuasa akan menggantikannya - Novara adalah, setelah siap pada tahun 1851, sebuah kapal seni, kapal terbang tiga tiang yang canggih. Dengan cepat dan mewah dilengkapi dengan permaidani dan perabot yang bagus untuk melayani para pegawai dan kru angkatan laut Austria, dia juga membawa persenjataan yang cukup besar untuk perlindungan terhadap armada musuh. Keperluan untuk senjata api itu nyata, seperti Novara terus mengambil bahagian dalam salah satu pertempuran laut paling terkenal sepanjang masa, iaitu yang berlaku antara armada Austria dan Itali di luar pulau Lissa Adriatic pada 20 Julai 1866 (lihat di bawah).

The Novara dibangun menggunakan kayu Adriatik terbaik, dan dimaksudkan untuk menampung berbagai pangeran, baron, duk dan penghuni Habsburg yang akan berlayar dengannya sebagai kadet, pegawai tentera laut yang lengkap, atau penumpang bebas. Selama tahun 1850-an dan 1860-an dia memainkan peranan penting sebagai kapal induk armada Austria, membawa panji-panji Austria dan aspirasi monarki Habsburg ke seluruh pelosok dunia, sementara di perairan yang lebih dekat dengan rumah yang berfungsi sebagai kapal latihan layar, senjata api kapal, dan frigat pertempuran jarak dekat.

The Novara adalah sesuatu yang aneh bagi penjajah ketika dia tiba di Sydney pada lewat petang 5 November 1858. Kapal yang megah ini berlayar di bawah bendera yang jarang dilihat di Australia - terdiri daripada garis-garis merah-putih-merah mendatar tebal, yang dipaparkan pada pusatkan puncak Austria helang berkepala dua. Walaupun ini adalah bendera rasmi Empayar Austria, panji angkatan laut Austria juga berwarna merah-putih-merah, walaupun dengan mahkota ducal dan meterai di tengahnya.

Penjajah Inggeris pada umumnya tidak menyedari bahawa Kerajaan Austria memiliki armada tentera laut, dan itu SMS (Seiner Majest Schiff) Novara adalah salah satu kapal induk Kaiserliche und K nigliche Kriegsmarine (Imperial dan Tentera Laut Diraja) Austria. Pada masa itu Austria tidak diakui sebagai kekuatan laut sama seperti Great Britain atau Perancis, yang keduanya mempunyai tradisi angkatan laut yang panjang dan bangga. Monarki Austria baru mulai mengembangkan angkatan laut dengan bersungguh-sungguh pada akhir abad kelapan belas, namun pada tahun 1850-an, Habsburg memiliki armada terkuat Gabungan Negara Jerman.

Tempoh pengembangan ini pada awal hingga pertengahan abad ini disebabkan oleh sokongan yang kuat dari dua bangsawan Habsburg. Pertama, Archduke muda Frederick yang, pada tahun 1837 - ketika berusia 16 tahun - bergabung dengan tentera laut dan kemudian menjadikannya bergaya bagi anggota bangsawan lain untuk melakukan hal yang sama.

Sebagai pelaut, Archduke Frederick terlibat dalam tindakan yang berjaya di Syria dan Palestin pada tahun 1839, dan pada tahun 1844 dijadikan Panglima Angkatan Laut. Selama periode ini, ia dapat menimbulkan semangat untuk pengembangan armada di antara biro ilmu yang berkuasa yang telah lama memusatkan perhatiannya pada penumpukan tentera Austria. Kumpulan ini lambat menjawab seruan Frederick untuk pemodenan dan pengembangan armada. Walaupun begitu, pada tahun 1843 pesanan dibuat dengan hak cipta kapal di Venetian Arsenal (kompleks pembuatan kapal besar) untuk pembinaan kapal perang baru untuk melayani tentera laut Austria. Malang sekali Archduke Frederick tidak melihat kapal itu dilancarkan sebagai kapal terbang Novara pada tahun 1851. Dia meninggal sebelum waktunya pada tahun 1847, ketika baru berusia 26 tahun, dan meninggalkan angkatan laut tanpa kepemimpinan atau pengaruh dalam tempoh ketika revolusi melanda Eropah. Penggantiannya akhirnya adalah Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian (1832-67), adik kepada Maharaja Franz Joseph I (1830-1916). Walaupun seseorang yang berkuasa dan berpengaruh di bangsawan Austria, Ferdinand Maximillian, dalam percubaannya untuk membangun armada selama tahun 1850-an, juga menghadapi tentangan dari birokrasi dan bahagian-bahagian Empayar - termasuk Hungaria - yang tidak memerlukan kehadiran tentera laut yang besar. Dengan ibu kota yang terkunci di darat (Vienna), dan terpaksa bergantung pada pelabuhan pesisir Adriatik yang mengandungi populasi atau etnik minoriti yang secara aktif menentang 'pendudukan' Austria, idea tentera laut untuk Empayar tidak disokong secara meluas, tidak seperti keadaan di negara-negara seperti Great Britain atau bahkan Amerika Syarikat, di mana pertimbangan praktikal untuk mengamankan laluan perdagangan laut dan mengekalkan armada laut terkait erat dengan kesejahteraan negara. Nasib baik, atau sayangnya, iklim politik yang tidak menentu pada masa itu dan penglibatan Austria dalam sejumlah perang dengan jiran-jirannya yang dekat, menambah berat usaha Uskup Ferdinand (dan kemudian Maximillian) untuk membangun armada yang moden dan siap untuk berperang.

Ketika kita melihat kembali sejarah sejarah abad kesembilan belas ini dari sudut pandang kira-kira 150 tahun kemudian, kita sekarang melihat Austria sebagai negara yang terkurung daratan, setelah kehilangan pelabuhan Adriatik yang lama dipegang di Trieste dan Pola. Angkatan Laut Austro-Hungaria juga hanyalah kenangan. Armada yang pernah dibanggakan - yang pada tahun 1914 adalah yang keenam terbesar di dunia - kali terakhir menyaksikan aksi semasa Perang Dunia I. Berikutan kekalahan pada November 1918, kapal-kapalnya disebarkan kepada para pemenang sebagai balasan perang, atau dihancurkan secara keji. Kisah frigat pelayaran Novara oleh itu membawa kita kembali ke masa yang lebih besar dalam sejarah monarki Habsburg dan Empayar Austro-Hungaria - ke masa ketika kemegahannya, baik di darat maupun di laut, menyaingi kekuatan hebat lain dari masa ke masa sekarang semua tetapi dilupakan.

