Di Dalam Penggunaan Dadah yang Memicu Nazi Jerman

Di Dalam Penggunaan Dadah yang Memicu Nazi Jerman

Dalam buku terlarisnya, "Der Totale Rausch" (The Total Rush) - baru-baru ini diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggeris sebagai "Blitzed" —Ohler mendapati bahawa banyak dalam rejim Nazi menggunakan dadah secara berkala, dari tentera Wehrmacht (angkatan bersenjata Jerman) semua jalan ke Hitler sendiri. Penggunaan metamfetamin, yang lebih dikenali sebagai kristal met, sangat lazim: Bentuk pil ubat, Pervitin, diedarkan oleh berjuta-juta kepada pasukan Wehrmacht sebelum pencerobohan Perancis yang berjaya pada tahun 1940.

Dibangunkan oleh syarikat farmasi Temmler, yang berpusat di Berlin, Pervitin diperkenalkan pada tahun 1938 dan dipasarkan sebagai pil ajaib untuk waspada dan anti-depresi, antara lain kegunaannya. Ia juga disediakan secara ringkas di kaunter. Seorang doktor tentera, Otto Ranke, bereksperimen dengan Pervitin pada 90 pelajar kolej dan memutuskan, berdasarkan hasilnya, ubat itu akan membantu Jerman memenangi perang. Dengan menggunakan Pervitin, tentera Wehrmacht dapat berjaga-jaga selama berhari-hari dan berjalan jauh lebih jauh tanpa berehat.

Apa yang disebut "dekrit perangsang" yang dikeluarkan pada bulan April 1940 mengirim lebih dari 35 juta tablet Pervitin dan Isophan (versi yang sedikit diubahsuai yang dihasilkan oleh syarikat farmasi Knoll) pil ke garis depan, di mana mereka memacu "Blitzkrieg" Nazi Pencerobohan ke Perancis melalui pergunungan Ardennes. Harus diingat bahawa Jerman tidak sendirian dalam penggunaan ubat peningkatan prestasi semasa Perang Dunia II. Tentera sekutu diketahui menggunakan amfetamin (kepantasan) dalam bentuk Benzedrine untuk memerangi keletihan.

Ketika datang ke pemimpin Nazi, menurut kajian Ohler, mereka semua memilih ubat pilihan mereka sendiri. Dalam wawancara dengan VICE ketika bukunya pertama kali diterbitkan di Jerman, Ohler menjelaskan: “Tidak semuanya mengambil setiap ubat. Sebilangan lagi, lebih kurang. Sebahagian daripada mereka menggunakan metamfetamin — misalnya, Ernst Udet, Ketua Perolehan dan Pembekalan Pesawat. Yang lain menggunakan ubat bius yang kuat, seperti Göring, yang nama panggilannya sebenarnya adalah "Möring," dari morfin. "

Ohler, seorang novelis dan penulis skrip pemenang anugerah, pada mulanya telah merancang untuk menulis sebuah novel mengenai penggunaan dadah yang telah lama dikhabarkan oleh Nazi. Tetapi rancangannya berubah ketika dia menemui catatan terperinci yang ditinggalkan oleh Dr. Theodor Morell, doktor peribadi Hitler. Dia akhirnya menghabiskan masa bertahun-tahun mempelajari catatan Morell di Arkib Persekutuan di Koblenz, Institut Sejarah Kontemporari di Munich dan Arkib Nasional di Washington, D.C., dan memutuskan untuk memusatkan perhatian pada fakta dan bukannya fiksyen.

Morell, seorang tokoh kecil yang teduh dalam biografi dan sejarah sebelumnya rejim Hitler, dilaporkan bertemu dengan Führer setelah merawat Heinrich Hoffmann, jurugambar rasmi Reich. Setelah Morell memberi ubat berasaskan bakteria yang membantu masalah usus Hitler, mereka memulakan hubungan yang saling bergantung dan setia yang akan bertahan lebih dari sembilan tahun. Selama ini, catatan Morell menunjukkan, doktor menyuntik Hitler hampir setiap hari dengan pelbagai ubat, termasuk amfetamin, barbiturat dan opiat.

Berkat hubungannya dengan Hitler, Morell dapat mengumpulkan senarai pelanggan berstatus tinggi di Nazi Jerman; kepala suratnya menyatakannya sebagai "Doktor Peribadi Führer." Dia bahkan memperoleh sebuah syarikat besar Czech (sebelumnya milik Yahudi) untuk menghasilkan ubat vitamin dan hormon secara besar-besaran menggunakan pelbagai bahagian haiwan yang tidak sedap, termasuk testis lembu.

Walaupun Hitler mungkin tidak menggunakan Pervitin, itu adalah salah satu dari sedikit bahan yang dia tidak cuba. Menurut Ohler, nota peribadi Morell menunjukkan bahawa dia memberi 800 suntikan kepada Hitler selama bertahun-tahun, terutamanya termasuk dos Eukodal yang kerap, nama jenama Jerman untuk oksikodon opiat sintetik. Kemudian dalam perang, ketika keadaan mulai buruk bagi Axis, Morell dilaporkan memberi Hitler dos Eukodal pertama sebelum pertemuan penting dengan pemimpin Itali Benito Mussolini, antara lain, pada bulan Julai 1943. Menjelang musim bunga 1945, tidak lama sebelum Hitler membunuh diri di bunker Berlin bersama dengan isterinya yang baru, Eva Braun (juga pesakit Morell), Ohler menyimpulkan bahawa Führer kemungkinan menderita penarikan diri kerana ketidakmampuan Morell untuk mencari ubat di kota yang hancur.

Ohler telah menegaskan bahawa bukunya tidak bertujuan untuk menyalahkan kejahatan perang Nazi atas penggunaan dadah. Walaupun penelitiannya menunjukkan beberapa Hitler selama perang mungkin berkaitan dengan obat-obatan yang diambilnya, dia menunjukkan bahawa asas-asas untuk Penyelesaian Akhir yang mengerikan, misalnya, dijelaskan dalam "Mein Kampf," Hitler dan pelaksanaan yang terkait dasar bermula pada tahun 1930-an, sebelum penggunaan dadah berat bermula.

Tonton pratonton Nazi mengenai Dadah: Hitler dan Blitzkrieg. Tayangan perdana pada hari Ahad, 21 Julai jam 9 / 8c.


Sebelum Perang Dunia Pertama, usaha penyelidikan kolaboratif sistem universiti Jerman dan syarikat Jerman membolehkan sektor korporat Jerman secara keseluruhan memperoleh monopoli maya di seluruh dunia terhadap ubat-ubatan yang pengeluarannya memerlukan kepakaran kimia dan kapasiti industri. Penyelidikan ini didorong oleh hasil penjualan morfin, alkaloid yang terdapat dalam candu, yang pertama kali dikenal oleh ahli kimia Jerman pada awal abad ke-19 dan dipatenkan oleh Merck tidak lama kemudian. Hasil kerja syarikat farmaseutikal Jerman dengan morfin dan turunannya berjaya dalam menggunakannya sebagai penghilang rasa sakit dan penekan batuk, dengan Bayer akhirnya menyedari potensi heroin, yang sah di Jerman pada masa itu (dan hingga tahun 1950-an, sebelum itu dilarang hanya di Asia dan Amerika Syarikat). [1] Selama era Kerajaan Jerman, digabungkan pada akhir 1860-an dan awal 1870-an, kecenderungan militeristik pemerintah Jerman mendorongnya untuk menambahkan sokongan kewangan untuk penyelidikan di sektor-sektor termasuk farmasi dan pengoptimuman proses industri. [1]

Kematian yang tidak pernah terjadi sebelumnya dalam Perang Dunia I membawa perlunya rawatan kesakitan akut dan kronik, cara untuk merawat kesakitan itu, dan kesan sampingan dari rawatan itu, termasuk ketergantungan opioid, ke hadapan kesedaran masyarakat. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Pengalaman penduduk Jerman selama dan setelah Perang Dunia Pertama mengilhami pemerintah Weimar dan Nazi untuk menerapkan sikap toleransi terhadap penggunaan ubat-ubatan untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit, meningkatkan prestasi, dan menghindari penarikan diri. Sebilangan besar ubat dibenarkan sama ada secara universal atau untuk individu yang mempunyai preskripsi perubatan. Sebilangan besar penagih dadah pada tahun 1920-an dan 1930-an Jerman adalah veteran Perang Dunia Pertama yang memerlukan ubat ketagihan untuk menghilangkan rasa sakit dan / atau kakitangan perubatan yang mempunyai akses kepada ubat-ubatan tersebut. Semasa era Weimar, ketagihan dilihat sebagai penyakit yang dapat disembuhkan. Selepas kedatangan Nazisme, ketagihan terus dilihat sebagai sesuatu yang dapat disembuhkan oleh semua orang. [ penjelasan diperlukan ] Di antara anggota kumpulan tersebut, gejala ketagihan dadah sering dikaitkan dengan keadaan lain, yang mana mereka sendiri sering didiagnosis secara saintifik walaupun ketagihan diakui seperti itu, doktor Nazi sering menganggapnya tidak dapat disembuhkan memandangkan apa yang mereka yakini sebagai kecenderungan yang melekat atau kelemahan [1]

Penggunaan dadah dalam tentera Jerman semasa Perang Dunia II secara aktif digalakkan dan tersebar luas, terutama pada peringkat akhir perang ketika Wehrmacht semakin habis dan semakin bergantung pada pemuda berbanding pengalaman. [2]

Rangsangan Edit

Dalam usaha menjadikan askar barisan depan dan juruterbang pejuangnya bertarung lebih lama, lebih sukar, dan dengan tidak terlalu mementingkan keselamatan individu, tentera Jerman memerintahkan mereka untuk minum pil ketenteraan yang terbuat dari metamfetamin dan bahan perangsang yang berasaskan kokain. Setelah Pervitin, ubat metamfetamin yang baru dikembangkan oleh syarikat farmasi Temmler yang berpusat di Berlin, pertama kali memasuki pasaran awam pada tahun 1938, ia dengan cepat menjadi penjual utama di kalangan penduduk Jerman. Ubat itu dibawa ke perhatian Otto Friedrich Ranke, seorang doktor tentera dan pengarah Institut Fisiologi Umum dan Pertahanan di Akademi Perubatan Ketenteraan Berlin. [3] Kesan amfetamin serupa dengan adrenalin yang dihasilkan oleh tubuh, memicu peningkatan kewaspadaan. Pada kebanyakan orang, bahan tersebut meningkatkan keyakinan diri, konsentrasi, dan kesediaan untuk mengambil risiko dan pada masa yang sama mengurangkan kepekaan terhadap kesakitan, kelaparan, dan keperluan untuk tidur. Pada bulan September 1939, Ranke menguji ubat tersebut pada 90 pelajar universiti dan membuat kesimpulan bahawa Pervitin dapat membantu Wehrmacht memenangi perang. Kokain, yang kesannya tumpang tindih dengan amfetamin tetapi mempunyai euforia yang lebih besar, kemudian ditambahkan ke dalam formulasi untuk meningkatkan potensi melalui kesan penggandaan interaksi ubat dan untuk memperkuat penggunaannya oleh individu.

