Wira Perang Dunia II Audie Murphy: 'Bagaimana Saya Tidak Mati?'

Wira Perang Dunia II Audie Murphy: 'Bagaimana Saya Tidak Mati?'


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Pada 26 Januari 1945, Audie Murphy dan kira-kira 40 tentera A.S. menggigil di kawasan sejuk yang ditutup salji berhampiran bandar Holtzwihr di Alsatian. Askar-askar yang letih pertempuran diperintahkan untuk memegang jalan penting sehingga bala bantuan tiba, tetapi operasi itu ditangguhkan dan bantuan yang dijanjikan tidak dapat dilihat. Hanya selepas jam 2 petang, keheningan musim sejuk tiba-tiba dipatahkan oleh guruh petir artileri musuh. Di kejauhan, sekitar 250 tentera Jerman dan enam kereta kebal muncul dari hutan.

Ketika dia melihat Jerman berbaris untuk menyerang, Murphy merasakan gelombang panik naik di perutnya. Itu adalah perasaan yang tidak asing lagi, yang dia belajar untuk mengawal selama 18 bulan pertempuran sengit di seluruh Itali dan Perancis. Pada usia 19 tahun, Texan yang berwajah bayi itu telah memenangi dua Silver Stars dan Distinguished Service Cross, dan dia memimpin lelaki 10 tahun seniornya dalam pertempuran. Setelah penggambaran bermula, dia tahu naluri akan mengambil alih. "Saraf akan mengendur," dia kemudian menulis, "hati, berhenti berdebar-debar. Otak akan berubah menjadi licik haiwan. Tugas itu ada di hadapan kita: hancurkan dan selamat. "

Murphy tahu bahawa orang-orangnya tidak berpeluang melawan kekuatan yang begitu besar, jadi dia mengarahkan kebanyakan mereka untuk menarik diri ke posisi pertahanan yang telah dipersiapkan di sepanjang garis pohon berdekatan. Ketika mereka berlari mencari perlindungan, dia tinggal di belakang dan menggunakan telefon bimbitnya untuk memanggil serangan artileri. Dia mempunyai cukup waktu untuk radio dalam koordinatnya sebelum tembakan tangki Jerman meletus di sekelilingnya. Satu cangkang segera mengebor pokok di dekat sarang senapang mesin dan menghancurkan kru dengan serpihan kayu yang mematikan; yang lain memukul kapal pemusnah tangki berhampiran dan membakarnya.

Pos komando Murphy runtuh di depan matanya, tetapi dia terus bertahan dan terus memanggil artileri Sekutu. Dalam beberapa saat, tirai api ramah turun di antara dia dan infanteri Jerman yang maju, menembusi lapangan terbuka dengan kawah dan menyelubungi segala sesuatu dalam kabut asap. Setelah mengosongkan karbin M-1 ke arah musuh, Murphy meraih telefon ladangnya dan berlindung di atas kapal pemusnah tangki yang terbakar. Melalui radio, dia dapat mendengar komandan artileri bertanya betapa dekatnya Jerman dengan kedudukannya. "Pegang saja telefon dan saya akan membiarkan anda bercakap dengan salah satu bajingan!" dia menjerit ke belakang.

Kapal perusak tangki perlahan-lahan diliputi api, tetapi Murphy melihat bahawa menara senapan mesin berkaliber .50 masih beroperasi. Dia dengan cepat merampas pistol dan menyemburkan api layu ke arah pasukan Jerman yang berada di kedudukannya. "Otak saya yang mati rasa hanya bertujuan untuk menghancurkan," Murphy kemudian menulis dalam otobiografinya. "Saya sedar hanya bahawa asap dan menara mampu layar yang bagus, dan bahawa, untuk pertama kalinya dalam tiga hari, kaki saya terasa hangat." Dia terus melepaskan tembakan setelah meletup, menurunkan pasukan Nazi sebanyak puluhan orang dan menjaga kereta kebal. Selama ini, dia tetap menelefon, mengarahkan tembakan artileri semakin dekat dengan kedudukannya sendiri dan menyebabkan bencana kerosakan pada infanteri yang maju.

Dari penutup mereka di tepi garisan pokok, sebahagian besar pasukan Murphy hanya dapat melihat dengan terkejut. "Saya menjangkakan akan melihat keseluruhan kapal pemusnah tangki sial meletup di bawahnya sebentar lagi," tulis peribadi Anthony Abramski kemudian. Sebenarnya, api mungkin telah menyelamatkan nyawa Murphy. Banyak tentera Jerman dan komandan tangki tidak dapat melihatnya di balik tabir asap dan api, dan pasukan yang menahan diri terlalu takut kerana kenderaan itu akan meletup.