Pembinaan Novara, Venice 1843-51

Kisah pembinaan Novara adalah salah satu kejadian dan gangguan, yang terkait dengan pergolakan politik pada masa itu dan desakan untuk penyatuan Itali. Frigat pertama kali dibaringkan di galangan kapal Arsenal, Venice, sebagai Minerva pada 20 September 1843, dengan sisinya dicucuk untuk menampung 42 senjata. Pada ketika ini, Kerajaan Austria tidak memiliki kapal laut sendiri, tetapi memanfaatkan tradisi lama pembuatan kapal di Venice dan kemahiran para pembuat kapal Itali. Ini akan berubah pada akhir tahun 1850-an ketika sebuah industri tempatan diciptakan, dan kapal-kapal untuk tentera laut Austria kemudiannya dilancarkan dari halaman seperti Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino di Trieste (sebuah halaman peribadi yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1857), dan halaman tentera laut Pola yang berdekatan. Kedua-dua kemudahan itu terletak di pantai Adriatik timur, agak jauh dari orang Itali yang semakin bermusuhan.

Bahagian menegak dari frigat Austria Novara pada masa pelayarannya di dunia, 1857-59. Dipetik dari Scherzer (1861-3).

Program pembinaan Minerva / Novara adalah yang luar biasa panjang, disebabkan oleh konflik berterusan Empayar dengan Itali dan pelbagai negara semi-merdeka, terutamanya Sardinia di selatan dan Venetia di utara. Austria telah memperoleh wilayah Venesia pada tahun 1797 kehilangannya sebentar kepada Napoleon pada dekad berikutnya dan mendapatkannya kembali pada tahun 1814. Kekalahan Napoleon di Waterloo pada tahun 1815 mengakibatkan jangka waktu yang relatif damai, namun pada tahun 1848 semangat revolusi kembali menyebar ke seluruh Eropah, yang mempengaruhi baik Austria dan jiran Itali. Tempoh pembinaan Novara (1843-51) sesuai dengan rasa nasionalisme Itali yang berkembang di antara negara-negara dan kerajaan yang berbeza yang kemudian meluas dari selatan Alps ke Sicily. Austria, sebagai pemimpin dan penindas bangsawan, merupakan sasaran yang jelas bagi para patriot Itali ketika mereka berjuang untuk menyatukan semenanjung. Venetia menjadi tumpuan usaha mereka, dan peristiwa di sana menjadi pencetus.

Setelah kira-kira lima puluh tahun sebagai wilayah pendudukan, pada 17 Mac 1848 Venice bangkit menentang pemerintahan Austria, seperti yang dilakukan Milan di barat pada akhir bulan. Orang-orang Venesia mengusir orang Austria dan, dalam usaha untuk kemerdekaan Itali, mendirikan sebuah republik. Tiga korvet Austria, banyak kapal angkatan laut yang lebih kecil, bersama dengan galangan kapal, gudang senjata, dan kedai yang berkaitan semuanya jatuh ke tangan pemberontak. Gangguan yang timbul terhadap Novara program pembinaan adalah salah satu nombor yang berlaku antara tahun 1843-50.

Selesai sebahagiannya, Minerva dinamakan semula Itali oleh para revolusioner Venesia, memperkuat sikap memberontak mereka terhadap orang Austria dan secara langsung menentang perintah yang melarang penggunaan perkataan tersebut. Sehingga patah tulang ini, tentera laut Austria mempunyai watak Itali yang kuat, namun setelah peristiwa 1848 menjadi lebih multikultural, dengan orang Austria terpaksa menarik pelaut dari bahagian lain dari Empayar, terutama wilayah pesisir Adriatik timur seperti Montenegro dan Dalmatia.

Pada awal tahun 1848 momentum pasti ada pada pemberontak. Pada bulan April dan Mei tentera Austria mengalami serangkaian kekalahan di tangan orang Itali di Goito dan Pastrengo. Tidak sampai Julai-Ogos, Kerajaan dapat menggerakkan pasukannya di bawah komando Field Marshall Joseph Radetzky dan merebut kembali Milan dan beberapa bahagian Venetia dari orang-orang Sardinia. Gencatan senjata (gencatan senjata) ditandatangani pada 9 Ogos 1848, dan orang-orang Sardinia diusir dari Venice pada tanggal 11, walaupun kota itu terus mempertahankan kemerdekaannya dari Austria. Gencatan senjata berakhir pada 12 Mac 1849 dan tentera Radetzky yang ke-23 berjaya menewaskan Raja Charles Albert dari Piedmont (Monarki Sardinia) pada pertempuran Novara, di bahagian barat laut Itali. Walaupun begitu, Venetia terus bertahan. Pengepungan Venice bermula pada 20 Julai, walaupun hanya berlangsung hingga tanggal 28, ketika kota kuno itu diserahkan kepada Austria, karena kelaparan lokal, wabah penyakit, dan pengeboman tentera laut Austria. Peace of Milan ditandatangani tidak lama kemudian pada 2 Ogos 1849, sehingga mengakhiri perang antara Sardinia dan Austria.

Berikutan pengambilalihan semula Austria di Venice, Field Marshall Radetzky mengunjungi halaman kapal di sana dan para petugas memintanya agar hampir selesai Itali dinamakan semula sebagai penghormatan atas kemenangannya ke atas Raja Charles Albert. Kapal itu kemudiannya dibaptiskan Novara dan kerja dimulakan semula dengan bersungguh-sungguh di bawah pengawasan Austria. Punggungnya akhirnya siap meninggalkan jalan raya menjelang November tahun berikutnya (1850).