Edit Alkohol

Pada permulaan Perang Dunia II, penggunaan alkohol meluas di kalangan anggota Wehrmacht. Pada mulanya, pegawai tinggi mendorong penggunaannya sebagai kaedah relaksasi dan kaedah kasar untuk mengurangkan kesan psikologi pertempuran, dalam kes terakhir melalui apa yang akan digambarkan oleh perkembangan ilmiah yang kemudiannya menyekat penyatuan ingatan traumatik. Namun, setelah Kejatuhan Perancis, para komandan Wehrmacht memerhatikan bahawa tingkah laku askar mereka semakin merosot, dengan "pergaduhan, kemalangan, penganiayaan orang bawahan, keganasan terhadap pegawai atasan dan 'kejahatan yang melibatkan perbuatan seksual yang tidak wajar' menjadi lebih kerap. [3] Panglima Panglima tentera Jerman, Jenderal Walther von Brauchitsch, menyimpulkan bahawa pasukannya melakukan "pelanggaran moral dan disiplin yang paling serius, dan pelakunya adalah penyalahgunaan alkohol. Sebagai tindak balas, Hitler berusaha untuk membendung penggunaan alkohol secara sembrono dalam tentera, menjanjikan hukuman berat bagi tentera yang menunjukkan mabuk orang awam atau sebaliknya "membiarkan [mereka] tergoda untuk terlibat dalam tindakan jenayah akibat penyalahgunaan alkohol." Pesalah yang serius boleh mengharapkan "kematian yang memalukan." [3] Kebijakan yang disemak semula ini disertai dengan peningkatan dalam penolakan Parti Nazi terhadap penggunaan alkohol di sektor awam, yang mencerminkan penambahan alkohol terhadap kecaman lama terhadap penggunaan tembakau oleh Nazi sebagai pengurangan kekuatan dan kemurnian "bangsa Arya." [1] [3] [4] [5]

Adolf Hitler, ketua negara dan pemerintah Reich Ketiga sehingga dia bunuh diri sejurus sebelum perang berakhir, dipercayai [ rujukan diperlukan ] telah ketagih dengan ubat-ubatan yang pada awalnya diresepkan untuk merawat keadaan perubatan kroniknya. Setelah Doktor Theodor Morell menetapkan kultur bakteria hidup, penyakit pencernaan Hitler mereda, dan Hitler menjadikannya doktor utamanya. Populariti Dr Morell [ penjelasan diperlukan ] meroket, dan dia secara sinis dijuluki oleh Göring "The Reichsmaster of the Injections." Dr. Morell kemudian memberikan resep kokain bubuk untuk menenangkan tekak Hitler dan membersihkan resdungnya. [6] [7]

Menurut Norman Ohler dalam bukunya 2016 Blitzed: Dadah di Nazi Jerman, ketika bekalan ubat Hitler habis pada akhir perang, dia mengalami penarikan diri yang teruk dari serotonin dan dopamin, paranoia, psikosis, gigi yang reput, gegaran yang teruk, kegagalan buah pinggang dan khayalan. [8]

Hermann Göring, pembantu terdekat Hitler, pernah berkhidmat di Luftstreitkräfte semasa Perang Dunia I dan mengalami kecederaan pinggul yang teruk semasa pertempuran. Dia menjadi ketagihan serius dengan morfin yang diresepkan kepadanya untuk melegakan kesakitan yang disebabkan oleh kecederaan ini dan luka tembak, yang digambarkan sebagai kecederaan paha atau pangkal paha, yang dia alami semasa mengambil bahagian di Beer Hall Putsch 1923 di Munich. Pada tahun 1925, setelah berunding dengan isterinya, dia memasuki rumah sakit jiwa Sweden untuk detoksifikasi dan rawatan. [4] [9] Ketika Göring ditangkap menjelang akhir perang, dia didapati kecanduan dihydrocodeine dan kemudiannya disapih.

Selepas perang, Pervitin tetap mudah diakses, baik di pasar gelap dan sebagai ubat preskripsi. Doktor menetapkannya kepada pesakit sebagai penekan selera makan atau mereka menetapkannya untuk meningkatkan mood pesakit yang mengalami kemurungan. Pelajar, terutamanya pelajar perubatan, beralih kepada perangsang kerana ia membolehkan mereka menyemak lebih banyak maklumat sepanjang malam dan menyelesaikan pengajian dengan lebih cepat. [10] Ubat itu dikeluarkan dari bekalan perubatan Jerman Timur dan Barat masing-masing pada tahun 1970-an dan 1980-an, dan setelah penyatuan semula Jerman, ubat itu dianggap haram di seluruh negara. Hari ini, bentuk ubat yang berbeza, metamfetamin kristal, telah menjadi popular di seluruh Eropah dan Amerika Syarikat walaupun terdapat usaha larangan dan pembasmian pemerintah.


"Dadah, tidak takut dan mengamuk"

Metamfetamin Pervitin Jerman pada mulanya dipasarkan pada tahun 1930-an sebagai pilihan rekreasi, dan para saintis bereksperimen dengan Pervitin sebelum perang untuk melihat berapa lama pengguna pelajar dapat tetap terjaga dan masih berprestasi baik dalam peperiksaan, kata sejarawan Perang Dunia II dan perunding dokumentari James Holland.

Menjelang tahun 1940, Pervitin diedarkan secara meluas di kalangan juruterbang di Luftwaffe (tentera udara Nazi) untuk memimpin mereka dalam menghadapi misi yang panjang, atau untuk menenangkan tidur dan kelaparan jika pesawat mereka ditembak jatuh, kata Holland kepada Live Science.

Itu adalah tahun Blitz - serangan bom Nazi tanpa henti dan dahsyat terhadap Britain - inisiatif yang didorong oleh sejumlah besar kelajuan, kata Holland.

Rekod dari Pejabat Perang Inggeris menganggarkan bahawa selama tiga bulan Blitz - dari April hingga Jun 1940 - sekitar 35 juta tablet Pervitin telah dihantar kepada 3 juta tentera, pelaut dan juruterbang Jerman, Nicolas Rasmussen, seorang profesor di Sekolah Kemanusiaan dan Bahasa di University of New South Wales di Australia, dilaporkan pada tahun 2011 dalam The Journal of Interdisciplinary History.

Berikutan kemasukan dadah ini, tentera Wehrmacht (ketika tentera di Nazi Jerman dipanggil) berarak dan bertempur selama 10 hari berturut-turut, memerangkap dan mengalahkan tentera Inggeris di Dunkirk dalam kemenangan ketenteraan yang menentukan, kata wakil PBS dalam kenyataan itu.

Di Britain, desas-desus berputar mengenai pengeboman juruterbang Nazi dengan penentangan manusia super terhadap pasukan g melalui dadah, dan surat kabar menggambarkan penampakan pasukan payung terjun Jerman yang "sangat parah, tidak takut dan mengamuk," menurut Rasmussen. ['Breaking Bad': 6 Fakta Meth Aneh]


Dadah Nazi: Racun Di Jerman & # 8217s Veins

Georg Pahl / Arkib Persekutuan Jerman Pengguna dadah membeli kokain di jalanan Berlin, 1924.

Walaupun dia kemudian akan membawa Reich Ketiga ke dalam masa penggunaan narkoba yang berat, Adolf Hitler pertama kali menggunakan platform anti-narkoba radikal untuk merebut kendali negara.

Platform ini merupakan sebahagian daripada kempen yang lebih luas yang dibina berdasarkan retorik anti-penubuhan. Pada masa itu, penubuhannya adalah Republik Weimar, nama tidak rasmi yang diciptakan Hitler untuk rejim Jerman yang memerintah antara 1919 dan 1933 dan yang telah berkembang secara ekonomi bergantung pada farmasi & # 8212 khususnya kokain dan heroin.

Untuk memberi anda gambaran tentang skala kebergantungan ini, setahun sebelum para pemenang Perang Dunia I memaksa republik itu untuk menandatangani perjanjian Konvensyen Opium Antarabangsa pada tahun 1929, Berlin sahaja menghasilkan 200 tan candu.

Sebenarnya, Jerman bertanggungjawab untuk 40 peratus pengeluaran morfin global antara tahun 1925 dan 1930 (kokain adalah kisah serupa), menurut Ohler. Secara keseluruhan, dengan ekonomi mereka hancur oleh Perang Dunia I, Republik Weimar telah menjadi pengedar dadah dunia.

