Ulasan: Jilid 33 - Sejarah Cina

Ulasan: Jilid 33 - Sejarah Cina

Sejarah lengkap pertama Eurasia Tengah dari zaman kuno hingga hari ini, Empires of the Silk Road melambangkan pemikiran semula mengenai asal usul, sejarah, dan kepentingan wilayah dunia utama ini. Christopher Beckwith menggambarkan kebangkitan dan kejatuhan empayar Eurasia Tengah yang besar, termasuk kerajaan Scythians, Attila the Hun, Turki dan Tibet, dan Genghis Khan dan Mongol. Di samping itu, dia menjelaskan mengapa wilayah tengah Eurasia memimpin dunia secara ekonomi, saintifik, dan artistik selama berabad-abad walaupun telah diceroboh oleh orang Parsi, Yunani, Arab, Cina, dan lain-lain. Dalam menceritakan kembali kisah Dunia Lama dari perspektif Eurasia Tengah, Beckwith memberikan pemahaman baru mengenai dinamika dalaman dan luaran negara-negara Eurasia Tengah dan menunjukkan bagaimana orang-orang mereka berulang kali merevolusikan peradaban Eurasia.


China abad ke-20

China abad ke-20, jurnal ilmiah yang diadili, menerbitkan penyelidikan baru mengenai abad ke-20 yang panjang di China. Artikel dalam jurnal ini melibatkan isu-isu historiografi atau tafsiran yang signifikan dan meneroka kedua-dua kesinambungan pengalaman orang Cina sepanjang abad ini dan fenomena dan aktiviti tertentu dalam bidang budaya, politik, dan wilayah China - termasuk diaspora Cina - sejak dekad terakhir Qing. Kajian empirikal dan / atau teori perbandingan yang berakar pada pengalaman orang Cina kadang-kadang meluas ke kawasan di luar China. Jurnal ini merangkumi berbagai pendekatan sejarah dalam peninjauannya pada abad ke-20 China: antara lain, sosial, budaya, intelektual, politik, ekonomi, dan alam sekitar. Ditubuhkan sebagai buletin pada tahun 1975, China abad ke-20 telah berkembang menjadi salah satu jurnal berbahasa Inggeris terkemuka dalam bidang sejarah Cina.

China abad ke-20 dahulunya diterbitkan sebagai Republik China (1983-1997) dan sebagai Buletin Pengajian Republik China (1975–1983). China abad ke-20 kini diterbitkan oleh Johns Hopkins University Press untuk Twentieth Century China Journal, Inc., dan merupakan jurnal Persatuan Sejarah untuk Twentieth-Century China. Disokong oleh lembaga editorial antarabangsa cendekiawan terkemuka, jurnal ini menggunakan tinjauan dan penilaian rakan sebaya double-blind oleh editor akademik jurnal untuk memilih artikel yang luar biasa untuk diterbitkan.


Artikel terbaru

Deng Fu-Guo et al 2007 Fiz Cina. 16 3553

Dalam makalah ini skema untuk jaringan komunikasi langsung kuantum selamat (QSDC) dicadangkan dengan urutan foton tunggal terpolarisasi. Foton tunggal disediakan pada asalnya dalam keadaan yang sama | 0〉 oleh pelayan di rangkaian, yang akan mengurangkan kesukaran bagi pengguna yang sah untuk memeriksa penyadaran secara besar-besaran. Pengguna mengkod maklumat pada foton tunggal dengan dua operasi kesatuan yang tidak mengubah asas pengukurannya. Beberapa foton umpan, yang dihasilkan dengan mengoperasikan sampel foton dengan Hadamard, digunakan untuk mencegah pelayan yang berpotensi tidak jujur ​​dari menguping garis kuantum secara bebas. Skema ini adalah ekonomik kerana cara termudah untuk komunikasi rangkaian QSDC dengan selamat.

Wu Ya-Bo et al 2007 Fiz Cina. 16 3560

Dengan memperkenalkan medan skalar kompleks ganda, makalah ini membina Lagrangian berganda dengan potensi V (Φ (J), Φ * (J)) = V (| Φ (J) |), yang tidak hanya dapat menggambarkan evolusi quintom Universe, tetapi juga secara semula jadi dapat memberikan spintessence dan hessence Universe. Selanjutnya, U(1, J) simetri Lagrangian kompleks ganda disahkan, dan jumlah cas terpelihara dalam isipadu fizikal diturunkan melalui teorema Noëther. Lebih-lebih lagi, dapat menunjukkan bahawa 'gerakan khayalan' parameter sudut dalam Rujukan [14], sebenarnya, hanya fasa sesaran yang sebenarnya dalam model kami.

Guan Jian-Yue et al 2007 Fiz Cina. 16 3566

Kami menyiasat permainan snowdrift evolusi di dataran N = L & # x00d7 L kisi dengan keadaan sempadan berkala, di mana populasi penduduk n0 (n0N) pemain yang berada di laman web kisi ini boleh bekerjasama atau cacat dari jiran terdekat mereka. Selepas setiap generasi, setiap pemain bergerak dengan kebarangkalian tertentu hlm ke salah satu laman kosong terdekat pemain. Ini ditunjukkan bahawa, ketika hlm = 0, tingkah laku kerjasama dapat ditingkatkan dalam struktur yang tidak teratur. Bila hlm & gt 0, kesan mobiliti terhadap kerjasama sangat bergantung pada parameter pembayaran r dan ketumpatan individu ρ (ρ = n0/N). Berbanding dengan hasil dari hlm = 0, untuk kecil r, kegigihan kerjasama ditingkatkan pada nilai ρ yang tidak terlalu kecil sedangkan untuk besar r, pengenalan mobiliti menghalang kemunculan kerjasama pada setiap ρ & lt 1 untuk nilai pertengahan r, tingkah laku kerjasama kadang-kadang ditingkatkan dan kadang-kadang dihambat, bergantung pada nilai-nilai hlm dan ρ. Khususnya, kepadatan kooperator dapat mencapai maksimum apabila nilai-nilai hlm dan ρ mencapai nilai optimum masing-masing. Di samping itu, dua keadaan penyerap semua koperator dan semua pembelot dapat muncul masing-masing untuk kecil dan besar r dalam kes hlm & gt 0.

Zhao Jing et al 2007 Fiz Cina. 16 3571

Rangkaian kompleks telah digunakan untuk memodelkan banyak sistem nonlinear interaktif di dunia nyata. Pengetahuan mengenai topologi rangkaian sangat penting untuk memahami fungsi, prestasi dan evolusi sistem yang kompleks. Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, banyak metrik dan model rangkaian telah dicadangkan untuk menyelidiki topologi, dinamika dan evolusi rangkaian. Oleh kerana metrik dan model rangkaian ini berasal dari pelbagai kajian, kajian sistematik diperlukan untuk mengkaji korelasi di antara mereka. Makalah ini meneroka kesan korelasi darjah pada metrik rangkaian lain dengan mengkaji ensemble grafik di mana urutan darjah (set darjah) diperbaiki. Kami menunjukkan bahawa hingga tahap tertentu, panjang jalur ciri, pekali pengelompokan, tahap modular dan ketahanan rangkaian secara langsung dipengaruhi oleh korelasi darjah.

Jia Yi-Feng et al 2007 Fiz Cina. 16 3581

Dalam makalah ini, pendekatan Faddeev – Jackiw diperbaiki dengan kaedah penghapusan Wu, jadi banyak perhitungan rumit dalam menyelesaikan kekangan untuk dinamika terkekang jenis polinomial dimensi terhingga dapat dilaksanakan dengan mudah dengan menggunakan komputer. Lebih-lebih lagi, berdasarkan pendekatan Faddeev – Jackiw, algoritma baru untuk menyelesaikan dinamika yang dibatasi dikemukakan. Algoritma baru lebih sederhana dan lebih ketat daripada pendekatan Faddeev – Jackiw. Dengan menggunakan algoritma baru, contoh Cawley kedua diselesaikan.


Kandungan

Jerry H. Bentley telah memperhatikan bahawa 'istilah sejarah dunia tidak pernah menjadi penanda yang jelas dengan referensi yang stabil ', dan bahawa penggunaan istilah tersebut bertindih dengan sejarah sejagat, sejarah perbandingan, sejarah global, sejarah besar, sejarah makro, dan sejarah transnasional, antara lain. [2]

Kemunculan sejarah dunia sebagai bidang pengajian akademik yang berbeza dapat ditelusuri pada tahun 1960-an, tetapi kecepatannya semakin cepat pada tahun 1980-an. [3] [4] Langkah utama adalah pembentukan Persatuan Sejarah Dunia dan program siswazah di segelintir universiti. Selama beberapa dekad berikutnya, penerbitan ilmiah, organisasi profesional dan akademik, dan program siswazah dalam Sejarah Dunia semakin meningkat. Sejarah Dunia sering menggantikan Tamadun Barat dalam kurikulum sekolah menengah dan universiti Amerika yang diperlukan, dan disokong oleh buku teks baru dengan pendekatan sejarah dunia.