Acara pulang juga memberi kesan kepada karier masa depan frigat yang belum selesai. 1848 - 'tahun revolusi' - adalah masa yang penuh gejolak bagi Austria dan negara jirannya di Eropah. Revolusi di Vienna pada tahun itu menyaksikan penggulingan Maharaja Ferdinand I, diikuti dengan pemasangan sementara pemerintahan yang bertanggungjawab, penghapusan hak kehormatan, dan pengenalan perlembagaan Austria. Walaupun janji awal perubahan ini, revolusi tidak lama. Akhir tahun 1848 menyaksikan jalan kembali ke jalan lama, dengan peninggalan Ferdinand I yang memihak kepada keponakannya yang berusia 18 tahun, Franz Joseph I. Setelah pemasangan sebagai Maharaja - jawatan yang dipegangnya hingga kematiannya pada tahun 1916 - Franz Joseph segera melantik Dane Rear Admiral Hans Birch von Dahlerup ke jawatan Panglima Panglima tentera laut Austria. Dengan sokongan Kaisar, von Dahlerup menghabiskan dua setengah tahun berikutnya untuk menyusun semula armada di sepanjang garis tentera laut Britain, menjadikannya stabil untuk tahun-tahun mendatang. Dia mengaktifkan armada sebagai bagian dari blokade Venetion pada awal tahun 1849, dan memulakan semula program pembinaan yang telah terhenti pada tahun 1848. Setelah pengunduran dirinya pada tahun 1851 - disebabkan oleh kurangnya sokongan dari golongan bangsawan politik dan bangsawan yang berusaha untuk menggantikan Dane dengan orang Austria - von Dahlerup diganti dua tahun kemudian oleh Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian, yang kemudian berkhidmat sebagai Panglima Panglima dari 1854 hingga 1862.

Setelah bertahan dalam revolusi dan sekitar tujuh tahun dalam stok, Novara dilancarkan secara rasmi dari jalan raya Venesia pada 4 November 1850. Pada masa itu dia dinilai sebagai kapal layar tiga tiang, 42 senapang, panjang 165 kaki, berat / anjakan 2107 tan Austria (2630 tan Inggeris), dan mampu menampung pelengkap dari 403. Kawasan dangkal layar utama berjumlah 18,291 kaki persegi. Dimensi kapal yang tepat akan berubah sepanjang hayatnya, terutama setelah pembangunan semula besar pada tahun 1861-2 untuk memudahkan pemasangan mesin wap. Namun, pada saat kapal 1857 melakukan perbaikan untuk persiapan ekspedisi ilmiah di seluruh dunia, di mana tidak ada perubahan besar pada dimensi asalnya, dia digambarkan sebagai berikut:

Pelabuhan rumah di Novara secara nominal Trieste, walaupun dia akan diservis dari Arsenal Venesia dan kemudian pekarangan kapal perang Pola. Ciri kapal yang terkenal ialah gondola Venesia yang berfungsi sebagai salah satu kapal penolongnya, dan mungkin termasuk sebagai penghormatan kepada pembangunnya. Gondola mengembara dengan Novara semasa perjalanannya sepanjang tahun antara 1857-9. Seorang gadis muda Australia - "Minnie" Mann - akan merakam dalam buku hariannya pada bulan November 1858 kegembiraan pelayaran Sydney Harbour di atas gondola eksotik ini, yang dikendalikan oleh pelaut dari kapal frigat. Tidak diragukan lagi, ini merupakan kraf Venesia pertama yang mengunjungi Port Jackson sejak pertama kali dijajah pada tahun 1788.

Bilik 'Novara', Istana Miramar, Trieste. Dibina untuk Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian sebagai peringatan tahun-tahunnya sebagai kadet tentera laut di atas kapal frigat Austria.

Walaupun Novara telah meninggalkan jalan raya pada bulan November 1850, pemasangannya tidak selesai hingga bulan Juni 1851. Menjalani pelayaran pertama yang tergoyahkan di Laut Tengah, dia membuktikan kapal yang laju, dan pada tahun 1857 dicatat sebagai kapal terbang yang terpantas. During her first year in service, the 19 year old Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian saw time on board as a fledgling naval officer. He was to develop such a fondness for the vessel during this period that when he built his residence Miramar Castle on a bluff overlooking the Adriatic Sea near Trieste, he included within it a study room which resembled his quarters on board ship in precise detail. Daylight entered the room through a round scuttle in the ceiling, like that on the Novara's own deck. The room also featured richly carved wooden beams, centrally located to imitate the cramped and crowded condition of the rooms on board the Novara which, during the course of a normal cruise, would be called on to accommodate anywhere from 400-500 sailors.

Upon her initial period of service, the Novara acted as a sail-training vessel and ship of the line. European powers such as Britain and France used their naval cruisers as station ships to protect colonial possessions (e.g. the British frigates HMS Herald dan HMS Iris were both serving at the Sydney station during 1858 at the time of the Novara visit). The Habsburgs had no such colonial aspirations and, as a result, the duties of the Austrian fleet were relatively limited to sail training, patrol duties upon the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, fighting, or putting up in port in order to save expense and extend the naval budget. Due to a large amount of indifference on the part of the Habsburg bureaucracy, this latter activity occupied many vessels of the fleet for an inordinate period of time, resulting in an unacceptable state of preparedness when called on to defend the Empire in battle. Archduke Maximillian fought to overcome this, and was somewhat successful in his efforts. For example, a report in the London Masa of 2 September 1852 noted that some 2400 workmen were then employed in the Venice Arsenal 'building new ships' for the Austrian navy, or 'rendering old ones fit for war service.'

The opportunity to show off her naval prowess came early in 1853 when a conflict broke out between Austria and Turkey over the latter's despatch of troops into Montenegro. The Novara and a squadron of Austrian naval vessels was despatched to the Montenegran coast to show the flag and ward off further Turkish incursions. No action took place at this time, and the vessels eventually returned to port and extended duties of a less exciting nature.

A Round-the-World Scientific Expedition 1857-9

Circumstances were to change for the Novara, however, when in 1856 she was selected for duty in connection with a round-the-world scientific expedition to be sponsored by Ferdinand Maximillian and the great German scientist Alexander von Humboldt. Instead of gathering barnacles in port, the frigate would be dispatched on an extended voyage of discovery to the Far East and the Pacific. This was indeed a noble task for any vessel during periods of war or peace, and one which placed the Novara among that distinguished list of ships of exploration which includes Captain James Cook's Endeavour, HMS Beagle with Captain FitzRoy and Charles Darwin on board, the French Astrolabe, America's Merak USS, dan HMS Challenger, to name but a few.

"Te Deum" Mass on board the Novara, 1857, officiated by Father von Marochini. Engraving after original drawing by Joseph Selleny

The idea of an Austrian flag-waving exercise combined with a scientific expedition came at a time of relative security for the Empire, and a lull in fighting on its borders. This followed on the Italian uprising and internal revolutions of 1848-9, and a series of smaller conflicts during the first half of the 1850s. Apabila Novara was launched from the Venetian stocks in 1850, Austrian and Bavarian troops were in the process of occupying parts of Hanover, and tensions had developed with neighbouring Prussia, the strongest of the Germanic states. However these conflicts were resolved by 1851 when the Novara was commissioned, and there was relative calm for a number of years. During 1853 tensions began to mount - the Montenegro conflict flaired there was insurrection in Milan the Kosta affair at Smyrna was a severe embarrasment to Austria and its navy, pointing to the simmering Hungarian indpeendence movement and there was an assassination attempt carried out on Franz Joseph during that year.