Walaupun terdapat tembakan tembakan artileri Sekutu, gelombang infanteri Jerman yang segar terus menerjah ke arah posisi Murphy. Satu skuad cuba melakukan gerakan mengapit di sebelah kanannya, hanya untuk ditebang dengan hujan es dari senapang berkaliber .50. Ketika Murphy meneruskan serangan satu orangnya, orang-orang bersenjata Jerman menembak kapal perusak tangki yang membara dengan senjata kecil dan tembakan. Satu letupan hampir melemparkannya dari kenderaan dan mengirim pisau cukur tajam yang terbang ke kakinya, tetapi dia tidak memperhatikan luka dan terus berjuang. Hanya ketika Murphy kehabisan peluru, dia akhirnya menarik diri. Bingung dan berdarah, dia melompat dari kapal pemusnah tangki yang masih terbakar dan lemas kepada anak buahnya. Dia kemudian menulis bahwa ketika dia pergi, satu pemikiran khususnya terus berlari di benaknya: "Kenapa saya tidak mati?"

Orang-orang Murphy sudah pasti tertanya-tanya perkara yang sama. Itu adalah "pertunjukan keberanian dan keberanian yang paling hebat yang pernah saya lihat," Abramski yang terkejut kemudian menulis. "Selama satu jam dia menahan pasukan musuh sendirian, melawan kemungkinan yang mustahil." Murphy secara peribadi telah membunuh atau mencederakan sekitar 50 tentera musuh dan mengarahkan meriam terhadap puluhan lagi. Walaupun setelah selamat, dia enggan dievakuasi dari lapangan dan sebaliknya mengejar anak buahnya dalam serangan balas yang mendorong orang Jerman kembali ke hutan.

Audie Murphy dipuji sebagai pahlawan nasional dan dianugerahkan Pingat Kehormatan kerana eksploitasi rahangnya yang menjatuhkan di Holtzwihr. Tidak mahu mempertaruhkan nyawa askar selebriti terbarunya, Angkatan Darat menugaskannya sebagai pegawai perhubungan dan melakukan yang terbaik untuk menjauhkannya dari pertempuran sehingga perang berakhir. Pada masa itu, G.I. telah mengalami tiga luka, satu kes malaria, gangren dan lebih banyak rakan mati daripada yang dia ingat. "Ada Hari VE tanpa," tulisnya tentang perasaan campur aduknya di akhir perang, "tetapi tidak ada kedamaian di dalamnya."

Murphy pulang pada bulan Jun 1945 untuk sambutan perarakan pahlawan, mengerumuni wartawan dan wajahnya di sampul Life Magazine. Atas nasihat legenda layar James Cagney, dia kemudian membawa penampilannya yang kekanak-kanakan ke Hollywood, di mana dia menempa karier filem yang merangkumi lebih dari 40 kredit, kebanyakan mereka dalam filem Barat dan perang. Peranannya yang paling terkenal datang pada tahun 1955, ketika dia bermain dalam "To Hell and Back," adaptasi blockbuster dari memoirnya sendiri tentang Perang Dunia II. Menghilangkan kengerian pertempuran di depan kamera terbukti sukar bagi Murphy, yang mengalami mimpi buruk dan kilas balik sejak pulang ke rumah. Dia kemudian berbicara secara terbuka mengenai perjuangannya selama puluhan tahun dengan gangguan tekanan pasca-trauma, dan mendesak pemerintah A.S. untuk menyediakan penjagaan kesihatan mental yang lebih baik untuk para veterannya.

"To Hell and Back" adalah hit hebat - filem ini merupakan rilis yang paling menguntungkan Universal Studios sehingga "Jaws" pada tahun 1975 - dan ini membantu menutup reputasi Murphy sebagai salah satu veteran Amerika yang paling terkenal pada Perang Dunia II. Tetapi walaupun telah memenangi beberapa puluhan pingat untuk keberanian, dia selalu menolak usaha untuk melabelnya sebagai pahlawan. "Keberanian adalah tekad untuk melakukan pekerjaan yang anda tahu harus dilakukan," katanya kepada wartawan ketika pulang ke rumah pada tahun 1945. "Saya hanya berjuang untuk terus hidup, seperti orang lain, saya rasa."