Sejarah Dunia cuba mengenali dan menangani dua struktur yang telah membentuk penulisan sejarah profesional:

  1. Kecenderungan untuk menggunakan negara-negara semasa untuk menetapkan batas dan agenda kajian masa lalu.
  2. Warisan andaian Eurosentrik yang mendalam (terdapat terutamanya, tetapi tidak hanya, dalam penulisan sejarah Barat).

Oleh itu Sejarah Dunia cenderung untuk mengkaji rangkaian, hubungan, dan sistem yang melintasi batas tradisional kajian sejarah seperti linguistik, budaya, dan sempadan negara. Sejarah Dunia sering mengambil berat untuk meneroka dinamika sosial yang telah membawa kepada perubahan besar-besaran dalam masyarakat manusia, seperti perindustrian dan penyebaran kapitalisme, dan untuk menganalisis bagaimana perubahan skala besar seperti ini telah mempengaruhi berbagai belahan dunia. Seperti cabang-cabang penulisan sejarah yang lain pada separuh kedua abad kedua puluh, Sejarah Dunia mempunyai ruang lingkup yang jauh melebihi fokus tradisional sejarawan pada politik, perang, dan diplomasi, dengan mengambil topik yang luas seperti sejarah gender, sejarah sosial, sejarah budaya , dan sejarah alam sekitar. [3]

Penyuntingan Organisasi

  • The H-Dunia laman web dan rangkaian dalam talian [5] digunakan di kalangan sebilangan pengamal sejarah dunia, dan membolehkan perbincangan di antara para sarjana, pengumuman, sukatan pelajaran, bibliografi dan ulasan buku.
  • Persatuan Antarabangsa untuk Kajian Perbandingan Tamadun (ISCSC) mendekati sejarah dunia dari sudut peradaban perbandingan. Ditubuhkan pada sebuah persidangan pada tahun 1961 di Salzburg, Austria, yang dihadiri oleh Othmar Anderlie, Pitirim Sorokin, dan Arnold J. Toynbee, ini adalah persatuan sarjana antarabangsa yang menerbitkan jurnal, Tinjauan Tamadun Perbandingan, dan menjadi tuan rumah mesyuarat tahunan di bandar-bandar di seluruh dunia.
  • The Jurnal Sejarah Global adalah jurnal ilmiah yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 2006 dan diterbitkan oleh Cambridge University Press.
  • Persatuan Sejarah Dunia (WHA) ditubuhkan pada tahun 1982, dan kebanyakannya merupakan fenomena Amerika. [6] Sejak tahun 1990, ia menerbitkan Jurnal Sejarah Dunia setiap suku tahun. [7]

Edit Pra-moden

Kajian sejarah dunia, yang berbeza dengan sejarah nasional, telah ada dalam banyak budaya dunia. Namun, bentuk awal sejarah dunia tidak benar-benar global, dan hanya terbatas pada wilayah yang diketahui oleh sejarawan.

Di China Kuno, sejarah dunia China, sejarah China dan penduduk sekitar Asia Timur, didasarkan pada siklus dinasti yang diartikulasikan oleh Sima Qian pada sekitar tahun 100 SM. Model Sima Qian berdasarkan Mandat Syurga. Raja-raja bangkit ketika mereka menyatukan China, kemudian digulingkan ketika dinasti yang berkuasa menjadi korup. [8] Setiap dinasti baru mulai berbudi luhur dan kuat, tetapi kemudian membusuk, memprovokasi pemindahan amanah Syurga kepada penguasa baru. Ujian kebajikan dalam dinasti baru adalah kejayaan dipatuhi oleh China dan barbar tetangga. Setelah 2000 tahun model Sima Qian masih mendominasi biasiswa, walaupun kitaran dinasti tidak lagi digunakan untuk sejarah Cina moden. [9]

Di Yunani Kuno, Herodotus (abad ke-5 SM), sebagai pengasas pensejarahan Yunani, [10] mengemukakan perbincangan yang mendalam dan meriah mengenai adat istiadat, geografi, dan sejarah orang-orang Mediterranean, khususnya orang Mesir. Namun, pesaingnya yang hebat, Thucydides, dengan segera membuang pendekatan sejarah Herodotus yang menyeluruh, malah menawarkan monograf yang lebih tepat dan berfokus tajam, yang tidak berurusan dengan kerajaan yang luas selama berabad-abad tetapi dengan perang selama 27 tahun antara Athens dan Sparta. Di Rom, sejarah besar dan patriotik Rom oleh Livy (59 SM-17 Masihi) menghampiri keterangkuman Herodotean [11] Polybius (c.200-c.118 SM) bercita-cita untuk menggabungkan ketegasan logik Thucydides dengan ruang lingkup Herodotus. [12]

Rashīd al-Dīn Fadhl-allāh Hamadānī (1247–1318), adalah seorang doktor Parsi yang berasal dari Yahudi, penulis dan sejarawan polimatik, yang menulis sejarah Islam yang luar biasa, Jami al-Tawarikh, dalam bahasa Parsi, sering dianggap sebagai mercu tanda di historiografi antara budaya dan dokumen utama mengenai Ilkhanids (abad ke-13 dan ke-14). [13] Pengetahuan ensiklopediknya tentang berbagai budaya dari Mongolia ke China hingga Steppes Eurasia Tengah hingga Parsi, tanah berbahasa Arab, dan Eropah, memberikan akses paling langsung ke maklumat mengenai era akhir Mongol. Huraiannya juga menyoroti cara di mana Kerajaan Mongol dan penekanannya pada perdagangan menghasilkan suasana pertukaran budaya dan agama dan penapaian intelektual, yang mengakibatkan penyebaran sejumlah idea dari Timur ke Barat dan sebaliknya.

Seorang sarjana Muslim, Ibn Khaldun (1332-1409) memutuskan tradisi dan menawarkan model perubahan sejarah di Muqaddimah, paparan metodologi sejarah saintifik. Ibn Khaldun memfokuskan pada sebab-sebab kebangkitan dan kejatuhan peradaban, dengan alasan bahawa penyebab perubahan harus dicari dalam struktur ekonomi dan sosial masyarakat. Karya beliau tidak diendahkan di dunia Islam. [14]

Edit moden awal

Semasa Renaissance di Eropah, sejarah ditulis mengenai negeri atau negara. Kajian sejarah berubah semasa pencerahan dan romantisme. Voltaire menggambarkan sejarah usia tertentu yang dianggapnya penting, dan bukannya menggambarkan peristiwa mengikut urutan kronologi. Sejarah menjadi disiplin yang bebas. Ia tidak dipanggil falsafah historia lagi, tetapi hanya sejarah (sejarah). Voltaire, pada abad ke-18, berusaha merevolusikan kajian sejarah dunia. Pertama, Voltaire menyimpulkan bahawa kajian tradisional mengenai sejarah adalah cacat. Gereja Kristian, salah satu entiti paling kuat pada zamannya, telah menyampaikan kerangka kerja untuk mempelajari sejarah. Voltaire, semasa menulis Sejarah Charles XII (1731) dan Zaman Louis XIV (1751), sebaliknya memilih untuk memfokuskan ekonomi, politik dan budaya. [15] Aspek sejarah ini kebanyakannya belum diterokai oleh sezamannya dan masing-masing akan berkembang menjadi bahagian sejarah dunia mereka sendiri. Di atas segalanya, Voltaire menganggap kebenaran sebagai bahagian terpenting dalam mencatat sejarah dunia. Nasionalisme dan agama hanya dikurangkan dari kebenaran objektif, jadi Voltaire membebaskan dirinya dari pengaruh mereka ketika dia mencatat sejarah. [16]

Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) di Itali menulis Scienza nuva seconda (The New Science) pada tahun 1725, yang berpendapat sejarah sebagai ungkapan kehendak dan perbuatan manusia. Dia berpendapat bahawa lelaki adalah entiti sejarah dan sifat manusia berubah dari masa ke masa. Setiap zaman harus dilihat secara keseluruhan di mana semua aspek budaya - seni, agama, falsafah, politik, dan ekonomi - saling berkaitan (satu titik yang dikembangkan kemudian oleh Oswald Spengler). Vico menunjukkan bahawa mitos, puisi, dan seni adalah jalan masuk untuk mengetahui semangat budaya yang sebenarnya. Vico menggariskan konsep pembangunan sejarah di mana budaya hebat, seperti Rom, mengalami pusingan pertumbuhan dan penurunan. Idea-ideanya sudah ketinggalan zaman semasa Pencerahan, tetapi mempengaruhi sejarawan Romantik selepas tahun 1800.