Pinterest A 1927 Poster filem Jerman memperingatkan bahaya kokain, candu, dan morfin.

Hitler bukan peminatnya. Seorang teetotaler yang tidak akan minum kopi kerana kafein, Hitler mengelakkan semua ubat. Terkenal, dia dilaporkan tidak pernah merokok lagi setelah membuang sebungkus rokok ke dalam sungai pada akhir Perang Dunia I.

Ketika Hitler dan Nazi menguasai Jerman pada tahun 1933, mereka mula memperluas falsafah Hitler & # 8217 ke negara ini secara keseluruhan. Walau bagaimanapun, Nazi telah menyelesaikan kerja mereka. Menggambarkan keadaan negara pada masa Hitler & # 8217s meningkat, pengarang Jerman Klaus Mann menulis:

& # 8220 Kehidupan malam Berlin, oh budak, oh budak lelaki, dunia tidak pernah melihat yang serupa! Dulu kita mempunyai tentera yang hebat, sekarang kita mempunyai penyelewengan hebat! & # 8221

Oleh itu, Nazi melakukan apa yang mereka lakukan dengan sebaik-baiknya, dan menggabungkan usaha anti-dadah dengan amalan khas mereka untuk menuduh mereka yang tidak mereka sukai & # 8212 & # 8212 terutamanya mereka yang berketurunan Yahudi & # 8212 sebagai orang yang menikam Jerman di belakang.

Oleh itu, Nazi menggunakan propaganda untuk mengaitkan penagih dengan kumpulan-kumpulan yang ditundukkan ini, ditambah dengan undang-undang yang keras & # 8212 salah satu undang-undang pertama yang diluluskan oleh Reichstag pada tahun 1933 yang membenarkan pemenjaraan penagih sehingga dua tahun, boleh dilanjutkan tanpa had & # 8212 dan bahagian polis rahsia baru untuk meningkatkan usaha anti-dadah mereka.

Ernst Hiemer / Norman Ohler. Ilustrasi dari Cendawan Beracun seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Blitzed: Dadah di Nazi Jerman.

Nazi juga membuang kerahsiaan perubatan di luar tingkap dan meminta doktor untuk merujuk mana-mana orang dengan preskripsi narkotik yang berlangsung lebih lama dari dua minggu ke negeri ini. Nazi kemudian memotong mereka yang lulus ujian etnik kalkun sejuk dan memenjarakan mereka yang tidak, menghantar mereka ke kem konsentrasi. Pesalah berulang mengalami nasib yang sama.

Di permukaan, pergeseran skala besar ini dari ketergantungan dadah yang berleluasa kelihatan seperti keajaiban yang disebabkan oleh Nazi. Sudah tentu, ini hanya bertahan sehingga Hitler merasakan Pervitin pertamanya.


Bagaimana Metamfetamin Menjadi Bahagian Utama Strategi Ketenteraan Nazi

Saya n Seni Perang, Sun Tzu menulis bahawa kepantasan adalah inti perang. & Rdquo Walaupun dia tentu saja tidak memikirkan amfetamin, dia pasti akan terkesan dengan kesan psikoaktif mereka yang memfasilitasi perang. Amfetamin & mdashoften dipanggil & pil ldquopep, & pil rdquo & ldquogo, & rdquo & ldquouppers & rdquo atau & ldquospeed & rdquo & mdashare sekumpulan ubat sintetik yang merangsang sistem saraf pusat, mengurangkan keletihan dan selera makan dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan rasa kesejahteraan. Ubat klasik zaman perindustrian moden, amfetamin tiba agak lewat dalam sejarah bahan-bahan yang mengubah fikiran & dikomersialkan tepat pada waktunya untuk penggunaan besar-besaran semasa Perang Dunia II oleh kuasa industri terkemuka. Perang itu bukan sahaja perang yang paling merosakkan dalam sejarah manusia tetapi juga perang yang paling hebat. Secara harfiah ia dipercepat oleh kelajuan.

Sedikit ubat telah menerima rangsangan yang lebih besar dari perang. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Lester Grinspoon dan Peter Hedblom dalam kajian klasik 1975 mereka Budaya Kepantasan, & ldquoPerang Dunia II mungkin memberikan dorongan terbesar setakat ini kepada undang-undang yang disahkan secara perubatan serta penyalahgunaan pil hitam dari pil ini secara global di seluruh dunia. & rdquo

Pasukan Jepun, Amerika dan Britain menghabiskan sejumlah besar amfetamin, tetapi Jerman adalah pengadopsi awal yang paling bersemangat, mempelopori pil-pil di medan perang semasa fasa awal perang.

Ideologi Nazi adalah fundamentalis dalam sikap antidadahnya. Penggunaan dadah secara sosial dianggap sebagai tanda kelemahan peribadi dan simbol kemerosotan moral negara setelah kekalahan trauma dan memalukan dalam Perang Dunia I.

Tetapi seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh Norman Ohler Blitzed: Dadah di Nazi Jerman, metamfetamin adalah pengecualian istimewa. Walaupun ubat-ubatan lain dilarang atau tidak digalakkan, metamfetamin disebut-sebut sebagai produk keajaiban ketika ia muncul di pasar pada akhir 1930-an. Memang, pil kecil itu adalah ubat Nazi yang sempurna: & ldquoJerman, terjaga! & Rdquo yang diperintahkan oleh Nazi. Memberi tenaga dan meningkatkan keyakinan, metamfetamin berperanan dalam obsesi Reich Ketiga & rsquos dengan kelebihan fizikal dan mental. Berbeza dengan ubat-ubatan seperti heroin atau alkohol, metamfetamin bukan mengenai kesenangan pelarian. Sebaliknya, mereka diambil untuk waspada dan waspada. Arya, yang merupakan perwujudan kesempurnaan manusia dalam ideologi Nazi, sekarang bahkan dapat bercita-cita untuk menjadi manusia super & mdash dan manusia super seperti itu dapat berubah menjadi pasukan super. & ldquoKami tidak memerlukan orang yang lemah, & rdquo Hitler menyatakan, & ldquowe hanya mahukan yang kuat! & rdquo Orang yang lemah mengambil ubat seperti candu untuk melarikan diri orang yang kuat mengambil metamfetamin untuk merasa lebih kuat.

Ahli kimia Jerman Friedrich Hauschild telah mengetahui amfetamin Benzedrine Amerika sejak ubat itu digunakan sebagai produk doping dalam Sukan Olimpik di Berlin pada tahun 1936. Pada tahun berikutnya dia berjaya mensintesis metamfetamin, sepupu dekat amfetamin, semasa bekerja untuk Temmler-Werke, sebuah syarikat farmaseutikal yang berpusat di Berlin. Temmler-Werke mula menjual methamphetamine dengan nama jenama Pervitin pada musim sejuk tahun 1937. Sebahagiannya berkat kempen iklan agresif syarikat & rsquos, Pervitin menjadi terkenal dalam beberapa bulan. Tablet tersebut sangat popular dan boleh dibeli tanpa resep di farmasi. Malah ada orang yang boleh membeli coklat kotak dengan metamfetamin. Tetapi penggunaan ubat & rsquos yang paling penting masih belum ada.

Dr. Otto F. Ranke, pengarah Institut Penyelidikan Fisiologi Pertahanan, mempunyai harapan yang tinggi agar Pervitin terbukti bermanfaat di medan perang. Matlamatnya adalah untuk mengalahkan musuh dengan tentera yang ditingkatkan secara kimia, tentera yang dapat memberi Jerman kelebihan tentera dengan berjuang lebih keras dan lebih lama daripada lawan mereka. Setelah menguji ubat itu pada sekumpulan pegawai perubatan, Ranke percaya bahawa Pervitin akan menjadi bahan yang sangat baik untuk membangkitkan skuad yang letih & neraka Kami mungkin memahami betapa pentingnya ketenteraan yang ada jika kita berjaya menghilangkan rasa letih semula jadi menggunakan kaedah perubatan. & Rdquo

Ranke sendiri adalah pengguna harian, seperti yang diperincikan dalam buku harian perubatan dan surat-suratnya: & ldquoDengan Pervitin, anda boleh terus bekerja selama 36 hingga 50 jam tanpa merasa keletihan yang ketara. & Rdquo Ini membolehkan Ranke bekerja beberapa hari tanpa tidur. Dan surat-menyuratnya menunjukkan bahawa semakin banyak pegawai melakukan perkara yang sama & membuat pil untuk menguruskan tuntutan pekerjaan mereka.

Pegawai perubatan Wehrmacht mentadbir Pervitin kepada askar Bahagian Tank Ketiga semasa pendudukan Czecholslovakia pada tahun 1938. Tetapi pencerobohan ke Poland pada bulan September 1939 berfungsi sebagai ujian ketenteraan sebenar ubat di lapangan. Jerman merebut jiran timurnya pada bulan Oktober, dengan 100,000 tentera Poland terbunuh dalam serangan itu. Pencerobohan itu memperkenalkan bentuk baru perang industri, Blitzkrieg. Perang & ldquolightning & rdquo ini menekankan kepantasan dan kejutan, mengejutkan musuh dengan kepantasan serangan mekanis dan kemajuan yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya. Kaitan lemah dalam strategi Blitzkrieg adalah tentera, yang bukan manusia dan bukan mesin dan dengan itu menderita keletihan. Mereka memerlukan rehat dan tidur yang kerap, yang tentunya memperlambat kemajuan tentera. Di situlah Pervitin masuk & bahagian kepantasan Blitzkrieg secara harfiah berasal dari kepantasan. Sebagai sejarawan perubatan Peter Steinkamp meletakkannya, & ldquoBlitzkrieg dipandu oleh methamphetamine. Sekiranya tidak mengatakan perkara itu Blitzkrieg ditubuhkan pada methamphetamine. & rdquo

Pada akhir 1939 dan awal 1940, Leo Conti, the & ldquoReich Health F & uumlhrer, & rdquo dan lain-lain membunyikan loceng penggera mengenai risiko Pervitin, sehingga ubat itu hanya tersedia dengan resep sahaja. Tetapi amaran ini sebagian besar jatuh ke telinga pekak, dan peraturan baru itu diabaikan. Penggunaan ubat itu terus meningkat. Di kilang Temmler-Werke, pengeluaran berubah menjadi overdrive, sehingga sebanyak 833.000 tablet sehari. Antara April dan Julai 1940, anggota tentera Jerman menerima lebih daripada 35 juta tablet methamphetamine. Ubat itu bahkan dibagikan kepada juruterbang dan kru tangki dalam bentuk coklat bar yang dikenal sebagai Fliegerschokolade (coklat flyer & rsquos) dan Panzerschokolade (coklat tangki & rsquos).