Early in 1854 the Crimean War broke out. Austria tried to stay out of any direct involvement in this conflict, though it was aligned with Great Britain and France, in defense of Turkey against a Russia advance which sought control of the Baltic Sea and hoped to profit from the breakup of the Ottoman Empire. Hostilities continued in the Crimea until February 1856, at which point the allies claimed victory over the Russian incursion.

Following cessation of the war, the Austrian navy and scientific establishment could now proceed undistracted with its plans for a round-the-world scientific expedition, no longer fearful that her naval vessels would be attacked or confiscated by a hostile fleet. How long this state of affairs would last remained unclear, however a window of opportunity opened in 1856 following the closure of the Crimean War.

When Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian received permission from his brother the Emperor Franz Joseph to mount a round-the-world scientific expedition and sail-training exercise, he immediately contacted Alexander von Humboldt, seeking support and guidance. Replying to the request in December 1856, Humboldt was enthusiastic, as were other European scientists such as English geologist Sir Roderick Murchison. All saw the opportunity to build upon the work of previous non-Austrian expeditions in expanding the realms of scientific knowledge and acquiring specimens of natural history from far off lands. It was agreed that Austria should mount an official expedition to not only widen the skills of her most distinguished scientists and allow them to gather items for study and display in local museums, but also to carry the Habsburg banner to all corners of the globe, thereby proclaiming the Empire's existence as a world power. A further task, as noted by the expedition's historiographer Karl Scherzer, was "the practical instruction of our young and rapidly increasing navy."

Commodore Bernhard von W llerstorf-Urbair was given general commander of the expedition. Archduke Ferdinand Maximillian selected the Novara to carry out this task, not only because of his personal attachment to the ship, but also due to the practicalities of using sail as opposed to steam on such a long voyage. A sailing frigate offered greater disposable storage area on board, in comparison with the steaming equivalent, which required a large amount of area below decks for coal and machinery. Also necessary on this occasion was room for the scientific contingent, their supplies and equipment, and storage space for the many specimens to be acquired during the course of the expedition. This was on top of the extra sailors and marines who would also be on board. As the vessel was travelling to areas of the globe where it was known that the winds blow freely and supplies of coal could not always be easily obtained, sail won out over steam. The Novara was therefore given the honour of transporting a contingent of scientists, naval officers, diplomats, sailors, marines, and even a musical band on a two-year cruise around the world.

In order to prepare for the voyage ahead, the Novara was laid up at the Pola naval yards for a refit early in 1857. The ventilation of the lower decks was improved and the number of cabins increased in proportion to the number of individuals to be accommodated. The gun room was converted into a reading room and provided with a well-selected library and various charts and maps for use by the officers and scientists as they went about their respective tasks of researching, recording, calculating and drawing. The store rooms for the sail and tackle were enlarged so as to take double the normal quantity. A distilling apparatus was installed on the gun deck, and shower-bath facilities were improved so that the health of the crew could be maintained over a long period. Such precautions proved effective, with no major outbreaks of disease occurring on board during the length of the expedition.

The refit was completed on 15 March 1857, at which point the Novara, accompanied by the corvette Carolina, headed north for Trieste, the expedition's official point of departure. Final farwells took place amid much fanfare and cannon fire on 30 April 1857. Both vessels left Trieste not under sail, but in tow, courtesy of the steamer St. Lucia. They were taken south as far as Sicily and the Straits of Messina, before sails were unfurled and the ships headed west into the Mediterranean, past the Straits of Gibraltar and out into the Atlantic Ocean. The Novara was accompanied as far as Rio de Janiero by the Carolina, and thereafter traveled on alone to Africa, India, China, the Philippines and Indonesia, Australia, New Zealand, and various South Pacific islands. Her precise itinerary was as follows:

SMS Novara Itinerary 1857-9

Library and former Gun Room on board the Novara, 1857. Engraving after original drawing by Joseph Selleny.


Famous Birthdays In 1500

Famous People Born In This Year In History

Feb 22 On this day in history birth of cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Italian humanist (d. 1564)

Feb 24 Carlos V, King of Spain (1516-56)/Holy Roman Emperor was born in the year 1500.

Mar 03 Reginald Pole, English Cardinal/"heretic" was born in the year 1500.

Apr 12 Joachim Camerarius, [Liebhard Kammerer], German humanist was born in the year 1500.

Apr 23 On this day in history birth of alexander Alesius, [Aless/Alane], System theologist/physician

Apr 23 Alexander Ales, Scottish theologian (d. 1565) was born in the year 1500.

Nov 01 On this day in history birth of benvenuto Cellini, sculptor/goldsmith/author (Perseus)


The First Italian War of Independence

Since the breakup of the Roman Empire, Italy had separated into several different city-states and small kingdoms. In 1815, after the Napoleonic Wars, control of the northern Italian states of Lombardy and Venezia was returned to the Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs, by whom they had long been dominated. Neighbouring Lombardy was Piedmont, a state ruled by the King of Sardinia. The authorities were keen to crush revolutionary ideas and return to the pre-Napoleonic status quo, but some Italians had been inspired by events in France and wanted more say over their own lives. This desire for better rights for ordinary citizens developed into a movement to make Italy stronger by unifying all its states into one country. This was known in Italian as Risorgimento. At the beginning of 1848, a year of revolutions across Europe, several states in Italy had uprisings by people demanding written constitutions that guaranteed them certain rights and freedoms. Charles Albert, the King of Sardinia, saw an opportunity to increase his power by harnessing Risorgimento and placing himself at the head of a campaign to get control of Lombardy and Venetia from the Austrian Empire.

Perang

In March 1848, there were citizen uprisings in Milan and Venice that forced the Austrian garrisons out of the cities. King Charles Albert of Sardinia declared war on Austria on 23 March. As his Piedmontese armies marched towards the Austrian-controlled state of Lombardy, they were joined by troops from other Italian states. Over the next few days, the Italians reached and crossed the border into Lombardy. They then slowly advanced towards the Mincio river, which marked the border between Lombardy and Venetia, allowing the Austrians to carry out an orderly retreat to strong positions. By 8 April most of the Austrian troops in northern Italy had withdrawn to the Quadrilateral fortresses at Verona, Peschiera, Mantua and Legnago, where they could regroup and plan counterattacks against the Italians. The Austrians were commanded by 81-year-old Josef Radetsky.