Asas teori utama untuk sejarah dunia diberikan oleh ahli falsafah Jerman G. W. F. Hegel, yang melihat negara Prusia moden sebagai tahap perkembangan dunia yang terkini (walaupun sering dikelirukan dengan yang tertinggi).

G.W.F. Hegel mengembangkan tiga lensa di mana dia yakin sejarah dunia dapat dilihat. Dokumen yang dihasilkan dalam tempoh sejarah, seperti catatan jurnal dan perjanjian kontrak, dianggap oleh Hegel sebagai sebahagian dari Sejarah Asal. Dokumen-dokumen ini dihasilkan oleh seseorang yang diliputi dalam budaya, menjadikannya saluran maklumat penting tetapi juga terhad dalam pengetahuan kontekstual mereka. Dokumen yang berkaitan dengan Sejarah Asal Hegel diklasifikasikan oleh sejarawan moden sebagai sumber utama. [17]

Sejarah Reflektif, lensa kedua Hegel, adalah dokumen yang ditulis dengan jarak temporal yang memisahkan peristiwa yang dibincangkan dalam penulisan akademik. Apa yang membatasi lensa ini, menurut Hegel, adalah pengenaan penulis memiliki nilai budaya dan pandangan mengenai peristiwa bersejarah itu. Kritikan terhadap Sejarah Reflektif ini kemudian diformalkan oleh Antropologi Franz Boa dan diciptakan sebagai relativisme Budaya oleh Alain Locke. Kedua-dua lensa ini dianggap sebagian cacat oleh Hegel. [18]

Hegel menyebut lensa yang dianjurkannya untuk melihat sejarah dunia sebagai Sejarah Filosofis. Untuk melihat sejarah melalui lensa ini, seseorang mesti menganalisis peristiwa, peradaban, dan periode secara objektif. Apabila dilakukan dengan cara ini, sejarawan kemudian dapat mengekstrak tema yang ada dari kajian mereka. Lensa ini berbeza dari yang lain kerana tidak ada bias budaya dan mengambil pendekatan yang lebih analitis terhadap sejarah. Sejarah Dunia boleh menjadi topik yang luas, jadi fokus untuk mengekstrak maklumat yang paling berharga dari jangka masa tertentu mungkin merupakan pendekatan yang paling bermanfaat. Lensa ketiga ini, seperti juga definisi Hegel mengenai dua yang lain, mempengaruhi kajian sejarah pada zaman moden awal dan zaman kontemporari kita. [19]

Ahli sejarah moden yang lain ialah Adam Ferguson. Sumbangan utama Ferguson untuk kajian sejarah dunia adalah miliknya Esei mengenai Sejarah Masyarakat Sivil (1767). [20] Menurut Ferguson, sejarah dunia adalah gabungan dua bentuk sejarah. Salah satunya adalah sejarah semula jadi aspek dunia kita yang diciptakan oleh tuhan. Yang lain, yang lebih revolusioner, adalah sejarah sosial. Baginya, sejarah sosial adalah kemajuan yang dicapai manusia untuk memenuhi rancangan Tuhan untuk kemanusiaan. Dia percaya bahawa kemajuan, yang dapat dicapai melalui individu yang mencapai kejayaan komersial, akan membawa kita lebih dekat dengan masyarakat yang sempurna tetapi kita tidak akan pernah mencapainya. [21] Namun, ia juga berteori bahwa dedikasi sepenuhnya untuk kejayaan komersial dapat menyebabkan keruntuhan masyarakat — seperti apa yang terjadi di Roma — kerana orang akan kehilangan moral. Melalui lensa ini, Ferguson melihat sejarah dunia ketika kemanusiaan berjuang untuk mencapai masyarakat yang ideal. [22] [23]

Henry Home, Lord Kames adalah seorang ahli falsafah semasa Pencerahan dan menyumbang kepada kajian sejarah dunia. Dalam karya sejarah utamanya, Lakaran mengenai Sejarah Manusia, Home menggariskan empat tahap sejarah manusia yang diperhatikannya. [24] Tahap pertama dan paling primitif adalah kumpulan pemburu-pengumpul kecil. Kemudian, untuk membentuk kelompok yang lebih besar, manusia beralih ke tahap kedua ketika mereka mulai menjinakkan haiwan. Tahap ketiga ialah pengembangan pertanian. Teknologi baru ini mewujudkan perdagangan dan tahap kerjasama yang lebih tinggi antara kumpulan orang yang cukup besar. Dengan berkumpulnya orang-orang ke desa pertanian, undang-undang dan kewajiban sosial perlu dikembangkan sehingga suatu bentuk ketertiban dapat dipertahankan. Tahap keempat, dan terakhir, melibatkan manusia bergerak ke bandar pasar dan pelabuhan di mana pertanian tidak menjadi tumpuan. Sebaliknya, perdagangan dan bentuk buruh lain timbul dalam masyarakat. Dengan menentukan tahap-tahap sejarah manusia, Homes mempengaruhi penggantinya. Dia juga menyumbang kepada pengembangan kajian lain seperti sosiologi dan antropologi. [25]

Teori Marxis mengenai materialisme sejarah mendakwa sejarah dunia secara asasnya ditentukan oleh keadaan material pada waktu tertentu - dengan kata lain, hubungan yang ada antara satu sama lain untuk memenuhi keperluan asas seperti makan, pakaian dan tempat tinggal sendiri dan keluarga. [26] Secara keseluruhan, Marx dan Engels mengaku telah mengenal pasti lima peringkat berturut-turut perkembangan keadaan material ini di Eropah Barat. [27] Teori membahagikan sejarah dunia ke dalam tempoh berikut: [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] Komunisme primitif Masyarakat hamba Feudalisme Kapitalisme dan Sosialisme.

Regna Darnell dan Frederic Gleach berpendapat bahawa, di Kesatuan Soviet, teori sejarah Marxia adalah satu-satunya ortodoksi yang diterima, dan menyekat penyelidikan ke dalam aliran pemikiran lain mengenai sejarah. [33] Namun, penganut teori Marx berpendapat bahawa Stalin memutarbelitkan Marxisme. [34]

Edit Kontemporari

Sejarah dunia menjadi genre yang popular pada abad ke-20 dengan sejarah sejagat. Pada tahun 1920-an, beberapa buku terlaris berurusan dengan sejarah dunia, termasuk tinjauan Kisah Manusia (1921) oleh Hendrik Willem van Loon dan Garis Besar Sejarah (1918) oleh H.G. Wells. Penulis berpengaruh yang telah menjangkau khalayak luas termasuk H. G. Wells, Oswald Spengler, Arnold J. Toynbee, Pitirim Sorokin, Carroll Quigley, Christopher Dawson, [35] dan Lewis Mumford. Cendekiawan yang bekerja di lapangan termasuk Eric Voegelin, [36] William Hardy McNeill dan Michael Mann. [37] Dengan teknologi yang berkembang seperti kaedah temu janji dan meninjau teknologi laser yang disebut LiDAR, sejarawan kontemporari mempunyai akses kepada maklumat baru yang mengubah bagaimana peradaban masa lalu dikaji.