Armies telah lama menggunakan pelbagai bahan psikoaktif, tetapi ini adalah penggunaan besar-besaran ubat penambah prestasi sintetik. Ahli sejarah Shelby Stanton memberi komen: & ldquoMereka menyerahkannya kepada pasukan barisan. Sembilan puluh peratus tentera mereka harus berjalan kaki, siang dan malam. Lebih penting bagi mereka untuk terus menumbuk semasa Blitzkrieg daripada tidur nyenyak & rsquos. Seluruh tentera terkutuk naik. Itu adalah salah satu rahsia Blitzkrieg. & Rdquo

Blitzkreig bergantung pada kepantasan, tanpa henti mendorong pasukan tangki, siang dan malam. Pada bulan April 1940, dengan cepat menyebabkan kejatuhan Denmark dan Norway. Bulan berikutnya, pasukan bergerak ke Belanda, Belgia, dan akhirnya Perancis. Kereta kebal Jerman menempuh jarak sejauh 240 batu di kawasan yang mencabar, termasuk Hutan Ardennes, dalam 11 hari, melewati pasukan Inggeris dan Perancis yang telah berkubang yang secara keliru menganggap Ardennes tidak dapat dilalui. Para penerjun payung kadang-kadang mendarat lebih awal, menyebabkan kekacauan di belakang barisan musuh akhbar Inggeris menggambarkan tentera ini sebagai & # 39;

Jeneral Heinz Guderian, seorang pakar dalam perang tank dan pemimpin pencerobohan, memberikan perintah untuk melaju ke perbatasan Perancis: & ldquoSaya menuntut agar anda tidak tidur sekurang-kurangnya tiga malam jika itu perlu. & Rdquo Ketika mereka menyeberang ke Perancis, Bala bantuan Perancis belum tiba, dan pertahanan mereka dikalahkan oleh serangan Jerman.

& ldquoSaya tercengang, & rdquo Churchill menulis dalam memoarnya. & ldquoSaya tidak pernah menyangka akan menghadapi & menyerang seluruh komunikasi dan kawasan luar bandar oleh serangan kenderaan perisai yang tidak dapat ditahan & hellipSaya mengakui bahawa ia adalah salah satu kejutan terbesar yang pernah saya alami dalam hidup saya. & rdquo Kelajuan serangan itu sangat sukar. Berkemampuan tinggi di Pervitin, pemandu kereta kebal dan artileri Jerman menutupi jalan sepanjang malam dan siang, hampir tanpa berhenti. Komander asing dan orang awam sama sekali tidak dapat dilindungi.

Beberapa pengguna melaporkan kesan sampingan negatif dari ubat tersebut. Semasa pencerobohan Perancis, ini termasuk seorang letnan kolonel dengan Panzer Ersatz Division I, yang mengalami sakit jantung setelah mengambil Pervitin empat kali sehari selama beberapa minggu komandan Bahagian Tank Kedua Belas, yang bergegas ke hospital tentera kerana serangan jantung dia menderita satu jam setelah mengambil satu pil dan beberapa pegawai yang mengalami serangan jantung semasa bertugas setelah mengambil Pervitin.

Di tengah kekhawatiran yang semakin meningkat mengenai potensi ketagihan dan kesan sampingan negatif penggunaan ubat ini, tentera Jerman mula mengurangkan peruntukan metamfetamin pada akhir tahun 1940. Penggunaan merosot dengan mendadak pada tahun 1941 dan 1942, ketika pertubuhan perubatan secara rasmi mengakui bahawa amfetamin ketagihan.

Walaupun begitu, ubat tersebut terus dikeluarkan di bahagian barat dan timur. Temmler-Wenke, pembuat ubat itu, tetap menguntungkan seperti biasa, walaupun kesedaran akan kesan negatif terhadap kesihatan meningkat.


High Hitler: bagaimana penyalahgunaan dadah Nazi mendorong sejarah

Pengarang Jerman Norman Ohler tinggal di tingkat atas bangunan pangsapuri abad ke-19 di tebing selatan sungai Spree di Kreuzberg, Berlin. Mengunjunginya ada pengalaman yang menyeronokkan. Untuk satu perkara, dia bekerja - dan suka menghiburkan pengunjung - dalam apa yang disebutnya sebagai "menara tulisan", menara berdinding kaca yang kelihatan tipis dan bertengger tepat di tepi bumbung. (Lihat ke bawah, jika anda berani, dan anda akan melihat perahu kecilnya berlabuh jauh di bawah.) Untuk yang lain, ada hakikat bahawa dari sudut pandang ini adalah mungkin untuk melihat dua Berlins, satu dorong dan angin, yang lain spektrum dan kelabu . Di sebelah kiri kami, sibuk dengan lalu lintas, adalah Jambatan Oberbaum, di mana pernah ada pusat pemeriksaan perang dingin, dan di luarnya bahagian Tembok Berlin yang paling lama tersisa, panjangnya yang tidak bersenang-senang diganggu oleh blok flat mewah yang naik pada tahun 2013 Bagi bangunan besar yang terletak betul-betul di seberang sana, sekarang ini adalah kediaman Universal Music. Tidak lama dahulu, bagaimanapun, itu adalah kemudahan penyimpanan telur GDR.

Adakah semua ini menekan Ohler ketika dia duduk di mejanya, cahaya memantul dari skrin komputer ribanya? Adakah kadang-kadang hantu? "Ya, itu aneh," katanya sambil tersenyum pusing. Tetapi kemudian dia telah lama mempercayai perjalanan waktu tertentu. "Saya masih ingat pada tahun 90an. Tembok itu baru saja jatuh, dan saya bereksperimen dengan ubat-ubatan pesta seperti ekstasi dan LSD. Adegan tekno telah bermula, dan terdapat semua bangunan kosong di timur tempat pemuda [dari timur dan barat] bertemu untuk pertama kalinya. Mereka adalah orang yang tegar, beberapa lelaki dari timur - sama sekali tidak memahami orang asing - dan ekstasi menolong mereka kehilangan kebencian dan kecurigaan mereka. Kadang-kadang, anda boleh masuk ke bilik, dan anda boleh saja lihat masa lalu. Sudah tentu, tidak seperti sekarang. Saya tidak lagi mengambil dadah. Tetapi saya dapat mengingatnya, dan mungkin itulah sebabnya saya dapat menulis buku ini. "

Norman Ohler difoto di Berlin minggu lalu. Gambar: MalteJaeger / laif

Buku yang dimaksudkan adalah Total Rush - atau, untuk menggunakan tajuk bahasa Inggerisnya yang unggul, Terkebil-kebil - yang mengungkapkan kisah yang mengejutkan dan hingga kini yang paling banyak dikatakan mengenai hubungan Reich Ketiga dengan dadah, termasuk kokain, heroin, morfin dan, terutama sekali, metamfetamin (aka kristal alias), dan kesannya bukan hanya pada hari-hari terakhir Hitler - Führer, oleh akaun Ohler, adalah pecandu mutlak dengan urat yang hancur pada masa dia mundur ke bunker terakhirnya - tetapi pada pencerobohan Wehrmacht yang berjaya ke Perancis pada tahun 1940. Diterbitkan di Jerman tahun lalu, di mana ia menjadi buku laris, sejak itu. diterjemahkan ke dalam 18 bahasa, fakta yang menggembirakan Ohler, tetapi juga mengagumkannya.

Bukan hanya dia - seperti Der Spiegel ditunjukkan dengan baik - bukan ahli sejarah (pengarang tiga novel dan pengarang bersama filem Wim Wenders Menembak Palermo, ini adalah karya bukan fiksyen pertamanya). Ada yang baru boleh dikatakan sama sekali. Susun semua buku yang ditulis mengenai Nazi dari hujung ke hujung dan lebih panjang daripada Spree.

"Saya rasa dadah tidak menjadi keutamaan bagi para sejarawan," katanya. "Seorang lelaki gila seperti saya harus ikut." Masih, gila atau tidak, dia telah melakukan pekerjaan yang luar biasa. Sekiranya Terkebil-kebil mencengkam, ia juga meyakinkan. Ian Kershaw, sejarawan Britain yang mungkin merupakan pihak berkuasa terkemuka di dunia mengenai Hitler dan Nazi Jerman, telah menggambarkannya sebagai "karya ilmiah yang serius".