The first military clashes of the war came at various crossings of the Mincio, where from 8-11 April 1848 the Austrian rearguard failed to prevent the Italians from moving into Venetia. Meanwhile, Austrian reinforcements were coming, marching into Venetia from the east. By 27 April the Italians were besieging the Austrian-held fort at Peschiera, and three days later on 30 April, there was a clash at Pastrengo as they successfully forced the Austrians out of several strongholds in the vicinity. Although this success was a boost to Italian morale, they failed to cut off the Austrian supply route to the north, a move which would have been a serious blow to the Austrian war effort. The Italian cause had also taken something of a knock when Pope Pius IX withdrew his support, although many of the troops from the Papal States chose to remain and fight despite this.

The Battle of Santa Lucia on 6 May 1848 saw the Italians attack Austrian-held villages west of Verona. Although there was some success, the failure of attacks in other parts of the line led to the Italians abandoning the gains they had made rather than leave their troops exposed. The Austrians were able to retake the villages without opposition, and the battle marked a turning point in the campaign, where the Italians lost the initiative they had held to that point. Two days later the other Austrian army, under General Laval Nugent, fought Papal troops at the Battle of Cornuda. When expected reinforcements failed to arrive, the Papal army was forced to retreat. Ill health forced Nugent to hand command over to Georg Thurn, who marched the troops to link up with Radetsky’s Austrians at Verona.

The aim of the Austrians was to break the siege of Peschiera, but an attempt to break through the Italian lines at Goito on 30 May failed, and on that very same day, the Austrians at Peschiera surrendered. Charles Albert was hailed by his victorious troops as the ‘King of Italy’. However, this would prove to be the high-water mark of Italian success. On June 11 the Papal troops in the east were forced to withdraw from the war after losing the battle for the city of Vicenza. Their departure weakened the Italian position in Venetia and allowed the Austrians to regain control of Padua, Trento and Palmanova.

After several weeks of inactivity, troops from the Savoy region retook the town of Governolo from the Austrians. Although it was an impressive victory, the Italians were now overextended. The Battle of Custoza, playing out between 22-27 July 1848, saw the two armies confront each other in almost equal numbers. At first, the Italians were able to repel Austrian attacks around Rivoli, but over the next few days, the Austrians gained several crossings over the Mincio river. By 27 July, the Italians were falling back. Charles Albert wanted to negotiate a truce but, finding the Austrian demands excessive decided instead to retreat to Milan. The city was still in the hands of a provisional government after ejecting the Austrian garrison earlier in the year, and Charles Albert hoped to gain control of it for Piedmont and the Sardinian crown.

In Milan, the Italian soldiers found the citizens ready to resist the Austrian army to the death. However, Charles Albert was concerned at the lack of supplies and decided to abandon the city. He left under cover of darkness, protected by armed guards against any Milanese citizens who might take violent objection to his decision.

On 6 August, Charles Albert’s armies had withdrawn into Piedmont, back inside the Sardinian territory. On 9 August an armistice was signed with the Austrians. Although the fighting had officially stopped, Italy had not returned to the pre-1848 status quo. Venice was still in rebel hands and had agreed to be annexed by Sardinia. Garibaldi and Mazzini were still trying to fight for republicanism across Italy, and in February 1849 Tuscany and Rome declared themselves to be republics.

The Chamber of Deputies in the Kingdom of Sardinia voted to break the terms of the armistice and resume hostilities against Austria in early March 1849. Charles Albert officially declared war on 20 March, but the Austrians had not wasted those few weeks and were ready with a surprise invasion of Piedmont. On 23 March 1849, the two armies met at the Battle of Novara. Although the attacking initiative changed hands several times over the course of the day, the end result was a heavy defeat for Piedmont. That night Charles Albert announced that he would be abdicating his throne in favour of his son and heir, Victor Emmanuel II. His first duty as the king was to meet Josef Radetzky to negotiate the terms of the armistice. The Italians were forced to allow the Austrians to keep garrisons in their territory, and to pay reparations. The Peace of Milan officially came into effect on 6 August 1849.

In the months following the Battle of Novara, other Italian states were gradually returned to their pre-1848 rulers. The last holdout was Venice, which finally surrendered to the Austrians on 22 August after being stricken with starvation and disease. Although the spirit of Risorgimento seemed to have been extinguished, the desire for greater freedom and national unification in Italy would continue to grow.

Kronologi

In 1848 Italy was divided into several different states and kingdoms under various different rulers. The call was growing for greater freedoms for ordinary Italians, and for a return to a united Italy last seen under the Romans, inspired in part by the French Revolution. In 1848, several Italian cities and states saw uprisings. In Milan and Venice, the ruling Austrians were ejected from the cities. King Charles Albert of Sardinia decided to declare war on Austria as a way of harnessing the revolutionary movement to increase his own power in northern Italy. He began his campaign in March 1848, marching into the Austrian puppet states of Lombardy and Venetia alongside allies from other Italian states. Despite initially driving the Austrians back, the Italian campaign ultimately failed and Charles Albert signed an armistice in August 1848. In the following year, he declared war on Austria again, but the conflict was swiftly ended when the Austrians launched a surprise invasion of Charles Albert’s own territory of Piedmont. The First War of Italian Independence was officially ended by the Peace of Milan on 6 August 1849. Charles Albert abdicated and his son Victor Emmanuel II became King of Sardinia.

Rujukan:

[1.] Various, The Times Complete History of the World (Times Books, 2004)


Battle of Novara, 8 April 1500 - History

By William J. McPeak

Bishops in battle? It’s not as unlikely as it sounds. At the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Norman Duke William, soon to be dubbed William the Conqueror, held his heavy cavalry in check until the most advantageous moment to charge the right flank of King Harold’s Saxons. Riding with him was his brother Odo, a capable military man in his own right besides being the bishop of Bayeux. Of the three great divisions of knights heading east for Constantinople in 1096 to inaugurate the First Crusade against the Seljuk Turks, that of the warriors of Provencals was led by Prince Raymond of Toulouse and another leading churchman, Bishop Adhemar de Puy, was the papal commissary. And when Scottish patriot William Wallace was defeated in 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk by King Edward I of England, it was due in part to Anthony Bek, the prince bishop of Durham, who directed the king’s right flank that day.