Spengler's Penurunan Barat (2 jil. 1919-1922) membandingkan sembilan budaya organik: Mesir (3400 SM-1200 SM), India (1500 SM-1100 SM), Cina (1300 SM-AD 200), Klasik (1100 SM-400 SM), Bizantium ( 300–1100 AD), Aztec (1300–1500 AD), Arab (300–1250 AD), Maya (600–960 AD), dan Barat (900–1900 AD). Bukunya adalah kejayaan besar di kalangan intelektual di seluruh dunia kerana ia meramalkan perpecahan tamadun Eropah dan Amerika setelah "zaman Caesarisme" yang ganas, dengan alasan analogi terperinci dengan tamadun lain. Ini memperdalam pesimisme pasca Perang Dunia I di Eropah, dan diterima dengan hangat oleh para intelektual di China, India, dan Amerika Latin yang berharap ramalannya mengenai kejatuhan kerajaan Eropah akan segera menjadi kenyataan. [38]

Pada tahun 1936-1954, jilid sepuluh Toynbee Kajian Sejarah keluar dalam tiga ansuran berasingan. Dia mengikuti Spengler dalam mengambil pendekatan perbandingan topikal terhadap peradaban bebas. Toynbee mengatakan bahawa mereka memperlihatkan persamaan yang sama dengan asal usul, pertumbuhan, dan pembusukan mereka. Toynbee menolak model peradaban biologi Spengler sebagai organisma dengan jangka hayat khas 1.000 tahun. Seperti Sima Qian, Toynbee menjelaskan penurunan disebabkan oleh kegagalan moral mereka. Banyak pembaca bersukacita dengan implikasinya (dalam jilid 1-6) bahawa hanya kembali kepada bentuk Katolik yang dapat menghentikan keruntuhan peradaban barat yang bermula dengan Reformasi. Jilid 7–10, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1954, meninggalkan pesan agama, dan khalayaknya yang terkenal terselip, sementara para sarjana memisahkan kesalahannya., [39]

McNeill menulis Kebangkitan Barat (1963) untuk memperbaiki Toynbee dengan menunjukkan bagaimana peradaban Eurasia yang berasingan berinteraksi sejak awal sejarah mereka, meminjam kemahiran kritikal antara satu sama lain, dan dengan demikian memicu perubahan yang lebih jauh sebagai penyesuaian antara pengetahuan dan amalan baru lama dan yang dipinjam menjadi perlu . McNeill mengambil pendekatan luas yang disusun di sekitar interaksi orang di seluruh Bumi. Interaksi seperti ini telah menjadi semakin banyak dan berterusan dan penting sejak kebelakangan ini. Sebelum sekitar 1500, jaringan komunikasi antara budaya adalah Eurasia. Istilah untuk bidang interaksi ini berbeza antara sejarawan dunia dengan yang lain dan merangkumi sistem dunia dan ekumena. Apa pun yang disebutnya, pentingnya hubungan antara budaya ini mula dikenali oleh banyak sarjana. [40]

Suntingan Amerika Syarikat

Seawal tahun 1884, Persatuan Sejarah Amerika menganjurkan kajian masa lalu pada skala dunia. [41] T. Walter Wallbank dan Alastair M. Taylor mengarang bersama Tamadun Masa Lalu & Sekarang, buku teks sejarah dunia pertama yang diterbitkan di Amerika Syarikat (1942). Dengan pengarang tambahan, karya yang sangat berjaya ini melalui banyak edisi hingga dekad pertama abad ke-21. Menurut edisi Ulang Tahun Emas tahun 1992, objektif berterusan untuk Tamadun Masa Lalu & Sekarang "adalah untuk menyajikan tinjauan sejarah budaya dunia, memperlakukan pengembangan dan pertumbuhan peradaban bukan sebagai pengalaman Eropah yang unik tetapi sebagai global yang melaluinya semua sistem budaya yang hebat telah berinteraksi untuk menghasilkan dunia masa kini. Ia cuba memasukkan semua elemen sejarah - sosial, ekonomi, politik, agama, estetika, undang-undang, dan teknologi. " [42] Sama seperti perang dunia pertama mendorong para sejarawan Amerika untuk memperluas kajian Eropah daripada kursus peradaban Barat, perang dunia kedua meningkatkan perspektif global, terutama mengenai Asia dan Afrika. Louis Gottschalk, William H. McNeill, dan Leften S. Stavrianos menjadi pemimpin dalam penyatuan sejarah dunia dengan kurikulum American College. Gottschalk mula menggarap UNESCO 'History of Mankind: Cultural and Scientific Development' pada tahun 1951. McNeill, yang dipengaruhi oleh Toynbee, memperluas karyanya pada abad ke-20 kepada topik baru. Sejak tahun 1982 Persatuan Sejarah Dunia di beberapa persatuan serantau memulakan program untuk membantu para profesor sejarah memperluas liputan mereka dalam kursus-kursus baru sejarah dunia menjadi pengganti yang popular untuk kursus-kursus mengenai Tamadun Barat. Profesor Patrick Manning, di Pusat Sejarah Dunia Universiti Pittsburgh dan Ross E. Dunn di San Diego State adalah pemimpin dalam mempromosikan kaedah pengajaran yang inovatif. [43]

Dalam disiplin yang berkaitan, seperti sejarah seni dan sejarah seni bina, perspektif global juga dipromosikan. Di sekolah seni bina di A.S., Lembaga Akreditasi Senibina Nasional kini menghendaki sekolah mengajar sejarah yang merangkumi perspektif bukan barat atau global. Ini mencerminkan usaha selama satu dekad untuk melepasi pendekatan Euro-centric standard yang telah menguasai bidang ini. [44]

Dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, hubungan antara sejarah Afrika dan dunia telah beralih dengan cepat dari antipati kepada hubungan dan sintesis. Reynolds (2007) meninjau hubungan antara sejarah Afrika dan dunia, dengan penekanan pada ketegangan antara paradigma kajian kawasan dan penekanan sejarah dunia yang semakin meningkat pada hubungan dan pertukaran merentasi sempadan wilayah. Pemeriksaan lebih mendalam mengenai pertukaran dan perbahasan terkini mengenai kelebihan pertukaran ini juga ditampilkan. Reynolds melihat hubungan antara sejarah Afrika dan dunia sebagai ukuran perubahan sifat penyelidikan sejarah sejak abad yang lalu. [45]


Kandungan

Dua cara menghasilkan citra mental Edit

Terdapat dua cara asas pencitraan mental dihasilkan: sukarela dan sukarela.

Penjanaan gambar mental yang tidak disengajakan dan spontan adalah tidak terpisahkan dari persepsi deria, dan kognisi biasa, dan berlaku tanpa niat. Sementara itu, banyak aspek yang berbeza dalam penyelesaian masalah sehari-hari, penaakulan saintifik, dan aktiviti kreatif melibatkan penghasilan gambar mental yang sukarela dan sengaja. [18]

Suntingan Tidak Sukarela

Penjanaan gambaran mental yang tidak disengajakan diciptakan secara langsung dari rangsangan deria dan maklumat persepsi yang ada, seperti ketika seseorang melihat objek, membuat gambaran mental tentangnya, dan mengekalkan citra ini ketika mereka melihat atau menutup mata atau ketika seseorang mendengar suara dan mengekalkan gambar pendengarannya, setelah suara berhenti atau tidak lagi dapat dilihat.

Suntingan Sukarela

Imej mental sukarela mungkin menyerupai persepsi dan pengalaman deria sebelumnya, yang diingat dari ingatan atau gambar-gambar itu mungkin baru dan produk fantasi. [19] [20] [21]

Teknik Menyunting

Istilah gambar berpandukan menunjukkan teknik yang digunakan dalam contoh kedua (sukarela), di mana gambar ditarik dari ingatan jangka panjang atau jangka pendek, atau dibuat dari fantasi, atau gabungan keduanya, sebagai tindak balas kepada bimbingan, arahan, atau pengawasan. Oleh itu, citra berpandukan adalah simulasi terbantu atau penciptaan semula pengalaman persepsi merentasi modaliti deria. [22] [23]

Citra mental boleh dihasilkan dari proses sukarela dan sukarela, dan walaupun ia merangkumi simulasi atau rekreasi pengalaman persepsi di semua modaliti deria, [24] termasuk citra penciuman, citra gustatory, citra haptik, dan citra motor. [25] Walaupun begitu, gambar mental dan pendengaran dilaporkan sebagai yang paling sering dialami oleh orang biasa dan juga dalam eksperimen terkawal, [26] dengan gambaran visual yang paling banyak diteliti dan didokumentasikan dalam literatur ilmiah. [27]

Dalam psikologi eksperimental dan kognitif, para penyelidik memusatkan perhatian terutama pada citra sukarela dan sengaja dihasilkan, yang dibuat, diperiksa, dan diubah oleh peserta atau pesakit, seperti dengan membangkitkan gambaran peristiwa sosial yang menakutkan, dan mengubah gambar menjadi gambaran yang menyenangkan. dan pengalaman menegaskan diri.