Tidak seperti kedengarannya, itu adalah kawan Ohler, DJ Berlin Alexander Kramer, yang pertama kali mengemukakan idea itu. "Dia seperti media untuk masa itu," kata Ohler. "Dia mempunyai perpustakaan besar ini, dan dia tahu semua muzik dari 20-an. Suatu malam dia berkata kepada saya: “Adakah anda tahu peranan besar dadah yang dimainkan dalam Sosialisme Nasional?” Saya memberitahunya bahawa saya tidak melakukannya, tetapi itu benar - dan saya tahu dengan segera ia akan menjadi tajuk buku saya yang seterusnya. ”

His plan was to write a novel, but with his first visit to the archives that changed completely. There he found the papers of Dr Theodor Morell, Hitler’s personal physician, previously only a minor character in most studies of the Führer. “I knew then that this was already better than fiction.” In the months that followed, supported by the late, great German historian of the Third Reich Hans Mommsen, Ohler travelled from archive to archive, carefully gathering his material – and how much of it there was! He didn’t use half of what he found. “Look at this,” he says, jumping up. When he returns, in his hand is a copy of a letter from Martin Bormann, Hitler’s private secretary, in which he suggests that the “medication” Morell is giving the Führer needs to be regulated for the sake of his increasingly wobbly health.

The story Ohler tells begins in the days of the Weimar Republic, when Germany’s pharmaceutical industry was thriving – the country was a leading exporter both of opiates, such as morphine, and of cocaine – and drugs were available on every street corner. It was during this period that Hitler’s inner circle established an image of him as an unassailable figure who was willing to work tirelessly on behalf of his country, and who would permit no toxins – not even coffee – to enter his body.

“He is all genius and body,” reported one of his allies in 1930. “And he mortifies that body in a way that would shock people like us! He doesn’t drink, he practically only eats vegetables, and he doesn’t touch women.” No wonder that when the Nazis seized power in 1933, “seductive poisons” were immediately outlawed. In the years that followed, drug users would be deemed “criminally insane” some would be killed by the state using a lethal injection others would be sent to concentration camps. Drug use also began to be associated with Jews. The Nazi party’s office of racial purity claimed that the Jewish character was essentially drug-dependent. Both needed to be eradicated from Germany.

Some drugs, however, had their uses, particularly in a society hell bent on keeping up with the energetic Hitler (“Germany awake!” the Nazis ordered, and the nation had no choice but to snap to attention). A substance that could “integrate shirkers, malingerers, defeatists and whiners” into the labour market might even be sanctioned. At a company called Temmler in Berlin, Dr Fritz Hauschild, its head chemist, inspired by the successful use of the American amphetamine Benzedrine at the 1936 Olympic Games, began trying to develop his own wonder drug – and a year later, he patented the first German methyl-amphetamine. Pervitin, as it was known, quickly became a sensation, used as a confidence booster and performance enhancer by everyone from secretaries to actors to train drivers (initially, it could be bought without prescription). It even made its way into confectionery. “Hildebrand chocolates are always a delight,” went the slogan. Women were recommended to eat two or three, after which they would be able to get through their housework in no time at all – with the added bonus that they would also lose weight, given the deleterious effect Pervitin had on the appetite. Ohler describes it as National Socialism in pill form.

Workers at the Temmler factory in Berlin produced 35m tablets of Pervitin for the German army and Luftwaffe in 1940. Photograph: Temmler Pharma GmbH & Co KG, Marburg

Naturally, it wasn’t long before soldiers were relying on it too. Dalam Blitzed, Ohler reproduces a letter sent in 1939 by Heinrich Böll, the future Nobel laureate, from the frontline to his parents back at home, in which he begs them for Pervitin, the only way he knew to fight the great enemy – sleep. In Berlin, it was the job of Dr Otto Ranke, the director of the Institute for General and Defence Physiology, to protect the Wehrmacht’s “animated machines” – ie its soldiers – from wear, and after conducting some tests he concluded that Pervitin was indeed excellent medicine for exhausted soldiers. Not only did it make sleep unnecessary (Ranke, who would himself become addicted to the drug, observed that he could work for 50 hours on Pervitin without feeling fatigued), it also switched off inhibitions, making fighting easier, or at any rate less terrifying.

In 1940, as plans were made to invade France through the Ardennes mountains, a “stimulant decree” was sent out to army doctors, recommending that soldiers take one tablet per day, two at night in short sequence, and another one or two tablets after two or three hours if necessary. The Wehrmacht ordered 35m tablets for the army and Luftwaffe, and the Temmler factory increased production. The likes of Böll, it’s fair to say, wouldn’t need to ask their parents for Pervitin again.

Was Blitzkrieg, then, largely the result of the Wehrmacht’s reliance on crystal meth? How far is Ohler willing to go with this? He smiles. “Well, Mommsen always told me not to be mono-causal. But the invasion of France was made possible by the drugs. No drugs, no invasion. When Hitler heard about the plan to invade through Ardennes, he loved it [the allies were massed in northern Belgium]. But the high command said: it’s not possible, at night we have to rest, and they [the allies] will retreat and we will be stuck in the mountains. But then the stimulant decree was released, and that enabled them to stay awake for three days and three nights. Rommel [who then led one of the panzer divisions] and all those tank commanders were high – and without the tanks, they certainly wouldn’t have won.”

Pervitin: Nazi Germany’s drug of choice.

Thereafter, drugs were regarded as an effective weapon by high command, one that could be deployed against the greatest odds. In 1944-45, for instance, when it was increasingly clear that victory against the allies was all but impossible, the German navy developed a range of one-man U-boats the fantastical idea was that these pint-sized submarines would make their way up the Thames estuary. But since they could only be used if the lone marines piloting them could stay awake for days at a time, Dr Gerhard Orzechowski, the head pharmacologist of the naval supreme command on the Baltic, had no choice but to begin working on the development of a new super-medication – a cocaine chewing gum that would be the hardest drug German soldiers had ever taken. It was tested at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, on a track used to trial new shoe soles for German factories prisoners were required to walk – and walk – until they dropped.

“It was crazy, horrifying,” says Ohler, quietly. “Even Mommsen was shocked by this. He had never heard about it before.” The young marines, strapped in their metal boxes, unable to move at all and cut off from the outside world, suffered psychotic episodes as the drugs took hold, and frequently got lost, at which point the fact that they could stay awake for up to seven days became irrelevant. “It was unreal,” says Ohler. “This wasn’t reality. But if you’re fighting an enemy bigger than yourself, you have no choice. You must, somehow, exceed your own strength. That’s why terrorists use suicide bombers. It’s an unfair weapon. If you’re going to send a bomb into a crowd of civilians, of course you’re going to have a success.”

Meanwhile, in Berlin, Hitler was experiencing his own unreality, with his only ally in the world his podgy, insecure personal physician, Dr Morell. In the late 20s, Morell had grown a thriving private practice in Berlin, his reputation built on the modish vitamin injections he liked to give his patients. He met Hitler after he treated Heinrich Hoffman, the official Reich photographer, and sensing an opportunity quickly ingratiated himself with the Führer, who had long suffered from severe intestinal pains. Morell prescribed Mutaflor, a preparation based on bacteria, and when his patient’s condition – Patient A, as Hitler was thereafter known – began to improve, their codependent relationship began. Both were isolated. Hitler increasingly trusted no one but his doctor, while Morell relied solely on the Führer for his position.

When Hitler fell seriously ill in 1941, however, the vitamin injections that Morell had counted on no longer had any effect – and so he began to ramp things up. First, there were injections of animal hormones for this most notorious of vegetarians, and then a whole series of ever stronger medications until, at last, he began giving him a “wonder drug” called Eukodal, a designer opiate and close cousin of heroin whose chief characteristic was its potential to induce a euphoric state in the patient (today it is known as oxycodone). It wasn’t long before Hitler was receiving injections of Eukodal several times a day. Eventually he would combine it with twice daily doses of the high grade cocaine he had originally been prescribed for a problem with his ears, following an explosion in the Wolf’s Lair, his bunker on the eastern front.

Did Morell deliberately turn Hitler into an addict? Or was he simply powerless to resist the Führer’s addictive personality? “I don’t think it was deliberate,” says Ohler. “But Hitler trusted him. When those around him tried to remove Morell in the fall of 1944, Hitler stood up for him – though by then, he knew that if he was to go, he [Hitler] would be finished. They got along very well. Morell loved to give injections, and Hitler liked to have them. He didn’t like pills because of his weak stomach and he wanted a quick effect. He was time-pressed he thought he was going to die young.” When did Hitler realise he was an addict? “Quite late. Someone quotes him as saying to Morell: you’ve been giving me opiates all the time. But mostly, they talked about it in oblique terms. Hitler didn’t like to refer to the Eukodal. Maybe he was trying to block it off from his mind. And like any dealer, Morell was never going to say: yeah, you’re addicted, and I have something to feed that for you.” So he talked in terms of health rather than addiction? “Yes, exactly.”

The effect of the drugs could appear to onlookers to be little short of miraculous. One minute the Führer was so frail he could barely stand up. The next, he would be ranting unstoppably at Mussolini. Ah, yes: Mussolini. In Italy, Blitzed will come with an extra chapter. “I found out that Mussolini – patient D, for Il Duce – was another of Morell’s patients. After the Germans installed him as the puppet leader of the Republic of Italy in 1943, they ordered him to be put under the eyes of the doctor.” Again, Ohler springs up. Again, he returns with a document in his hand. “There’s not enough material to say he was an addict. But he was being given the same drugs as Hitler. Every week there was a doctorly report.” He runs his finger along the typewritten lines, translating for me as he goes. “He has improved, he is playing tennis again, the swelling of his liver is normal… It’s like he’s a racehorse.”

An unwell-looking Adolf Hitler in July 1944. Photograph: ullsteinbild/Getty Images

For Hitler, though, a crisis was coming. When the factories where Pervitin and Eukodal were made were bombed by the allies, supplies of his favourite drugs began to run out, and by February 1945 he was suffering withdrawal. Bowed and drooling and stabbing at his skin with a pair of golden tweezers, he cut a pitiful sight. “Everyone describes the bad health of Hitler in those final days [in the Führerbunker in Berlin],” says Ohler. “But there’s no clear explanation for it. It has been suggested that he was suffering from Parkinson’s disease. To me, though, it’s pretty clear that it was partly withdrawal.” He grins. “Yeah, it must have been pretty awful. He’s losing a world war, and he’s coming off drugs.”