Seorang Wanita Hebat Lulus & mdash Pamela Murphy

Tuntutan: Akaun menerangkan usaha Pamela Murphy bagi pihak pesakit di Veteran
Hospital pentadbiran.

Contoh: [Dikumpulkan melalui e-mel, Julai 2010]

Mana-mana askar atau Marinir yang masuk ke hospital mendapat rawatan khas yang sama darinya. Dia akan berjalan di lorong dengan papan keratan di tangannya untuk memastikan anak buahnya berjumpa dengan pakar yang mereka perlukan.

Sekiranya tidak, awas. Anak lelakinya bukanlah penerima Pingat Kehormatan atau bintang filem seperti Audie, tetapi itu tidak menjadi masalah bagi Pam. Mereka telah berkhidmat untuk negara mereka. Itu cukup baik untuknya. Dia tidak pernah memanggil seorang veteran dengan nama pertamanya. Itu selalu "Tuan." Penghormatan datang dengan pekerjaan.

"Tidak ada yang bisa memotong pita merah VA lebih cepat daripada kata veteran Stephen Sherman, berbicara untuk ribuan veteran yang dia berteman selama bertahun-tahun. "Berkali-kali saya memerhatikannya berbaris seorang veteran yang telah menunggu lebih dari satu jam tepat ke pejabat doktor. Dia juga pernah ditegur beberapa kali, tetapi tidak menjadi masalah "Hanya budak-budaknya yang penting. Dia adalah malaikat kami. "

Asal: Audie Murphy adalah veteran Dunia yang paling dihiasi di Amerika, setelah mendapat Pingat Kehormatan (penghargaan tertinggi tentera A.S. untuk keberanian), serta lain-lain dan petikan dari A.S., Perancis, dan Belgium. Kehidupan selepas perang Murphy termasuk kerjaya yang berjaya sebagai pelakon yang merangkumi penampilan di lebih dari empat puluh filem (termasuk Ke Neraka dan Kembali, versi filem autobiografinya di Dunia di mana Murphy bermain sendiri).

Pada tahun 1971 Audie Murphy meninggal pada usia 45 tahun dalam nahas pesawat, meninggalkan isterinya Pamela. (Walaupun pasangan itu telah berpisah pada awal tahun 1960-an, mereka tetap berkahwin hingga kematian Murphy.) Untuk menyara dirinya setelah kematian suaminya, Pamela Murphy mengambil pekerjaan di hospital Sepulveda Veterans Administration (VA) di Lembah California dan menghabiskan masa berikutnya bekerja di kemudahan itu, di mana dia terkenal dan dipuji atas tahap kepedulian dan keperihatinan yang ditunjukkannya terhadap veteran yang mendapatkan rawatan di sana.

Pamela Murphy meninggal pada usia 90 tahun mendorong Dennis McCarthy dari Berita Harian untuk menulis lajur mengenai yang dirujuknya di atas, setelah kematian membawa Pamela Murphy ukuran pengakuan publisiti bahawa dia selalu menghina ketika masih hidup.


Massa Kritikal: Audie Murphy yang tidak semestinya menjadi wira Amerika sejati

Audie Murphy (kiri) dan John Dierks membintangi filem John Huston 1951 "The Red Badge of Courage."

Audie Murphy adalah seorang lelaki kecil, sentuhan lebih dari 5 kaki, tinggi 5 inci. Dia berasal dari keluarga pemodal Texas setelah ibunya jatuh sakit pada tahun 1936, dan ayahnya - yang "tidak malas, tetapi mempunyai genius kerana tidak memikirkan masa depan" - meninggalkan dia dan 11 anaknya. Audie menjadi pencari nafkah. Dia memilih kapas dan bekerja di sebuah kedai dan menembak arnab untuk pergi dengan molase dan roti yang mereka makan. Ibunya, Josie, meninggal pada Mei 1941, ketika berusia 15 tahun.

"Saya tidak pernah ingat masih muda dalam hidup saya," katanya banyak kemudian.

Dia berusia 16 tahun ketika pertama kali berusaha untuk mendaftar di Marinir, segera setelah Jepun menyerang Pearl Harbor. Dia ditolak kerana kurang berat badan dan di bawah umur.