The thought of a lordly bishop wielding a sword or mace in combat might seem unlikely, but throughout history many clerical leaders have proven themselves to be talented and determined military commanders. The local village priest on the battlefield was actually fairly commonplace before ad 1000. It was natural to find men of the cloth—however homespun—marching with soldiers to bless them before battle or administer last rites after the fighting was over. But some of the fathers were made for more than merely turning the other cheek. They might also have carried a concealed dagger or garrote with which to more speedily administer last rites to the enemy.

Higher churchmen such as bishops often accompanied lords and king as a symbol of their spiritual unity. Some did much more. Bishops were the leaders and administrators of the early Christian church, and most candidates for a bishopric were nobles who had been appointed to the position by the king. Noble families traditionally gained power through exemplary military service. As such, they were vassals to the king and the church. The oldest son, by tradition and law, inherited the family land and title, while the youngest was usually picked to become a cleric. Although not necessarily his first inclination, it was a matter of familial duty and self-interest. Bishops, like other noblemen, held great tracts of land, and their privileges could be boundless. A king might influence the choosing of a bishop sympathetic to him to gain control of rich church lands or acquire more influence with the church for political ends. A bright offspring in clerical robes, therefore, could be a useful means of enhancing family power. If his talents included a strong right arm—so much the better for everyone involved.

The aforementioned Bishop Bek was part of an early political strategy by the English monarchy. The city of Durham, in northern England, traditionally was controlled by a loyal bishop capable of protecting the English border from the always troublesome Scots. Being given royal-like powers to rule the county, he was called the “Prince Bishop.” Nobles, knights, and lower clerics of demonstrated military ability would join the Prince Bishop’s Men, an elite force that was essentially a mercenary band. Armed clashes between the Scottish reivers, or raiders, and the Prince Bishop’s Men, were common.

There was an old saying that bishops did not carry a mace into battle to draw blood, but merely to split hairs by other means. There were blade-wielding bishops as well. European cathedrals, typically the largest church building at the center of a bishop’s territory or diocese, contained a variety of medieval swords used in various ceremonies—and many were the former battle swords of bishops. The French bishops of Caliors proudly followed a martial tradition of displaying their hardware openly in church, regularly placing their swords and helmets on the altar when they said Mass.

Many bishops took their military duties in stride and passed unnoticed in the annals of military history. Actively malicious churchmen were another matter. The tradition of the bad bishop was an old one. Some used their positions and military prowess for troublemaking and intrigue. On such intriguing bishop in 14th-century England was Thomas de Lisle, the bishop of Ely (1345-1361), who used his aggressive nature to form a gang of bravos to terrorize, harass, and otherwise extort money from local merchants and relatives of King Edward III until he finally was exiled.

As the Protestant Reformation progressed, stories focusing on bad clergy became a key point of attack on the Catholic Church. Bishops with exceptional abilities—or good connections—became archbishops who ruled over whole provinces of bishops and their ecclesiastical lands. In isolated areas without strong civil authorities, an archbishop might wield nearly ultimate power. In the medieval Holy Roman Empire (modern-day Germany), powerful archbishops ruling the ecclesiastical principalities of Mainz, Cologne, and Trier were designated as three of the seven electors of the Emperor. An archbishop could be elected a cardinal, a “Prince of the Church,” a position that made him eligible to elect or be elected pope.


The College of Cardinals at that time comprised archbishops, bishops, priests, and even deacons—but the most important figures were the archbishops. Such a figure was Ippolito d’Este (1479-1520) of the famous and ancient d’Este family of Ferrara, Italy. The son of Ercole I, duke of Ferrara, Ippolito was anything but pious, but as a younger son he was obliged to promote family interests in the religious life. A bishop at the astonishingly early age of eight, he became an archbishop, then moved on to become a cardinal at 15. As ambitious as any man in Italy, Ippolito took his nobility in stride—mistresses, expensive tastes, fine weapons for the hunt and war. He used church lands for family profit. A cardinal’s official outer dress was a dark red (cardinal) robe. Ippolito wore expensive cardinal-colored clothes—sometimes—but cut the figure of a lordly courtier with extreme hats to match. With a fiery temper and will to match his clothing, Ippolito participated in a number of military campaigns, a notable one being as commander of Duke Ferrara’s army against Venice in 1509.

Ippolito’s older brother Alfonso married Lucretia, the sister of another high-ranking man of religion—also a cardinal, but really in name only. Cesare Borgia (1476-1507) would become the embodiment of the ruthless Renaissance Italian mercenary lord. Bad followed bad. Borgia’s father, Rodrigo, had risen through church offices with bribes to become one of the most scandalous of clerics and popes, Pope Alexander VI. This indulgent clerical father intended Cesare for the church as a younger son—a matter of family power sharing. Cesare was an archbishop at 12 and a cardinal by 18. But his greed for power and glory—he was implicated in the murder of his older brother, Giovanni, the duke of Gandi—led Cesare to a different purpose.

The pope needed a muscle man to replace Giovanni. In August 1498, Cardinal Cesare was released from his ecclesiastical duties, freeing him to move against the despots of Romagna (central and eastern Italian territories belonging to the principality known as the Papal States). Cesare was not a particularly good general, although he was so physically strong that he could unbend a horseshoe or decapitate a bull with one stroke of a two-handed sword. He was not a good combat leader, either. But with a mix of good foreign and Italian mercenary captains and troops under the papal banner, he was quite successful. Cesare attempted to gobble up all the city states of Italy in the name of unity and the papacy, taking one after the other: Imola, Rimini, Pesaro, Faenza, Camerino, and Urbino.

As the Borgia name has come to suggest, Cesare’s real talents lay in treachery, bribery, and murder. From the papal fortress of Sant Angelo in Rome, he supposedly murdered four or five enemies a day. With ducal titles to cap his conquests, he was feared throughout Italy. Ironically, Cesare had brought the Papal States into better order for a martial pope to follow. Driven from Italy, he ended his days in the family’s ancestral Spain, dying on the battlefield as a common mercenary.

Popes, too, went into battle. The pope was defined as bishop of Rome. Before ad 425, any bishop was considered a pope (only after 700 did it come to mean the supreme pontiff). By then, the bishop of Rome had gained enough influence to be recognized the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. When Jesus Christ was taken by Roman soldiers in the Garden of Gethsemane, the first act of resistance came from his most enthusiastic apostle, Simon, later to become St. Peter, the first bishop of Rome, who drew his sword and hacked off the ear of one Malchus, servant of the high priest of Jerusalem. Jesus, after restoring Malchus’s ear to its usual place, told Peter to put up his sword because “he who lives by the sword dies by the sword.”