Two months later, Hitler and his new wife, Eva Braun (like Leni Riefenstahl, another of Morell’s patients), killed themselves, as the world knows. What happened to Morell? We know he survived, but did he get away unscathed?

“I think a lot of Nazis did get away with it,” says Ohler. “But not him. He wasn’t able to shed his skin, make a new career, get rich on his memoirs – even though he could have said, truly, that he hadn’t committed any war crimes. He lost his mind. He disintegrated. He’s a tragic figure. He wasn’t evil. He was only an opportunist.”

In 1947, the Americans, having tried and failed to extract useful information from him, deposited Morell in Munich. There he was picked up by a half-Jewish Red Cross nurse who took pity on this dishevelled, shoeless figure. She delivered him to the hospital in Tegernsee, where he died a year later.

Blitzed looks set to reframe the way certain aspects of the Third Reich will be viewed in the future. But Ohler’s thesis doesn’t, of course, make National Socialism any more fathomable, and for him, perhaps, there is an element of disappointment in this, for he has been seeking to understand it ever since he was a boy (the son of a judge, he grew up close to the border with France). “It was the whole reason why I wanted to write,” he says. “I thought with writing that you could counter propaganda.”

His maternal grandfather worked as a railway engineer during the war, the head of a small station in occupied Bohemia. “One day at school we watched a film of the liberation of a concentration camp, and it was so shocking to me. That same day, I asked him about the trains going to the camps. He told me that he saw one in the winter coming from the west, and that he said to himself: these are Russian POWs. But since it came from the west, and he heard children, and it was a cattle train, he kind of realised something weird was happening.

“I wasn’t much older than 10, and I was trying to understand: what kind of person is this, my grandfather? Because he continued being a railway engineer. He didn’t join the resistance. He said the SS was guarding the train, and he was afraid, and so he just went back into his little office to continue with his drawings. He always said Hitler wasn’t so bad. In the 80s, you used to hear that a lot: that it was all exaggerated, that Hitler didn’t know about the bad things, that he created order.”

He pauses. “You think it [nazism] was orderly. But it was complete chaos. I suppose working on Blitzed has helped me understand that at least. Meth kept people in the system without their having to think about it.” His hope is that his book will be read by a younger generation of Germans who would rather look to the future than dwell on the past. Is the right rising again? Is that why he wants them to read it? “It is quite a dangerous time. I hate these attacks on foreigners, but then our governments do it, too, in Iraq and places. Our democracies haven’t done a very good job in this globalised world.” That said, he doesn’t think the new party of the right, Alternative for Germany, may be the threat it appears (in elections earlier this month, it outperformed Angela Merkel’s Christian Democrats). “The right wing always had so little purchase here [after the war] because of our history,” he says. “When I was young, you would never even see a German flag. The first time I did was in 1990, when Germany won the World Cup. So perhaps this is just a correction.”

Before I head to the airport, Ohler agrees to take me to see what remains of the Temmler factory – which last time he looked still stood in Berlin-Johannisthal, a part of the city that used to be in the east – and so it is that we set off on a bright blue day (in the movies, the east seems always to be grey and cold) in search of what remains of Dr Hauschild’s white-tiled laboratory. Twenty minutes later, we pull up in a residential street, all window boxes and net curtains, as quiet as the grave. “Oh, my God,” he says, unfolding his long, thin legs from the car. “Wow. It’s completely gone.”

For a few moments, we peer wonderingly through a chain link fence at the barren expanse of dust and concrete, and the neat white and red houses beyond it. But there’s nothing to be done: try as I might, I can’t superimpose the eery monochrome photographs I’ve seen of the factory in Blitzed on to this Technicolor suburban scene. What was almost tangible to me on Ohler’s roof, only half an hour ago, now takes on the unreal quality of a dream – or, perhaps, just a very bad trip.


German Author Examines Untold History Of Nazi Drug Use In ɻlitzed'

Arguably, more words have been spilled onto the page about Adolf Hitler than any person in the 20th century. Seven years ago, Berlin-based novelist Norman Ohler became convinced there was more to say.

In fact, there was a crucial element of Hitler’s sociopathic behavior historians had downplayed or missed entirely: drugs. Mind altering drugs. Not just the drugs Hitler was taking but drugs the German public began taking en masse in the 1920s, and the drugs &mdash specifically a newly invented methamphetamine called Pervitin &mdash that fueled the German army, particularly during the "blitzkrieg" surge into France and Belgium in May of 1940.

Out of Ohler’s research came "Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich," the German novelist’s first book of non-fiction. In uncovering the rampant drug use endemic to the war effort, Ohler says he found a metaphor for the Nazi era.

“I tried to examine the whole Nazi era as having the curve, in a way, of a drug experience,” the German-born Ohler says on the phone from New York. “Which was a strong high coming on in '33 to '39. Everyone is high, saying ‘Heil!’ and living in a dream world, in a ridiculous, racist bubble that then burst.

"The Nazis were trying to project themselves as a drug. They said ‘We’re not a normal political party, we’re a movement. You have to take part and jump into the water with us and we’re going to take you to amazing places.’ So, that’s why I compared the whole legacy as a drug trip. And every drug trip obviously has its comedown."

“Blitzed” was published in 2015 in Germany, where it was a best-seller. It came out last year in the U.K. and on March 7 this year in the U.S.

Author Norman Ohler. (Courtesy Joachim Gern)

Ohler, 47, had heard rumors about Hitler’s drug use for years, finding things on the internet that “were not very precise and they tended to contradict themselves. It was full of rumors about the Nazis. I didn’t take that so seriously, but it was an indicator. I really was sure of the story the first time when I was at Koblenz at the federal archives of Germany reading through the notes of Theo Morell, personal physician of Hitler.”

When Ohler was starting to test his early research, he says he got confirming support at the military archives in Breisgau, where he talked to an expert on meth abuse in the German army. “After speaking to him,” says Ohler, “and being able to check out his research, my understanding got more profound.”

What super-powered the Nazi army &mdash troops and officers alike &mdash was Pervitin, a pill invented by the Germans and churned out by the millions. “It was a key component of a fighting army and air force,” says Ohler. “It kept the aggression going and that’s something we’ve learned about in subsequent years &mdash the use of speed in the military &mdash but this was a new thing they exploited to the maximum.”

One mystery about all this: With all the information available, why had no one ever dug as deep as Ohler did?

“I spoke with Hans Mommsen, a leading German historian on National Socialism, who was helping me with the book,” Ohler says, “and he said ‘We historians have no idea about drugs.’ I guess it might be one of the reasons. I think there are several reasons: the fear of [the drug use] excusing the Nazis &mdash that would have been a reason in the '70s to not look at the topic. The early historians of National Socialism had to break ground and put the big things into perspective and probably drugs weren’t on their radar. They were just afraid to include that into their evaluation. I think many historians think it’s trivial.”

Ohler makes it clear that he’s not suggesting Nazi drug use as any sort of justification for the massive carnage they spread. “It didn’t come from the drugs,” he says. “The drugs are not a connection with the creation of the evil, the ideology, the war plans and the genocide. But the drugs are being used to accelerate, to be able to do certain things.”

In terms of research, it didn’t hurt that Ohler had some drug experience of his own, being part of the Germany’s electronic music scene of the '90s. He says he did “recreational drugs,” nothing with the destructive power of what the Nazis took. “Even if you don’t take certain drugs,” Ohler says, “you might know people who have taken, for example methamphetamines or opioids. I’ve spoken to some people that I know and asked them.”

This is the closest, Ohler says, that he got to crystal meth: “I wanted to have a package of crystal meth in my desk and I asked a dealer that I know and she said she didn’t want to have anything to do with it, but then she knew another dealer who was selling it. She brought me one gram in a bag and the dealer, without knowing me or knowing why I wanted it, brought a xeroxed copy of the [Third Reich package design] of Pervitin from 1937. It was really surprising &mdash a history conscious dealer! I do not like methamphetamine, but I liked having it close by to look at.”

“I know one guy who has come across an original Pervitin packet,” Ohler continues, “and he claims that he used them and it was still working even though it was decades old. He described the drug effect as cleaner than street meth.”

“Blitzed” did not start out as a historical work. Ohler had published three novels. His first, “The Quota Machine,” is a detective story set in early ‘90s New York City &mdash "I programmed it as a hypertext, the first hypertext novel worldwide" &mdash published in 1998. The second, “Mitte,” Ohler describes as “a ghost story about gentrification” in Berlin (2001). Two years later came “Ponte City,” which is the story of a young South African woman who moves from Soweto to Johannesburg and then gets into all kinds of trouble trying to live the free life in the new South Africa.”

When he began researching what would become “Blitzed,” Ohler was envisioning it as his fourth novel. But he found the material “too hot,” as he told Newsweek, “to water it down in a fictional work.”

Upon deciding he was writing about history, Ohler intended to start in 1933, with the Nazis rise to power, but Mommsen, urged him to go back further. “I started in 1805, briefly mentioned that a German chemist refined morphine as the active ingredient in opium,” says Ohler. “This is kind of the starting point for the chemical industry all over the world, But [it happened] first in Germany, where pharmacies turn into companies developing pharmaceuticals in the 1920s, when drugs are widely available in Germany. And then there’s a break when the Nazis take power. At first, they introduce the ‘War on Drugs’ by saying we have to stop doing drugs and then obviously, the new drug methamphetamine comes into play and contradicts the ideology.”

During the five-year research and writing process, did Ohler ever get what might be called “Hitler fatigue?”