Dalam psikopatologi, doktor biasanya memfokuskan pada gambaran sukarela yang "terlintas dalam fikiran" tanpa halangan, seperti dalam pengalaman orang yang tertekan dengan gambar negatif yang tidak diinginkan yang mengganggu yang menunjukkan kesedihan, putus asa, dan morbiditas [28] atau gambar yang merangkum peristiwa menyedihkan sebelumnya yang menjadi ciri gangguan tekanan pasca trauma. [29]

Dalam praktik klinikal dan psikopatologi, gambaran mental yang tidak disengajakan dianggap mengganggu ketika mereka muncul yang tidak diingini dan tidak terlarang, "merampas perhatian" hingga tahap tertentu. [30] [31]

Pemeliharaan, atau "mengingat" citra, baik secara sukarela atau sukarela, menuntut banyak sumber daya perhatian kognitif, termasuk memori kerja, mengalihkannya dari tugas kognitif tertentu atau konsentrasi tujuan umum dan ke arah citra.

Dalam praktik klinikal, proses ini dapat dimanfaatkan secara positif secara terapeutik dengan melatih peserta atau pesakit untuk memusatkan perhatian pada tugas yang sangat menuntut, yang berjaya bersaing dan mengalihkan perhatian dari citra mengganggu yang tidak tersembunyi, menurunkan intensitas, jelas, dan durasinya, dan akibatnya mengurangkan kesusahan atau kesakitan. [32] [33]

Citra mental, terutama gambar visual dan pendengaran, dapat memperburuk dan memperburuk sejumlah keadaan mental dan fizikal. [34]

Ini kerana, menurut prinsip psikofisiologi dan psikoneuroimunologi, cara seseorang merasakan keadaan mental dan fizikalnya seterusnya mempengaruhi proses biologi, termasuk kerentanan terhadap penyakit, jangkitan, atau penyakit dan persepsi itu berasal secara signifikan dari gambaran mental. Maksudnya, dalam beberapa kes, keparahan kecacatan mental, fizikal, penyakit, atau penyakit seseorang ditentukan sebahagiannya oleh gambarnya, termasuk kandungan, ketajaman atau intensiti, kejelasan, dan kekerapan mereka mengalami mengganggu dan tidak terlarang. [35]

Seseorang boleh memburukkan lagi gejala dan meningkatkan rasa sakit atau kesusahan yang disebabkan oleh banyak keadaan melalui penghasilan, sering tanpa sengaja, gambaran mental yang menekankan keparahannya.

Sebagai contoh, gambaran mental telah terbukti memainkan peranan penting dalam menyumbang, memburukkan, atau memperhebat pengalaman dan gejala gangguan tekanan pasca trauma (PTSD), [36] keinginan kompulsif, [37] gangguan makan [38] seperti anoreksia nervosa [39] dan bulimia nervosa, [40] hemiplegia spastik, [41] ketidakupayaan setelah strok atau kemalangan serebrovaskular, [42] menyekat fungsi kognitif dan kawalan motor kerana sklerosis berganda, [43] kegelisahan sosial atau fobia, [44] gangguan bipolar, [45] skizofrenia, [46] gangguan hiperaktif kekurangan perhatian, [47] dan kemurungan. [48] ​​[49]

Cabaran dan kesukaran yang disebutkan di atas adalah beberapa di antaranya ada bukti yang menunjukkan bahawa seseorang individu dapat memburukkan lagi gejala dan meningkatkan kesakitan atau kesusahan yang disebabkan oleh keadaan tersebut dengan menghasilkan gambaran mental yang menekankan keparahannya.

Berikut ini dijelaskan bagaimana gambaran mental sedemikian menyumbang atau memburukkan empat keadaan tertentu:

Gangguan tekanan pasca trauma Edit

Posttraumatic stress disorder often proceeds from experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event involving death, serious injury, or significant threat to others or oneself [50] and disturbing intrusive images, often described by the patient as 'flashbacks', are a common symptom of this condition across demographics of age, gender, and the nature of the precipitating traumatic event. [51] This unbidden mental imagery is often highly vivid, and provokes memories of the original trauma, accompanied by heightened emotions or feelings and the subjective experience of danger and threat to safety in the present "here and now". [52]

Social anxiety Edit

Individuals with social anxiety have a higher than normal tendency to fear situations that involve public attention, such as speaking to an audience or being interviewed, meeting people with whom they are unfamiliar, and attending events of an unpredictable nature. [53] As with posttraumatic stress disorder, vivid mental imagery is a common experience for those with social anxiety, and often comprises images that revive and replay a previously experienced stressful, intimidating or harrowing event that precipitated negative feelings, such as embarrassment, shame, or awkwardness. [54] [55] Thereby, mental imagery contributes to the maintenance and persistence of social anxiety, as it does with posttraumatic stress disorder. [56] [57]

In particular, the mental imagery commonly described by those suffering from social anxiety often comprises what cognitive psychologists describe as an "observer perspective". This consists of an image of themselves, as though from an observing person's perspective, in which those suffering from social anxiety perceive themselves negatively, as if from that observing person's point of view. [58] [59] Such imagery is also common among those suffering from other types of anxiety, who often have depleted ability to generate neutral, positive, or pleasant imagery. [60]

Depression Edit

The capacity to evoke pleasant and positively affirming imagery, either voluntarily or involuntarily, may be a critical requisite for precipitating and sustaining positive moods or feelings and optimism and this ability is often impaired in those suffering from depression. [61] Depression consists of emotional distress and cognitive impairment that may include feelings of hopelessness, pervasive sadness, pessimism, lack of motivation, social withdrawal, difficulty in concentrating on mental or physical tasks, and disrupted sleep. [62]

Whilst depression is frequently associated with negative rumination of verbal thought patterns manifested as unspoken inner speech, [63] ninety percent of depressed patients reporting distressing intrusive mental imagery that often simulates and recollect previous negative experiences, [64] [65] and which the depressed person often interprets in a way that intensifies feelings of despair and hopelessness. [66] [67] In addition, people suffering from depression have difficulty in evoking prospective imagery indicative of a positive future. [68] The prospective mental imagery experienced by depressed persons when at their most despairing commonly includes vivid and graphic images related to suicide, which some psychologists and psychiatrists refer to as "flash-forwards". [69] [70]

Bipolar disorder Edit

Bipolar disorder is characterized by manic episodes interspersed with periods of depression [71] 90% of patients experience comorbid anxiety disorder at some stage [72] and there is a significant prevalence of suicide amongst sufferers. [73] [74] Prospective mental imagery indicative of hyperactivity or mania and hopelessness contributes to the manic and depressive episodes respectively in bipolar disorder. [75]

The therapeutic use of guided imagery, as part of a multimodal treatment plan incorporating other suitable methods, such as guided meditation, receptive music therapy, and relaxation techniques, as well as physical medicine and rehabilitation, [76] and psychotherapy, aims to educate the patient in altering their mental imagery, replacing images that compound pain, recollect and reconstruct distressing events, intensify feelings of hopelessness, or reaffirm debilitation, with those that emphasize physical comfort, functional capacity, mental equanimity, and optimism.

Whether the guided imagery is provided in person by a facilitator, or delivered via media, the verbal instruction consists of words, often pre-scripted, intended to direct the participant's attention to imagined visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory or olfactory sensations that precipitate a positive psychologic and physiologic response that incorporates increased mental and physical relaxation and decreased mental and physical stress.

Guided imagery is one of the means by which therapists, teachers, or practitioners seek to achieve this outcome, and involves encouraging patients or participants to imagine alternative perspectives, thoughts, and behaviors, mentally rehearsing strategies that they may subsequently actualize, thereby developing increased coping skills and ability. [77]

According to the computational theory of imagery, [78] [79] [80] which is derived from experimental psychology, guided imagery comprises four phases: [81]

  1. Image generation
  2. Image maintenance
  3. Image inspection
  4. Image transformation

Image generation Edit

Image generation involves generating mental imagery, either directly from sensory data and perceptual experience, or from memory, or from fantasy. [82]

Image maintenance Edit

Image maintenance involves the volitional sustaining or maintaining of imagery, without which, a mental image is subject to rapid decay with an average duration of only 250 ms. [83] This is because volitionally created mental images usually fade rapidly once generated in order to avoid disrupting or confusing the process of ordinary sensory perception. [84] [85] [86]

The natural brief duration of mental imagery means that the active maintenance stage of guided imagery, which is necessary for the subsequent stages of inspection and transformation, requires cognitive concentration of attention by the participant. This concentrative attentional ability can be improved with the practice of mental exercises, including those derived from guided meditation and supervised meditative praxis. [87] [88] [89] Even with such practice, some people can struggle to maintain a mental image "clearly in mind" for more than a few seconds [90] [91] [92] not only for imagery created through fantasy [93] but also for mental images generated from both long-term memory [94] and short-term memory. [95]