Dia meminta adiknya untuk bersumpah dengan sumpah palsu bahawa dia berusia setahun lebih tua dari dia, dan melakukan pesta makan yang menurunkan berat badannya hingga 112 pound. Tentera akhirnya membawanya pada bulan Jun 1942, dan semasa latihan asas, dia unggul sebagai penembak jitu tetapi pingsan semasa latihan dekat di bawah sinar matahari Texas yang panas.

Komandan syarikatnya berpendapat bahawa dia terlalu terbangun untuk bertempur dan berusaha memindahkannya ke sekolah tukang masak dan tukang roti. Tetapi Murphy, menurut autobiografinya yang ditulis dengan hantu, selalu ingin menjadi tentera.

Mereka menghantarnya ke luar negeri pada tahun 1943, ketika berusia 18 tahun. Pada akhir perang, dikatakan bahawa dia telah membunuh 241 tentera musuh. Dilantik sebagai swasta, dia akan dengan cepat dinaikkan pangkat menjadi koperal dan sersan, akhirnya menerima komisen medan perang yang jarang berlaku kepada letnan kedua dan ketua platun.

Pada usia 19 tahun, dia memenangi Pingat Kehormatan kerana mengalahkan serangan kereta kebal Jerman dan infanteri secara bersendirian - melepaskan tembakan dari atas kapal pemusnah tangki terdampar dan memanggil tembakan artileri di atas posisinya sendiri. (Dugaan ketika dia ditanya seberapa dekat orang Jerman dengan posisinya, Murphy retak, "Pegang saja telefon dan saya akan membiarkan anda berbicara dengan salah satu bajingan itu.") Kemudian, setelah Jerman mundur, Murphy mengumpulkan bulatan yang tersisa 19 orang (dari 128 orang) di syarikatnya dan mengadakan serangan balas.

Dia dianugerahkan 36 pingat lain pujian asingnya termasuk Forrager Perancis, Legion of Honor dan Croix de Guerre dengan Palm dan Silver Star dan Belgia Croix de Guerre 1940 dengan Palm. Badan perundangan Texas juga memberinya Pingat Kehormatan. Dia biasanya disebut sebagai tentera yang paling dihiasi pada Perang Dunia II.

Ketika dia kembali dari Eropah setelah Hari V-E pada bulan Jun 1945, dia disambut sebagai pahlawan, dengan perbarisan dan jamuan. Kehidupan meletakkannya di sampul terbitan 16 Julai 1945. Ternyata Audie Murphy adalah anak yang tampan, selalu digambarkan sebagai "berwajah bayi" atau "boyish." James Cagney melihat foto itu, yang disebut Murphy dan mengajaknya keluar ke Hollywood.

Murphy datang, dengan agak enggan, sangat menyedihkan bahawa dia tidak mempunyai bakat atau minat untuk bekerja tetapi dia hanya dapat hidup begitu lama dalam ucapan selepas makan malam dan pencen tentera $ 113 sebulan. Ketika Cagney bertemu dengannya secara langsung, dia terkejut bahawa pahlawan perang itu "sangat kurus", dengan "warna kelabu kebiruan."

Cagney membatalkan bilik hotel yang dipesannya untuk Murphy dan membawanya ke rumahnya sendiri. Cagney dan saudaranya William menandatangani Murphy sebagai pemain kontrak $ 150 seminggu untuk syarikat produksi mereka dan menjadikannya pelajaran akting, suara dan judo.

Tetapi mereka tidak pernah melemparkannya dalam filem, dan pada tahun 1947, dia pindah ke sebuah bilik di Terry Hunt's Athletic Club di Hollywood di mana dia bertemu dengan penulis skrip David "Spec" McClure, yang pernah berkhidmat di Corps Isyarat Tentera A.S. semasa Perang Dunia II. McClure mendorong Murphy untuk mencari perjanjian buku, dan tidak lama kemudian dia menandatangani kontrak dengan Henry Holt and Co. untuk menulis memoarnya, dengan McClure berfungsi sebagai penulis hantu.

McClure juga mendapat Murphy sebagai watak pertama sebagai penyalin akhbar di "Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven." (Sebahagian kecil yang sama, dalam fitur Alan Ladd "Beyond Glory," difilemkan lebih awal tetapi dibebaskan kemudian. Teman wanita Murphy dan isterinya kemudian, Wanda Hendrix, membantunya mendapatkan peranan itu.)