“Well,” he says, “I got Nazi fatigue when I researched the navy’s search for a wonder drug and the tests they did in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. I thought ‘This is really dark. I want to get away from this.’ Then, I tended to apply a sort of dry humor to the book in the writing process and it seems what many readers . appreciate. It kept me on the brighter side of things also.”

The corpulent, sycophantic Morell becomes a central figure in Ohler’s story, a Dr. Feelgood who’s more than just a villainous enabler and profiteer. Going through Morell’s notes, Ohler says he found “they were very detailed and they were telling a story I had not heard before. Very fascinating, the relationship between him and Hitler and what is revealed. He was with Hitler all the time.”

Ohler posits that Hitler’s embrace of drugs, ostensibly begun to treat his severe stomach pain, contributed to his irrational decision-making in terms of strategy. And as the war became increasingly unwinnable, Ohler writes that a very ill Hitler was propped up in his bunker by a panoply of drugs supplied by Morell. Some were shots of vitamin, hormone and steroid cocktails, but others much more potent and potentially mind-scrambling. Nevertheless, Ohler writes, they allowed Hitler to present himself to his people with the illusion of strength and the falsehood that Germany was on the verge of victory.

What Hitler loved most, says Ohler, is a drug called Eukadol, an opioid known generally as oxycodone. Synthesized from raw opium, it had twice the pain relieving as morphine. Ohler writes that it achieved “a euphoric state significantly higher than that of heroin.” In addition, Morell would combine Eukadol with cocaine, creating what we now call a “speedball,” the combo that killed John Belushi.

Ohler quotes junkie/author William Burroughs in his 1959 book, “Naked Lunch”: “Eukodol [sic] is like a combination of junk and C [cocaine]. Trust the Germans to concoct some truly awful s---.”

In retrospect, of course, the hypocrisy is maddening. Hitler &mdash a non-smoking vegetarian who railed about keeping German minds pure of drug contamination &mdash was secretly pumped up to the gills, likely going back to the fall of 1941.

Ohler says Morell was an opportunist, a man who joined the Nazi party when rumors started to float around that he was Jewish. “When Hitler offered him the job,” Ohler says, “he was over the moon because he became the personal physician of the most powerful man in Europe. Hitler gave him a mansion and gave him a factory where he could produce his stuff. Hitler was revered at the time most Germans loved Hitler. And Morell he continued to profit from the system. He was not involved in war crimes or at least I couldn’t find documents. He liked Hitler, Hitler liked him, he made a lot of money. Everyone envied him.”

Hitler committed suicide in his bunker as the end of the war neared. Morell survived, then was captured by the Americans and imprisoned for two years. They decided they wouldn’t try him at Nuremberg because “they apparently couldn’t connect him to war crimes.”

He may also have been insane, although Ohler says, "whether he was insane or whether he played it well, we can’t say. He was very much focused on his patient and once his patient wasn’t there anymore he lost his life.”

After he was released from prison, Ohler says, “He never tried to start a new career. He could have gone back to Berlin and become a doctor, but his health was really bad. It’s a bit of mystery what happened those two years the Americans had him but he certainly didn’t start a new life. He got out and only lived for a few months.”

“Blitzed” closes with Morell dropped outside the train station in Munich. Ohler writes: “Morell cowered there, the most powerful man with the gold rods of Asclepius on his collar, now in a worn-out coat, shoeless on the bare cobbles, until a half-Jewish Red Cross nurse took pity on him and put him in a hospital in Tegernsee, where he died on May 26, 1948.”

Music Writer
Jim Sullivan writes about rock 'n' roll and other music for The ARTery.


Hitler and His Drugs: Inside the Nazis’ Secret Speed Craze

Norman Ohler's 'Blitzed' looks at all the drugs Adolf Hitler and the Third Reich used during the Second World War.

The citizens of the Third Reich were taking speed on a national scale the German Army’s Blitzkreig attack through France was only made possible through the widespread use of Methamphetamine by Wehrmacht soldiers the Marshal of the Luftwaffe air force, Herman Goring, was a morphine addict and Adolf Hitler, famous teetotaler and vegetarian, was in truth a hopeless junkie, his final days spent in trembling and sweating withdrawal, his arms covered in track marks, begging for another injection of the haphazard melange of vitamins, hormones, methamphetamine, oxycodone and sometimes morphine which had kept him functioning throughout the war.

It sounds like fantasy, a surreal alternate history from a novel. But this is a true, untold story, uncovered through five years of research by Norman Ohler and published in his book Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich this month. Blitzed is the first work of nonfiction for Ohler, a German fiction writer who originally started researching the project with a historical novel in mind. As archival research turned up more and more explosive revelations about the filthy hidden habit of Nazis, Ohler decided the full history &ndash so long ignored or avoided by mainstream historians &ndash needed to be told.

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“Historians are too square,” says Ohler. “Historians don’t know what drugs are. In the Seventies and Eighties, when some of the groundbreaking historical work was being conducted, it might have been politically incorrect to use such a pop cultural angle to explain something so severe. No one dared to rewrite history in such a crazy manner, I suppose.”

The substance at the center of Blitzed is Pervitin, a brand-name methamphetamine produced in staggering quantities by the German pharmaceutical industry, then the most advanced in the world. Unlike cocaine, marijuana and morphine, which were seen by the Nazis as decadent foreign bodies polluting the Aryan immune system &ndash just as they saw the Jews polluting the Aryan nation &ndash Pervitin was promoted as the people’s drug, a wonder chemical available as a pill, injectable solution, chewing gum or even in chocolates for the fatigued housewife. High on speed, the members of the master race worked, produced and sang the glories of the Fuhrer as never before.

The military application was obvious, and Ohler describes the chemical ignition of the first assault on the Western front with a novelist’s flair:

Thousands of soldiers took the substance out of their field caps or were given it by their medical officers. It was laid on their tongues and gulped down with a swig of water. Twenty minutes later the nerve cells in their brains started releasing the neurotransmitters. All of a sudden dopamine and noradrenaline intensified perception and put the soldiers in a state of absolute alertness. The night brightened: no one would sleep, lights were turned on, and the “Lindworm” of the Wehrmacht started eating its way tirelessly toward Belgium&hellip There were no more breaks &ndash an uninterrupted chemical bombardment had broken out in the cerebrum.

Back in the occupied territories, Nazi doctors performed characteristically cruel scientific experiments on Jewish inmates at Dachau and Auschwitz, forcing groups to march in circles without sleep for days to determine whether cocaine or meth was a better stimulant for soldiers, or dosing unwitting prisoners with the psychedelic mescaline to see if it would enhance interrogations &ndash a program later adapted by the United States using LSD.

The widespread use of drugs to get an edge by the numerically-outmatched Nazi army set a precedent that continues to this day. In 2014, the outnumbered and outgunned forces of the Islamic State staged their own blitzkrieg attack across Syria and Iraq, professional armies melting away before them in retreat. It was later discovered that many fighters had been taking a methamphetamine called Captagon. “It’s a good drug for a fighter,” says Ohler. “It reduces your fear level. Also for suicide missions, which are crazy to carry out because you must be so afraid. The ideology can be strong &ndash but I think an amphetamine would help.”

Ohler’s most stunning revelations, perhaps, are those about the Fuhrer himself. Hitler was the symbolic apotheosis of the Nazi obsession with health, says Ohler: “I think you can see the Hitler body representing the people’s body, the Volkskorper. The Nazi’s ideology is all about purity of the blood. This was the strength of the whole movement, this purity of the blood. Blitzed looks into the bloodstream and sees something completely different, that’s the big joke of the book.”

Ohler enters this bloodstream through the needle of Hitler’s personal physician Theodor Morell, the corpulent, sycophantic, rather pathetic quack who was loathed by almost everyone but Hitler himself. Ohler portrays Morell as Hitler’s pusher, consistently upping the doses, building up a dependency to ever-stronger drugs &ndash from mere vitamins up to Eukodal, the oxycodone-based “wonder drug” that once earned the highest praise of junk aficionado William Burroughs.

Oiler was surprised during his research to learn of the current oxycodone epidemic in America. “In Germany it’s not such a big deal,” he says. “I had just learned that Hitler used it so much and then I looked it up and it said something like ‘seventh most popular medicine in the United States.’ I was quite surprised by that. But then in America you don’t mainline it, you swallow it, which is very different. I tried one oxycodone pill from an American friend, and I hardly felt anything. It was I think five milligrams. Hitler had 20 milligrams injected into his bloodstream intravenously.”

Asked about a certain current head-of-state whose drug of choice is said to be Diet Coke and whose personal doctor recently admitted to regularly administering hair-loss prevention drugs, Ohler says, “Everyone’s drawing these comparisons between Hitler and Donald Trump.” But he compares the new American leader to Hiter’s drug of choice, instead. “These former industrial zones in the so-called Meth Belt are now broken-down areas where underprivileged white people live, who support Trump and who take a lot of meth and depend on that anticipation that meth creates. You take meth, you think something’s gonna happen, something exciting. That’s the kind of energy that Trump creates. People get excited and I think that cheap excitement, that fake hope that meth creates is also something that Trump creates. I think Trump is a kind of a personified meth.”

Similarly, in Blitzed, Ohler makes it clear that, for most Germans, Nazism itself was the most potent and addictive drug. “The Nazi movement was this intoxicating rebel movement that changed the rules and said: ‘We couldn’t give a fuck about democracy. We just do it differently,'” he writes. “They didn’t convince people with rational arguments, they convinced people with irrational behavior. They had this drug-quality, and they were very effective with dealing with the media. Maybe the Nazis were like the Eukodal of movements.”


Tweaking Soliders: the Nazis and Methamphetamine

As leader of the Third Reich, it is commonly known Adolf Hilter advocated for Lebensreform (life reform). Chief among this belief was that members of the Aryan Race should abstain from drug and alcohol use in order to create a pure and strong race. However, at the same time Lebensreform was being advocated by Hilter and party officials like Heinrich Himmler, Nazi military men were nonetheless being fed the methamphetamine Pervitin in massive quantities during World War II.