In addition, while the majority of the research literature has tended to focus on the maintenance of visual mental images, imagery in other sensory modalities also necessitates a volitional maintenance process in order for further inspection or transformation to be possible. [96]

The requisite for practice in sustaining attentional control, such that attention remains focused on maintaining generated imagery, is one of the reasons that guided meditation, which supports such concentration, is often integrated into the provision of guided imagery as part of the intervention. Guided meditation assists participants in extending the duration for which generated mental images are maintained, providing time to inspect the imagery, and proceed to the final transformation stage of guided imagery. [97] [98]

Image inspection Edit

Once generated and maintained, a mental image can be inspected to provide the basis for interpretation, and transformation. [99] For visual imagery, inspection often involves a scanning process, by which the participant directs attention across and around an image, simulating shifts in perceptual perspective. [100]

Inspection processes can be applied both to imagery created spontaneously, and to imagery generated in response to scripted or impromptu verbal descriptions provided by the facilitator. [101] [102] [103]

Image transformation Edit

Finally, with the assistance of verbal instruction from the guided imagery practitioner or teacher, the participant transforms, modifies, or alters the content of generated mental imagery, in such a way as to substitute images that provoke negative feelings, are indicative of suffering, or that reaffirm disability or debilitation for those that elicit positive emotion, and are suggestive of resourcefulness, ability to cope, and an increased degree of mental and physical capacity. [104] [105]

This process shares principles with those that inform the clinical psychology techniques of "imagery restructuring" or "imagery re-scripting" as used in cognitive behavioral therapy. [106] [107] [108]

While the majority of research findings on image transformation relate to visual mental imagery, there is evidence to support transformations in other sensory modalities such as auditory imagery. [109] and haptic imagery. [110]

Outcome of image generation, maintenance, inspection, and transformation Edit

Through this technique, a patient is assisted in reducing the tendency to evoke images indicative of the distressing, painful, or debilitative nature of a condition, and learns instead to evoke mental imagery of their identity, body, and circumstances that emphasizes the capacity for autonomy and self-determination, positive proactive activity, and the ability to cope, whilst managing their condition.

As a result, symptoms become less incapacitating, pain is to some degree decreased, while coping skills increase. [111] [112] [113] [114]

In order for the foregoing process to take place effectively, such that all four stages of guided imagery are completed with therapeutic beneficial effect, the patient or participant must be capable of or susceptible to absorption, which is an "openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences". [115] [116] This is a further reason why guided meditation or some form of meditative praxis, relaxation techniques, and meditation music or receptive music therapy are often combined with or form an integral part of the operational and practical use of the guided imagery intervention. For, all those techniques can increase the participant's or patient's capacity for or susceptibility to absorption, thereby increasing the potential efficacy of guided imagery. [117] [118]

The United States National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), which is among twenty-seven organizations that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), classifies guided imagery and guided meditation, as mind–body interventions, one of five domains of medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered part of conventional medicine. [119]

The NCCIH defines mind-body interventions as those practices that "employ a variety of techniques designed to facilitate the mind's capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms", and include guided imagery, guided meditation and forms of meditative praxis, hypnosis and hypnotherapy, prayer, as well as art therapy, music therapy, and dance therapy. [120]

All mind–body interventions, including the aforementioned, focus on the interaction between the brain, body, and behavior and are practiced with intention to use the mind to alter physical function and promote overall health and wellbeing. [121] [122]

There are documented benefits of mind-body interventions derived from scientific research firstly into their use in contributing to the treatment a range of conditions including headaches, coronary artery disease and chronic pain secondly in ameliorating the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and localised physical pain in patients with cancer thirdly in increasing the perceived capacity to cope with significant problems and challenges and fourthly in improving the reported overall quality-of-life. In addition, there is evidence supporting the brain and central nervous system's influence on the immune system and the capacity for mind-body interventions to enhance immune function outcomes, including defense against and recovery from infection and disease. [123] [124] [125] [126] [127]

Guided imagery has also demonstrated efficacy in reducing postoperative discomfort as well as chronic pain related to cancer, arthritis, and physical injury. [128] [129] [130] Furthermore, the non-clinical uses for which the efficacy of guided imagery has been shown include managing the stress of public performance among musicians, enhancing athletic and competitive sports ability, and training medical students in surgical skills. [131] The evidence that it is effective for non-musculoskeletal pain is encouraging but not definitive. [132]

Evidence and explanations for the effectiveness and limitations of creative visualization come from two discreet sources: cognitive psychology and psychoneuroimmunology.

Cognitive psychology Edit

Guided imagery is employed as an adjunctive technique to psychological therapies in the treatment of many conditions, including those identified in the previous sections. It plays a significant role in the application of cognitive approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive behavioral therapy, rational emotive behavior therapy, schema therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. [133]

These therapies derive from or draw substantially upon a model of mental functioning initially established by Aaron T. Beck, a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who posited that the subjective way in which people perceive themselves and interpret experiences influences their emotional, behavioral, and physiological reactions to circumstances. He additionally discovered that by assisting patients in correcting their misperceptions and misinterpretations, and aiding them in modifying unhelpful and self-deprecating ways of thinking about themselves and their predicament, his patients had more productive reactions to events, and developed a more positive self-concept, self-image, or perception of themselves. [134] [135]

This use of guided imagery is based on the following premise. Everyone participates in both the voluntary and involuntary spontaneous generation of visual, auditory and other mental images, which is a necessary part of the way in which a person solves problems, recollects the past, predicts and plans the future, and formulates their self-perception, self-image, or the way they 'view' and perceive themselves. [136] [137] [138]

However, this self-image can be altered and self-regulated with the aid of mind-body interventions including guided imagery, by which an individual changes the way he or she visualizes, imagines, and perceives themselves generally, and their physical condition, body image, and mental state specifically. [139]

Psychoneuroimmunology Edit

The term "psychoneuroimmunology" was coined by American psychologist Robert Ader in 1981 to describe the study of interactions between psychological, neurological, and immune systems. [140]

Three years later, Jean Achterberg published a book called Imagery in Healing that sought to relate and correlate contemporaneous evidence from the then emerging scientific study of the way mental processes influence physical and physiological function, with particular emphasis on mental imagery, to the folklore she extrapolated from a set of diverse ancient and geographically indigenous practices previously described as 'shamanism' by the historian of religion and professor at the University of Chicago, Mircea Eliade and a number of anthropologists and ethnologists. [141] [142]

The fundamental hypothesis of psychoneuroimmunology is concisely that the way people think and how they feel directly influences the electrochemistry of the brain and central nervous system, which in turn has a significant influence on the immune system and its capacity to defend the body against disease, infection, and ill health. Meanwhile, the immune system affects brain chemistry and its electrical activity, which in turn has a considerable impact on the way we think and feel. [143]

Because of this interplay, a person's negative thoughts, feelings, and perceptions, such as pessimistic predictions about the future, regretful ruminations upon the past, low self-esteem, and depleted belief in self-determination and a capacity to cope can undermine the efficiency of the immune system, increasing vulnerability to ill health. Simultaneously, the biochemical indicators of ill health monitored by the immune system feeds back to the brain via the nervous system, which exacerbates thoughts and feelings of a negative nature. That is to say, we feel and think of ourselves as unwell, which contributes to physical conditions of ill health, which in turn cause us to feel and think of ourselves as unwell. [144]

However, the interplay between cognitive and emotional, neurological, and immunological processes also provides for the possibility of positively influencing the body and enhancing physical health by changing the way we think and feel. For example, people who are able to deconstruct the cognitive distortions that precipitate perpetual pessimism and hopelessness and further develop the capacity to perceive themselves as having a significant degree of self-determination and capacity to cope are more likely to avoid and recover from ill health more quickly than those who remain engaged in negative thoughts and feelings. [145]

This simplification of a complex interaction of interrelated systems and the capacity of the mind to influence the body does not account for the significant influence that other factors have on mental and physical well-being, including exercise, diet, and social interaction.

Nonetheless, in helping people to make such changes to their habitual thought processes and pervasive feelings, mind-body interventions, including creative visualization, when provided as part of a multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment program of other methods, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to contribute significantly to treatment of and recovery from a range of conditions.