But the popes had a martial tradition of their own, for power meant having to have an army to back it up. Two of the strongest early medieval popes were Gregory the Great and Leo IV. Like royalty, the papacy had its own coat of arms and could grant noble status to its followers. Several cardinals had been papal generals, and because of the desire to control the Papal States and protect against foreign intrusions, a pope with a strong military arm was still needed. Giuliano delle Rovere (1443-1513) had an easy road to high church positions as bishop and archbishop, and by 1471 he was a cardinal by virtue of appointment by his uncle, Pope Sixtus IV. Like any cardinal with his eye on the papacy, Rovere stayed in Rome—that is, when he was not away putting out fires. In 1474, Rovere led an army to restore papal authority in Umbria. He tasked himself with the goal of recovering all the Papal States. The Borgias had begun that effort, but Rovere had no use for the Borgias. He hated their power grabbing—and meant to do something about it. But with his uncle gone and the Borgia-favoring Pope Alexander VI in control in Rome, he could do little but bide his time. Rovere hired his own soldiers to man fortresses he used as he began his struggle to check the Borgias. But he found himself having to flee to France (1493) to induce French King Charles VIII to invade. This would be one cause for the start of French dynastic designs on Italy for the next half century.

Although Rovere saw the dangers of letting in foreign powers, at the time he was more concerned with pulling Alexander from the throne of St. Peter. The French helped—and many welcomed them—until they proved no better than the self-serving mercenary lords already causing endemic warfare in the country. Finally, with the passing of Alexander VI and the sickly Pius III, who reigned less than a month after him, Rovere himself became pope in 1503—Pope Julius II. While most previous popes had family and factions to reward for their rise, the new pope was his own man in more ways than one—he had three daughters. One observer wrote: “We have a pope who will be both loved and feared.” The Venetian envoy was more descriptive: “No one has any influence over him, and he consults few or none,” he wrote. “It is almost impossible to describe how strong and violent and difficult he is to manage. In body and soul he has the nature of a giant. Everything about him is on a magnified scale, both his undertakings and his passions. He inspires fear rather than hatred, for there is nothing in him that is small or meanly selfish.”

Julius wanted to make the papacy and ultimately Italy independent of foreigners and self-seeking Italian nobles. For this, he needed complete possession of the cities of the Papal States before he could push out the French. Although a cultured man, Julius was also a warrior in spirit and disposition. He loved horses, hunting, and the feel of armor. He was not content with brainstorming with his generals and then sending them out on campaign—he had to go himself. He often acted as commander in the field, whether at sieges or on the battlefield. In full armor he directed siege gunfire and, sword in hand, rode down enemy soldiers as they retreated from his heavy cavalry. He was not called pontefice terribile (the terrible pope) for nothing.


In 1504, Julius began to methodically roll up papal enemies by making an alliance of convenience with the French and Germans to secure, among others, the papal towns of Faenza and Rimini in the Romagna from opportunistic Venice, which had grabbed them from the weakened Borgia political machine. In 1506, the pope engineered a brilliant campaign to wrest the strategic papal cities of Perugia and Bologna from Venice. He and his French, Hapsburg, and Spanish allies finally broke the Venetian domination of Italy at the Battle of Agnadello on May 14, 1509. Then it was time to deal with the French.

In 1510, Julius quickly made up with Venice to ally himself with it in order to force the French out of Italy once and for all. Julius was 68 years old, but late in the year, with winter coming on, he marched north to Bologna only to fall sick and almost be captured by the French. Recovering, he moved on to Modena and took it. In the dead of winter, Julius turned to besiege Mirandola. He took it in January 1511. Waiting to gain former allies (England, Spain, and Venice) against France, he fell gravely ill in August. Although not expected to live, he did. Overcoming the French victory at Ravenna (1512), he was able to restore the Papal States with the defeat of the French at Novara and the peace in 1513. The French were back north of the Alps at last—or at least for the foreseeable future.

Although the king of France, Louis XII, had called Julius the Antichrist, he was in reality a great patron of art, cajoling Michelangelo into doing the frescos of the Sistine Chapel and other magnificent works of art. Julius also patronized Raphael’s art and Bramante’s architecture in Rome. To his mind, he had been the proper instrument of God in getting things done. The great Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus, who hated war, did not agree. To him, the warrior pope was not deserving of heaven. In his humorous tract Julius Excluded, Erasmus depicted Julius at the closed gates of heaven, bellowing for entrance while St. Peter looked down unmoved and refused to let him enter.

The well-ordered society of 16th-century Western Europe was a far cry from conditions in the eastern borderlands—and none was worse than Hungary. With miles of flat plain ripe for invasion, fortified towns and fortresses were strategically positioned along important river fords. Since the later 15th century, invasion meant progressive incursions by the Ottoman Turks. Traditionally, the eastern border bishops and archbishops raised and supplied their own troops as a necessity against encroaching Turkish forces. The largest fortified cities were in central and eastern Hungary and had long been ecclesiastical holdings of bishops and archbishops. One of the oldest was Kolocza. Having gained the right in the 12th century to crown the Hungarian king, the archbishops of Kolocza warred frequently against Moslem Patarenes in Bosnia. Archbishop Ugrin (1219-1241), the greatest of the Hungarian archbishops, also fought the Tatars before falling at the Battle of Muhi. In a similar mold was another of Kolocza’s ruling archbishops, Paul Tomori (1475-1526), who turned to religion after his wife was killed. It was only out of national necessity that he became archbishop, and he continued to wear light armor under his robes.

No one took a more active role in the business of military preparedness than Tomori. He was designated captain in chief along the southern borders of Hungary, which meant seeing to troop preparedness and scouting Turkish movements. By March 1526, he was receiving reports of a logistical buildup among the Turkish border fortresses, indicating that the Turkish army was preparing to march. The Turks had marched before in 1523, and the Hungarians had been able to deal with them, but not before incurring heavy losses from which they had not yet recovered. Tomori rushed north to Buda (later Budapest) to alert the young King Louis II of Hungary of the danger. Louis was hopelessly mired in bickering with self-serving nobles, and Tomori could only seethe over the decision to delay a meeting of the Diet for a month to discuss the matter. By that time, the young, ambitious Turkish sultan, Suleiman I (1494-1566), was already heading west from Constantinople with his personal troops toward Turkish-held Belgrade. His European and Asiatic vassals would meet him there.