Referred to as “pilot’s salt” or “tank chocolate” by members of the Wehrmacht (German armed forces), Pervitin was seen as a wonder drug by officials who freely distributed it to military men.[1] The drug increased German soldiers’ alertness and endurance, and gave them confidence and euphoric feelings No member of the Wehrmacht was immune from the drugs effects: pilots, infantrymen, and civil defense soldiers, were consuming large quantities of methamphetamine by order of the Nazi high command.

The use of amphetamine was not uncommon throughout industrialized countries during the 1930s and 40s. Indeed, Dexedrine and other amphetamines would be given to allied pilots during the War to maintain alertness. However, in the 1938, German paramedical company Temmler Werke began working on Pervitin, a new drug that was structurally different then previous “pep” pills on the market. The Academy of Military Medicine in Berlin, decided to study methamphetamine to determine if it could be beneficial in combat situations. In tests, the academy noticed that subjects dosed with Pervitin were able to perform better in mathematical and memory tests in a controlled environment. As a result, 3 mg tablets of Pervitin were included in medical supplies for German military units during the invasion of Poland in 1939.[2]

The success of the Polish invasion furthered Pervitin’s reputation as a military performance enhancer and consumption of the drug skyrocketed. As Nicholas Rasmussen notes, “In the Blitzkreig’s opening months… the German military consumed 35 million methamphetamine tablets” between April-June 1940.[3] The use of Pervitin was not only restricted to enlisted men. Hilter, who suffered from numerous health symptoms, used cocaine and methamphetamine under a doctor’s watchful eye.[4] On the homefront, non-military personal began taking the drug as part of the civilian effort. News of the new German wonder drug caused both wonder and concern among the Allies.

While Pervitin did produce positive effects, there was considerable concern about its effectiveness. Allied nations testing Pervitin on their own pilots, noticed that it caused agitation, restless, and impaired judgment.[5] A widely circulated rumor told of an entire Germany infantry company surrendering to Russian forces in Leningrad after it wasted all its bullets during a methamphetamine-induced psychosis. In addition, Luftwaffe soldiers were also deemed as less effective and distracted by senior officials after methamphetamine-fueled missions garnered mixed results.[6] It was widely documented that Pervitin produced restlessness, delusions, and insomnia for the soldiers. Withdrawal, unavoidable due to the heavy demand for Pervitin, was also painful for soldiers and may have been linked to poor military decision making and suicides by SS soldiers.

Regardless of their side effects, the demand for the drug remained high throughout the war. Soldiers (including future Pulitzer Prize winner Heinrich Boll)[7] wrote letters home asking their parents to send them the methamphetamine.[8] Despite attempts to control usage of the drug, it is estimated that 200 million Pervitin pills were given to Wehrmacht soldiers between 1939 and 1945.[9] Quite literally, Pervitin fueled Nazi Germany’s military exploits.

Shortly before the war ended, Nazi doctors began working on an improvement to the Pervitin pill (code name D-IX) that allegedly contained methamphetamine, cocaine, and a powerful painkiller (which was initially tested in concentration camps).[10] However, the invasion of Normandy by the Allies prevented the further use and study of this pill. Amazingly, Pervitin was part of the medical supplies for both the West and Eastern Germany armies until 1988.

[1] Megan Garber, “Pilot’s Salt: The Third Reich Kept Its Soliders Alert With Meth” Bulanan Atlantik May 31, 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/pilots-salt-the-third-reich-kept-its-soldiers-alert-with-meth/276429/ (accessed June 10, 2013).

[2] Elaine A. Moore, The Amphetamine Debate: The Use of Adderall, Ritalin, and Related Drugs for Behavior Modification, Neuroenhancement and Anti-Aging Purposes (Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company Inc, 2011.), 139.

[3] Nicholas Rasmussen, On Speed: The Many Lives of Amphetamine (New York: New YorkUniversity Press, 2008), 54.


Nazis Weren't the Only Ones Using Meth During World War II

Adolf Hitler’s use of methamphetamine, otherwise known as crystal meth, has been well documented during recent years in books like Blitzed: Drugs in the Third Reich by Norman Ohler. But did you know that Nazi soldiers, British troops, and even American military personnel used speed as well during World War II? That secret history is airing tonight on the PBS show Secrets of the Dead with an episode titled “ World War Speed .”

The episode is hosted by British historian James Holland and gives viewers a fascinating look at the use of uppers by both the Allies and the Axis powers in the 1940s. The drugs helped soldiers stay awake for long periods of time and it also made them more aggressive in combat scenarios. The downside? Some soldiers took so much speed they worried that they’d never be able to sleep again.

The Nazi version of speed was called Pervitin and was available over the counter in Germany during the late 1930s before it was given to soldiers. Likewise, America’s version, known as Benzedrine, could be found in U.S. pharmacies before the country entered World War II. But the soldiers on both sides weren’t going rogue and taking drugs for the fun of it. The speed was issued to them by their own governments, sometimes in staggering quantities.

Germany used the drug to invade Poland in 1939 and shipped an estimated 35 million tablets of Pervitin to its soldiers fighting to invade France in 1940. And with only about 3 million German troops in that region, that means there were plenty of uppers to go around.

Winston Churchill developed an interest in speed when he learned that the Germans were using it and British troops were supplied with hundreds of thousands of pills as well. And U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower, who would later become president, ordered at least half a million tablets for Americans fighting in North Africa.

Boleh dikatakan, salah satu yang paling penting dari episod ini bukan hanya pasukan diberi kepantasan untuk membuat mereka terjaga, seperti yang kita anggap. Penyelidik pada masa itu mendapati bahawa ia membantu membuat pasukan mereka lebih yakin dan lebih agresif. Itu jelas berguna dalam perang, tetapi juga mempunyai kekurangannya. Seperti yang dijelaskan oleh episod, satu perkara yang berguna mengenai ketakutan adalah bahawa hal itu menghalangi anda untuk tidak membahayakan badan anda. Ketakutan adalah mekanisme pertahanan diri yang semula jadi dan orang yang terlalu yakin dapat mencapai sesuatu yang hebat, tetapi mereka juga menghadapi risiko melakukan kesalahan yang benar-benar bodoh.

Episode ini juga masuk ke dalam dos yang digunakan pasukan, yang dapat mencapai setinggi 100 miligram pada beberapa kesempatan. Dan itu sebelum penemuan teknologi "pelepasan lanjutan" yang kita miliki saat ini yang perlahan-lahan memperkenalkan ubat ke dalam aliran darah anda. Semasa anda minum pil pada tahun 1940-an, anda mendapat sepakan cepat dari keseluruhan dos sekaligus.

Dalam salah satu urutan yang paling menggembirakan dari pertunjukan itu, Holland melakukan perjalanan ke lokasi kem konsentrasi dan belajar tentang percubaan yang berbeza yang dilakukan terhadap tahanan Yahudi. Nazi menguji kokain dan kepantasan dalam berbagai bentuk dan membuat tahanan mereka membawa karung yang dipenuhi batu di sekitar trek untuk melihat berapa lama manusia dapat beroperasi ketika menggunakan dadah. Ini adalah peringatan yang menyedihkan bahawa Nazi secara berkala melakukan eksperimen perubatan ke atas manusia, termasuk pada kanak-kanak, dalam percubaan yang hanya dapat digambarkan sebagai penyiksaan.

Terdapat sedikit kelonggaran di sekitar sepertiga dari episod ini ketika penyampai TV berpakaian seperti tentera Britain dan terus berjalan untuk "membuktikan" bahawa anda tidak memerlukan ubat untuk menempuh jarak yang dicapai oleh tentera Jerman. Tetapi teruskan dan teruskan tahap yang membosankan kerana episod yang lain pasti bernilai masa anda.

Episod ini disiarkan malam ini, 25 Jun, di PBS pada pukul 8 malam ET. Periksa senarai tempatan anda.


Adakah QAnon dibina berdasarkan teori konspirasi yang sama yang mendorong Nazisme genosid di Jerman? Sarjana genosida Gregory Stanton berpendapat demikian.

Stanton menulis dalam sebuah artikel untuk Genocide Watch, sebuah organisasi pendidikan bukan keuntungan di mana dia adalah presiden pengasas, bahawa banyak konsep yang digunakan oleh QAnon sama dengan yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1903 dalam teks propaganda penipuan anti-Semit The Protocols of Zion.

& ldquoSaya pernah melihat ini sebelumnya, & rdquo Stanton memberitahu CNN. & ldquoKetika saya melihat ini, saya berkata, & lsquoIni adalah Nazisme. & rsquo & rdquo

Dia menjelaskan bahawa teks itu, yang pertama kali diterbitkan di Rusia, secara palsu mendakwa bahawa masyarakat elit yang menguasai kedudukan pemerintah yang tinggi juga mendorong pedofilia, dan penculikan dan kanibalisme kanak-kanak. Ia kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam Adolf Hitler & rsquos & ldquoMein Kampf, & rdquo sebelum diterbitkan semula sebagai buku kanak-kanak & rsquos, dan dicetak semula di surat khabar Nazi.

Dia terus menerangkan bahawa keadaan tertentu menjadikan Eropah matang untuk Nazisme, termasuk pengangguran besar-besaran, ketidakpercayaan dalam pemerintah dan ketidakpuasan sosial, dan masa-masa yang sama & ldquodifficult & rdquo dapat dikatakan sekarang mengenai Amerika Syarikat.

& ldquoSangat sukar untuk mempercayai bahawa orang biasa boleh jatuh untuk ini, & rdquo Stanton berkata. Tetapi dalam kumpulan, orang tidak selalu rasional. & rdquo


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