Ketika Murphy terus bertindak dalam peranan yang semakin besar dalam gambar B, dia dan McClure memulakan penulisan memoir yang dijanjikan. Mereka terbang ke Eropah untuk menelusuri kembali langkah Murphy melalui Sicily, dan Salerno, Anzio, Perancis selatan dan Jerman selatan untuk melihat kembali medan perang di mana dia memenangi pingatnya.

Prosesnya sukar dilakukan Murphy kemungkinan merupakan introvert semula jadi dan kembali dari perang dengan apa yang sekarang akan kita kenali sebagai kes klasik sindrom stres pasca-trauma. (Dia bergelut dengan insomnia, serangan kemurungan, dan mimpi buruk yang berkaitan dengan banyak pertempuran sepanjang hidupnya. Hendrix bimbang dia tidur dengan Walther yang ditangkap di bawah bantalnya dan mendakwa dia pernah menariknya setelah dia mengejutkannya. Mereka bercerai pada tahun 1951 .)

Walaupun dia rajin menulis beberapa petikan lama, dia mungkin menulis kurang dari 10% buku itu. Selebihnya, McClure bergantung pada petikan pingat Murphy dan "Sejarah Bahagian Infanteri Ketiga dalam Perang Dunia II" Donald Taggart untuk fakta-fakta. Kemudian dia akan berusaha menemu ramah Murphy tentang pengalamannya, menaip apa yang dia rasa telah terjadi, dan mengirimkan salinannya kepada Murphy.

Murphy sering menolak percubaan McClure yang pertama dan kedua untuk membuat kenangan Murphy. Penulis akan merasa kecewa dengan kolaboratornya dan menuntut agar Murphy memberitahunya apa yang sebenarnya telah berlaku. Kadang-kadang pemuda yang patah itu akan melakukan begitu sahaja.

Setelah setahun, mereka memiliki sebuah buku yang luar biasa, yang biasanya dikenal sebagai "To Hell and Back." Tetapi jika anda melihat jaket debu edisi pertama, anda akan melihat bahawa buku itu sebenarnya bertajuk "Audie Murphy's To Hell and Back," yang sepertinya menyimpulkan kekaburan pengarang tertentu. Tidak betul-betul "oleh" Murphy, dan nama McClure tidak muncul di edisi ini.

Dan sementara ia diceritakan sebagai orang pertama, Murphy sering kelihatan surut dari tempat kejadian, menyerahkannya kepada rakan-rakan tenteranya. Dalam satu contoh, lagu yang ditulis Murphy (dia kemudiannya akan mencapai tahap kejayaan sebagai penulis lagu) dikaitkan dengan askar lain.

Ia bermula di Sisilia, dengan Murphy merasa kecewa kerana kerana masalah penjadwalan, syarikatnya datang ke darat suatu ketika selepas serangan awal dan hanya mendapat tentangan dari pasukan Itali:

Terdapat beberapa perkara besar yang menghancurkan dan dari pelbagai sudut timbul bunyi senjata kecil. Tetapi kami segera membiasakannya.

Tetapi seram itu tidak perlu lama. Kematian pertama, salah seorang rakan tentera Murphy, berlaku di halaman dua:

Cengkerang kedua berbeza. Sesuatu yang mengerikan dan segera mengenai peluitnya membuatkan kulit kepala saya mula berkerut. Saya mengambil topi keledar saya dan membalikkan perut saya. Letupan itu sangat kuat. Serpihan baja merengek, dan tanah nampaknya melonjak dan memukul muka saya.

Diam lagi. Saya mengangkat kepala. Asap serbuk masam telah menyebabkan wabak batuk.

Suara tersentak. Kita semua melihatnya. Askar yang berambut merah itu jatuh dari batu. Darah mengalir dari mulut dan hidungnya.

Ia memerlukan lapan halaman lagi sebelum Murphy mencatat pembunuhan pertamanya:

. Saya mendahului syarikat dengan sekumpulan pengakap. Kami menyapu beberapa pegawai Itali. Mereka seharusnya menyerah. Sebagai gantinya, mereka menaiki dua kuda putih yang hebat dan berlari menjauh. Perbuatan saya adalah naluri. Menjatuhkan ke satu lutut, saya menembak dua kali. Orang-orang itu jatuh dari kuda, berguling dan berbaring diam.

Sukar untuk mengetahui siapa yang harus diberi penghargaan atas irama dan nada sebenar buku ini. Kerendahan hati mungkin Murphy - tidak ada di dalam memoir pingatnya yang disebutkan, dan sementara buku ini penuh dengan pembantaian dan keberanian, buku ini nampaknya jarang berpusat pada teror kehidupan sehari-hari di zon pertempuran.