Back in Buda, there was talk and more talk, when mobilizing should have been the first order of business. Finally, the War Council called for every military unit, including contracted mercenaries, to meet 50 miles south of Tolna on July 2. For a battleground they chose unwisely—the uneven plains at Mohacs. With political excuses already pouring in from allied countries—Austria, Bohemia, Poland, and Wallachia all declined to send troops—raising a sufficient force in time looked hopeless. But Tomori was not one to wait passively for defeat. At Kolocza, he fitted out 3,000 horse and foot soldiers from his own diocese and headed south for the southernmost fortress city of Peterwardein on the Drava River. The Turks would make their first assault there. To reinforce it, Tomori moved quickly before a Turkish siege could begin and committed 1,000 infantry troops to bolster the garrison.

It took 15 days for the fortress to fall on July 27—not much time bought. The garrison retreated to the inner citadel after the city walls were breached and held off two massive assaults of Janissaries (the sultan’s shock troops made up of former Christian boy captives). The remaining 500 survivors were massacred. Tomori could do nothing with the 2,000 cavalrymen left to him but shadow the continued westward march of the Turkish victors. He continually sent information to the king, hoping that the regent would be moving south with his troops to intercept the Turks before they crossed the river at the strategic town of Essek.

At Tolna, the young king made that strategic decision to detach a large contingent of troops and send it southward to occupy Essek and oppose a Turkish crossing there. Incredibly, the Hungarian nobles chosen to go to Essek would not do so unless led personally by the king. Enraged, Louis had to forget reinforcing Essek and keep moving south. He arrived at the small town of Mohacs on the Danube in mid-August. There he was reunited with Tomori, now heading a force of 6,000 warriors and waiting on the opposite side of the river. Meanwhile, farther south, Suleiman and his Turkish commanders could scarcely believe that no waiting Hungarian army opposed them at Essek. In four days’ time, they constructed a pontoon bridge, and by August 24, the Turks were moving north to meet the Hungarian army at Mohacs.

Along with George Zapolya, brother of the wily John, voivode of Transylvania (who did not show), Tomori was nominated co-commander of the Hungarian forces at Mohacs. He was strongly critical of those who counseled the king to fall back before the advancing Turkish host. It would be a scandal, he said, to let half the kingdom go without a fight. He felt some confidence, for many of the king’s levies had arrived, including no less than eight other bishops. The archbishop of Gran had come with the king from Buda, while the bishops of Warasdin and Raab had joined up at Tolna. The bishop of Agram brought 700 horsemen the bishop of Fünfkirchen brought 2,000 archers. The clerical count went on—the bishops of Bosnia, Nitria, and Vacz all arrived with their promised troops.

Tomori did his best to boost morale and fire the zeal of the Christian army. He downplayed the size of the Turkish army, noting that its ranks were swollen by irregulars, mercenaries, and camp followers who traditionally were untrustworthy in battle. Tomori felt they could defeat the enemy at Mohacs, although he could see clearly that the odds against them were formidable. There were about 20,000 European forces in hand, mostly Hungarians, but also Bohemians, Croats, and Poles as well as some Germans, Italians, and Spanish mercenaries. Arrayed against them were 70,000 fighting Turks. Francis, bishop of Warasdin, whose brother was the great frontier fighter Peter Perenyi, was prophetically sarcastic when he whispered to King Louis that the pope had better make ready to canonize 20,000 Christian martyrs.

By the morning of August 29, 1526, the showdown had come. Suleiman’s host appeared at the foot of the low hills west of Mohacs. The European forces were drawn up before the town, with the marshes of the Danube to the south. Suleiman used a deep formation, with most of his cavalry stationed in the first two lines. The Turkish cannons—twice as many as the Europeans’—came next, followed by his royal cavalry and his Janissary infantry shouldering arquebuses and drawn up to protect him. Off to the north, the sultan had dispatched well over 4,000 light cavalry irregulars, called Akindjis, whose job it would be to move in quickly to outflank the Europeans if the battle looked in doubt. The Europeans were stretched in long lines of blocks to avoid being flanked. An 80-cannon train stood in front as a means of softening up the Turkish cavalry.

Tomori, as usual, rode in the front line of heavy horse in full armor. He led one of the two largest feudal cavalry formations, interspersed with infantry blocks. Among Tomori’s formation was the Hungarian light cavalry, the Hussars, better armed than their Turkish counterparts and virtually unstoppable in their headlong charges. The second line was actually two lines—the remaining squadrons of the Hungarian horse followed by the king, his personal guard, and the eight bishops with their troops arrayed on the king’s flanks.


In the late afternoon, the fiery Hungarian horsemen attacked prematurely, before the cannons could open on the Turkish cavalry. Initially, they were successful in driving back the enemy front line into its second line. But in the meantime, the Turkish cannoneers and arquebusiers unleashed a furious fire of their own that completely disorganized the Hungarian cavalry. The Hungarian right attacked and caused some disorganization—their arrows dangerously accurate and just missing the sultan—but the Janissaries pushed them back. In came the flanking Akinji cavalry. They turned the Christian host into a panic-stricken mob fleeing toward the illusive safety of the marsh, with the Turks pressing their advantage. One by one, most of the great lords went down. Six of the eight bishops fell. Tomori, trying to turn back fleeing soldiers, was killed as well. By nightfall, the unfortunate King Louis, in heavy armor, retreated south—only to fall into the marsh and drown. (He was later found still in his full armor and astride his horse.) Total European losses numbered more than 10,000.

In an uncharacteristic move, the usually modest Suleiman set up a gory display of his easy victory. He ordered the decapitation of any lordly prisoners, along with those found dead on the battlefield, and had the heads staked around his tent. That night Tomori, six of his brother clerics, and other dead lords stared with unseeing eyes upon Hungarian territory that was now in Turkish hands.

Four decades later, when Suleiman’s ongoing war against the West was decisively turned back on the Mediterranean island of Malta, it was an entire army of Christian clerics—the Knights Hospitallers of the Order of St. John—that accomplished the feat. Since its founding at the time of the First Crusade, the order had functioned as a veritable nation unto itself, beholden to no one but the Lord and the pope—a far cry from the solitary village priests who first set out in the Middle Ages to carry a sword for king and cross.


Tonton videonya: Italian Wars 710 - Battle of Novara 1513 and Battle of Marignano 1515