In addition, there is evidence supporting the brain and central nervous system's influence on the immune system and the capacity for mind-body interventions to enhance immune function outcomes, including defense against and recovery from infection and disease. [146]


The integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the world's oldest medical systems, having a history of several thousands of years. It is a system of healing based upon the Chinese philosophy of the correspondence between nature and human beings. Its theories refer to yin and yang , the Five Elements, zang-fu , channels-collaterals, qi , blood, body fluid, methods of diagnosis, the differentiation of symptom-complexes, etc. TCM has two main features: a holistic point of view and treatment according to a differentiation of syndromes. The therapeutic methods of TCM involve different approaches, such as acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina bodywork, herbal medicine and qi gong , in order to allow the body to heal itself in a natural way. Western medicine was first introduced into China from the middle of the 17th century. During the first two centuries several different views, related to the future of TCM and the relation between TCM and Western medicine, emerged. Some advocated ‘complete westernization’ of Chinese medicine, others were in favour of keeping it intact, whereas again others recommended the ‘digestion and assimilation of TCM and Western medicine’. Nowadays, more and more people realize that each of the two medical traditions has its own merits and advise that the two systems should benefit from each other's strong points. We offer an argument for integrating Western medicine with TCM. In the 20th century China has maintained and developed three kinds of medical science, that is, TCM, Western medicine, and ‘integrated medicine’. Much has been achieved in clinical, experimental and theoretical research. The development of any science can be furthered by cross-fertilization based on absorption and fusion of whatever useful theory and experience. It is our dream that, in the future, diverse modalities – including TCM, Western medicine and possibly other variants – can work in conjunction with each other as part of a unified team rather than in competition. This integrated approach will ultimately lead to safer, faster and more effective health care.


History of Diabetes Insipidus

Under physiological conditions, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis is maintained by the kidney adjusting urine volume and composition according to body needs. Diabetes Insipidus is a complex and heterogeneous clinical syndrome affecting water balance and characterized by constant diuresis, resulting in large volumes of dilute urine. With respect to the similarly named Diabetes Mellitus, a disease already known in ancient Egypt, Greece and Asia, Diabetes Insipidus has been described several thousand years later. In 1670s Thomas Willis, noted the difference in taste of urine from polyuric subjects compared with healthy individuals and started the differentiation of Diabetes Mellitus from the more rare entity of Diabetes Insipidus. In 1794, Johann Peter Frank described polyuric patients excreting nonsaccharine urine and introduced the term of Diabetes Insipidus. An hystorical milestone was the in 1913, when Farini successfully used posterior pituitary extracts to treat Diabetes Insipidus. Until 1920s the available evidence indicated Diabetes Insipidus as a disorder of the pituitary gland. In the early 1928, De Lange first observed that some patients with Diabetes Insipidus did not respond to posterior pituitary extracts and subsequently Forssman and Waring in 1945 established that the kidney had a critical role for these forms of Diabetes Insipidus resistant to this treatment. In 1947 Williams and Henry introduced the term Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus for the congenital syndrome characterized by polyuria and renal concentrating defect resistant to vasopressin. In 1955, du Vigneaud received the 1955 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the first synthesis of the hormone vasopressin representing a milestone for the treatment of Central Diabetes Insipidus.


History of diabetes mellitus

Clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus were described 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. The term "diabetes" was first coined by Araetus of Cappodocia (81-133AD). Later, the word mellitus (honey sweet) was added by Thomas Willis (Britain) in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians). It was only in 1776 that Dobson (Britain) firstly confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood as a cause of their sweetness. In modern time, the history of diabetes coincided with the emergence of experimental medicine. An important milestone in the history of diabetes is the establishment of the role of the liver in glycogenesis, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production Claude Bernard (France) in 1857. The role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes was discovered by Mering and Minkowski (Austria) 1889. Later, this discovery constituted the basis of insulin isolation and clinical use by Banting and Best (Canada) in 1921. Trials to prepare an orally administrated hypoglycemic agent ended successfully by first marketing of tolbutamide and carbutamide in 1955. This report will also discuss the history of dietary management and acute and chronic complications of diabetes.


Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Pengenalan: In the beginning of 2020, an unexpected outbreak due to a new corona virus made the headlines all over the world. Exponential growth in the number of those affected makes this virus such a threat. The current meta-analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of underlying disorders in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Kaedah: A comprehensive systematic search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, and Google scholar, to find articles published until 15 February 2020. All relevant articles that reported clinical characteristics and epidemiological information of hospitalized COVID-19 patients were included in the analysis.

Keputusan: The data of 76993 patients presented in 10 articles were included in this study. According to the meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, smoking history and diabetes in people infected with SARS-CoV-2 were estimated as 16.37% (95%CI: 10.15%-23.65%), 12.11% (95%CI 4.40%-22.75%), 7.63% (95%CI 3.83%-12.43%) and 7.87% (95%CI 6.57%-9.28%), respectively.

Kesimpulan: According to the findings of the present study, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and chronic kidney disease were among the most prevalent underlying diseases among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively.

Keywords: COVID-19 Comorbidity Meta-analysis severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


The Impacts on Health, Society, and Economy of SARS and H7N9 Outbreaks in China: A Case Comparison Study

3 MPH, Associate Professor, Department of Public Health Information Research, Institute of Medical Information, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 3 Yabao Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020, China

4 Vice Director, Chinese Centre for Health Education, 12 Anhua Xili 1 Qu, Anding men Wai, Chaoyangqu, Beijing 100011, China

Abstract

Latar belakang. Epidemics such as SARS and H7N9 have caused huge negative impacts on population health and the economy in China. Aims. This article discusses the impacts of SARS in 2003 and H7N9 in 2013 in China, in order to provide a better understanding to government and practitioners of why improving management of response to infectious disease outbreaks is so critical for a country’s economy, its society, and its place in the global community. Kaedah. To provide the results of an analysis of impacts of SARS and H7N9 based on feedback from documents, informants, and focus groups on events during the SARS and H7N9 outbreaks. Keputusan. Both outbreaks of SARS and H7N9 have had an impact on China, causing significant negative impacts on health, the economy, and even national and even international security. Kesimpulannya. Both SARS coronavirus and H7N9 viruses presented a global epidemic threat, but the social and economic impacts of H7N9 were not as serious as in the case of SARS because the response to H7N9 was more effective.

1. Introduction

In the past 15 years China has experienced numerous public health crises caused by disease outbreaks including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) in 2003 and Influenza A Virus Subtype H7N9 (H7N9) in 2013. Epidemics such as SARS and H7N9 have caused huge negative impacts on population health and the economy. If not controlled well, they can become pandemics, threatening national and even international security. SARS, in particular, highlighted global connectedness and the great threat that pandemic and potential pandemic present.

Since the SARS outbreak in 2003, China has established and strengthened its national and local surveillance systems to prevent and control diseases and has also expanded its laboratory capacity [1, 2]. China’s experiences of emergency management for epidemics have varied. Although the SARS coronavirus and H7N9 virus share some similarities, the control efforts for SARS were problematic and the disease spread globally [3], while the H7N9 response was highly praised and the disease did not spread widely [4]. This article discusses the impacts of SARS in 2003 and H7N9 in 2013 in China, in order to provide a better understanding to government and practitioners of why improving management of response to infectious disease outbreaks is so critical for a country’s economy, its society, and its place in the global community.

2. Methods

We followed the methods of Qiu W. et al., 2017 [5]. This research uses a qualitative case study approach including literature review, document analysis, and in-depth interviews.

The review drew on a wide range of data sources, including books, journal articles, government documents, policy reports, and conference papers. Most books were searched for in the Griffith University Library Catalog. Journal article searches were made in the Library Catalog and reference lists of retrieved articles and textbooks, and electronic literature databases, such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, Medline, Health and Medical Complete (ProQuest), and Web of Science. Government documents and policy reports came from the national and local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), government departments, and published research literature.

In-depth interviews using a semistructured style were conducted with 26 key stakeholders, including officers from various national and international agencies as well as experts from local health departments, agriculture departments, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs), hospitals, and journalists who have experience of SARS and/or H7N9 in the key cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hangzhou, which were most affected by SARS and/or H7N9. We interviewed key informants about their experience of and reflections on the emergency management of the SARS and H7N9 events, with the same questions about the impacts on health, society, and economy of SARS and H7N9. Each interview lasted about 60 minutes.

3. Results

3.1. Impacts of SARS in China in 2003
3.1.1. Health Effects

The SARS outbreak infected thousands of people, causing widespread serious illness across a large population and many deaths. According to WHO, from Nov 1, 2002, to July 31, 2003, 648 of the 8082 probable cases of SARS in mainland China and Hong Kong died. Worldwide, in just 6 months, there were more than 8000 infected individuals, with over 700 deaths (almost 9% of infected cases) [6]. The psychological impact of SARS was also very serious. The distress was more prominent among the groups of nurses who were working with patients with SARS [7]. Studies show that the SARS outbreak also fostered negative impacts on people’s mental health [8], as mentioned by two hospital doctors:

These SARS cases caused extreme emotional sadness. Psychologically it is entirely possible that an event destroyed a person. They needed psychological counselling.

When the SARS cases lived in the hospital, they could not see their family, and feared the treatment. They developed a mental disorder.

3.1.2. Social Impacts

SARS caused a very large impact on society, particularly in China. During the early period of the SARS outbreak, tension surged in the community. Due to a lack of trustworthy official information, folk tales about the epidemic situation spread through word of mouth, mobile phone short messages, social media transmission, and other ways. The spread of all kinds of rumors exacerbated the spread of social panic, reflected in an escalation of panic buying of drugs in Guangdong province [9]. One rumor was that Banlangen (Radix isatidis) and vinegar could prevent and control SARS, but whether they were effective for SARS was not scientifically established at this time. In early January 2003, the first wave to purchase antiviral drugs occurred in Heyuan city. After half a month, the drug purchasing spree had spread to Zhongshan city then the buying spree gradually spread through Guangdong province [10, 11], as mentioned by a community resident:

Everybody was panic buying Banlangen (Radix isatidis). Banlangen was completely sold out.

In February 2003, people were wearing masks everywhere on the streets in Guangzhou. Panic was also spreading from Guangzhou to Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and other areas and then spread to Hainan, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hong Kong, and other adjacent areas. A media journalist said the following:

During SARS, we were more likely to panic. I had the impression that Banlangen (Radix isatidis) was sold out. Like every family, I also went to buy Banlangen (Radix isatidis) and vinegar, which they thought can cure SARS. Now I think that was a very funny thing to do.

By the middle of March, because the epidemic was spreading but no information had been officially confirmed, people began to believe the rumors, and the panic and purchasing of antiviral drugs that had appeared in Guangdong also began in Beijing, as mentioned by an officer of international organization:

During SARS, I was working in a unit outside of Beijing. Beijing was in a panic. When I arrived at Beijing, (my colleagues) gave me a box of masks and they made me wear a mask. To tell the truth, I felt a bit nervous.

The lack of understanding of SARS by authorities or the media caused a number of experts to become dissatisfied. For example, a 72-year-old retired surgeon from the People’s Liberation Army 301 Hospital, wrote to the media criticizing the health department for hiding the SARS epidemic situation. On April 12, he also wrote a letter to the MOH, urging them to publish accurate numbers as soon as possible. On the same day, an academic from the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the leader of the team guiding the prevention and cure of SARS in Guangdong province, also questioned the information provided by government about the control of the epidemic. He questioned whether SARS really was under control. These published questions brought the SARS epidemic situation in China to the attention of the international community [12].

3.1.3. The Economic Impacts

The SARS epidemic brought great harm not only to peoples’ physical and mental health, but also to the economy. It was estimated that Asian states lost USD 12–18 billion as the SARS crisis depressed travel, tourism, and retail sales [13]. SARS had a large impact on tourism and its related industries, and due to the spread of SARS, population movement in China and many counties decreased. Families reduced their demand for food, clothes, travel, and entertainment, and the numbers of guests in hotels declined sharply. As observed by officers from the Agricultural and Health Departments,

I think it was certainly panic at beginning, as it was not clear what SARS was. I remember (there were) almost no people in a restaurant when I had dinner. And the tourism had few people too.

During SARS in Shanghai, there were not many people on the street and almost no people in entertainment clubs, restaurants and gymnasiums, which caused a very large impact on the whole social and economic life.

After WHO announced that Beijing was an epidemic area and issued more stringent advice to international travelers and airlines, including recommendations on screening at certain airports, the international tourism, transport, and business sectors were seriously affected. For example, the mid-April Chinese enterprise summit in Beijing, hosted by the World Economic Forum, was delayed and the Rolling Stones concert planned for Beijing was cancelled.As observed by an international officer and a media journalist,

During SARS, it was very obvious to see the status of Beijing which became a ghost city. We all know that Beijing has traffic jams every day, but [then] you worried whether you were speeding. It’s never been seen before.

During SARS, you could find that Beijing traffic was so good, (there were) not many people on the road. There were no traffic jams, and you felt great to take the bus (with few people) in Beijing. But I was deeply impressed that when I took a bus, and a man behind had a cough, I was scared and I got off quickly at the next stop.

The global macroeconomic impact of SARS was estimated at USD 30–100 billion or around USD 3–10 million per cases [14]. The 2003 SARS outbreak caused losses of USD 12.3-28.4 billion and an estimated decrease of 1% in GDP in China and 0.5% in Southeast Asia [15]. The social burden of SARS in Guangzhou meant less income and spending, with a rough estimate of the total economic burden of RMB 11 billion [16].

The influence of SARS also spread to the manufacturing industry. It was reported that in Asia’s largest manufacturing base, Dongguan in Guangdong province, because of the reduced orders from Hong Kong, the shipments from Dongguan to Hong Kong decreased by one-third [17].

At the same time personnel exchanges were reduced for fear of infection, and income decreased. There was also increased spending on prevention and healthcare, which had negative economic impacts on families. Interviews with 71 households in Qinling Mountain in Shaanxi Province indicated that in the second quarter of 2003 SARS caused the average annual household income to decline to US$175.44, 22.36% below what was expected [18].

3.2. Impacts of H7N9 in China in 2013
3.2.1. Health Effects

H7N9 avian influenza is another infectious disease that has caused severe illness and death in humans in China. It has a high fatality rate [19]. The first H7N9 case was found in China in February 2013. By November 13, 2015, a total of 681 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with H7N9, including 275 deaths were reported to WHO. The case fatality rate of H7N9 was 40.1% [20]. According to Disease Outbreak News issued by the WHO on February 22, 2017, a total of 1223 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus had been reported since early 2013. The number of human cases developing since October 1, 2016, accounted for nearly one-third of all human cases of H7N9 infection reported since 2013. As of February 23, 2017, at least 425 cases had been reported during the fifth outbreak in China, which began in October and spiked suddenly in December in 2016. This increase in the number of new cases of H7N9 infection has caused domestic and international concern [21]. According to National Statutory Epidemic Situation in 2017 by the China National Health Commission on February 26, 2018, there are 589 laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 that had been reported, with 259 deaths in China in 2017. Today, there is no H7N9 vaccine available, although some vaccine manufacturers are conducting clinical evaluations of a H7N9 vaccine [22].

The influenza H7N9 virus remains a large threat due to its virulent nature in poultry. The major factors that influence the epidemic potential of an influenza virus, including its ability to cause human disease, are the immunity of the population to the virus and the transmission potential of the virus [23]. Although there is no evidence that H7N9 spreads easily from human to human and the population had little immunity to H7N9, the virus was easily transmitted. The significance still remains over whether H7N9 could be the next pandemic strain of influenza [24].

3.2.2. Social Impacts

Although there were rumors that people could be infected with H7N9 from eating chicken and that pickled peppers and onions can prevent H7N9 [25], compared with SARS, the H7N9 epidemic did not lead to large-scale social panic, and the management of the problem satisfied both the Chinese and international community, as mentioned by one media journalist and one CDC expert

During H7N9, the impact on people’s lives was very limited. In fact, the panic is derived from what people don’t know. There wasn’t any panic, as we knew something with H7N9.

There were no impacts on the city life in Beijing during H7N9. The only [impacts] was to further strengthen the poultry market management.

The National 12320 Telephone Management Center carried out an opinion survey regarding the government’s response to the H7N9 event from April 27 to May 4 through the 12320 Health Hotline, which was reported in Guangming Daily in May 2013. In it, more than 80% of respondents expressed satisfaction with the government’s prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza, thought that the government announced the information regarding the epidemic situation in a timely manner, expressed satisfaction with the government’s release of information about prevention and control measures, and felt confident in the government’s ability to fully control the epidemic, as mentioned by a community resident:

As we could know the information of H7N9 by TV, newspaper, internet, it was clearer for us to know the dangers of H7N9 than SARS.

More than 50% of the respondents believed that the prevention of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza had changed their health habits, indicating that the release of the knowledge of prevention and control of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza was effective [26].

The timeline for the beginning of the outbreak of H7N9 is presented in Figure 1.


Tonton videonya: Sejarah China Uighur, Wong Fei Hung Seorang Muslim.