Selain percakapan yang dibuat kembali di antara para askar, yang kadang-kadang tampak terhenti dan luas (masalah yang tidak dibantu oleh percubaan untuk meniru aksen wilayah), buku itu berdering dengan otoritas saksi mata yang enggan.

Sudah lama saya membaca novel Norman Mailer WWII "The Naked and the Dead," tetapi "To Hell and Back" terasa lebih langsung dan entah bagaimana lebih jujur, walaupun ia disaring melalui kepekaan McClure di Hollywood sebanyak "The Naked and the Dead "disaring melalui aspirasi penulis Mailer.

Kadang-kadang ada puisi dalam kolaborasi Murphy / McClure, seperti ketika dia menceritakan mimpi masa kecil:

. Saya berada di medan perang yang jauh, di mana bugle meletup, sepanduk-sepanduk dilempar dan orang-orang bertempur dengan gagah melintasi bukit-bukit yang menyala di mana suhu selalu berada di lapan puluh dan pihak kami selalu menang di mana yang mati tetapi bayang-bayang yang tidak peribadi dan yang terluka tidak pernah menangis.

"To Hell and Back" panjangnya kurang dari 300 halaman dan mudah dibaca. Jauh lebih mudah daripada "The Naked and the Dead." Tetapi tidak pernah disebut sebagai salah satu buku terbaik untuk keluar dari Perang Dunia II, mungkin kerana ia dikaburkan oleh versi filem tahun 1955, di mana Murphy membintangi dirinya sendiri.

Murphy, walaupun penilaiannya sendiri tentang kemampuan lakonannya sendiri, telah melakukan apa-apa sebagai pelakon, terutama pada tahun 1951 "The Bad Badge of Courage" dan peranan barat seperti 1954 "Destry" dan 1952 "Duel at Silver Creek," diarahkan oleh Don Siegel. Namun, dia enggan membintangi dirinya sendiri, sebahagiannya kerana dia takut dia akan dilihat sebagai memanfaatkan pengalaman perangnya.

Dia mungkin juga benar-benar takut ceritanya menjadi Hollywood, terutama setelah McClure kehilangan kesempatan untuk menyesuaikan buku untuk layar kepada pengembara Gil Doud, yang lebih terkenal dengan karyanya di radio. Walaupun Doud bekerja dengan Murphy dengan cara yang sama seperti yang dilakukan McClure, filem itu nampaknya, sekurang-kurangnya kepada penonton moden, sebuah filem perang standard, walaupun agak gelap daripada kebanyakan filem perang pada masa itu: Pada akhirnya, Murphy adalah satu-satunya ahli baki unit asalnya.

Selepas filem itu keluar, Murphy memberikan wawancara di mana dia merenungkan "pelanggaran aneh antara make-percaya dan realiti" penggambaran yang muncul dalam dirinya, "antara memperjuangkan hidup anda dan penemuan bahawa itu hanya permainan dan anda harus melakukan penyambungan semula kerana anjing pelancong berlari melintasi padang di tengah pertempuran. "

Dia menceritakan kejadian di mana dia memberlakukan kematian salah seorang rakan karibnya dalam pertempuran. Dalam kehidupan nyata, rakannya berdiri terlalu tinggi ketika mereka naik ke atas bukit dan terkena tembakan senapang mesin musuh. Dia jatuh kembali ke pelukan Murphy, memberikan senyuman tipis dan berkata "Saya bodoh, Murphy" ketika dia meninggal.

"Ketika kami merakam tempat kejadian," Murphy teringat, "kami mengubah bahagian di mana Brandon mati dalam pelukan saya. Itulah cara ia benar-benar terjadi, tetapi kelihatan terlalu keruh, kata mereka. Saya rasa memang begitu."

Mungkin kerana kebahagiaan seorang pahlawan perang menggambarkan dirinya di layar, ulasan kontemporari hampir positif. "Kredibilitas terbakar di wajahnya yang lembut dan gerak lembut ketika dia bergerak melalui adegan pertempuran dengan rapi, seperti seorang lelaki yang menghidupkannya dengan rasa hairan dan sesuatu yang penuh penghormatan," tulis majalah Time.

Pertimbangan yang lebih baik mungkin telah ditawarkan oleh The New Yorker John McCarten, yang menulis: "Saya diberitahu bahawa dia adalah seorang lelaki yang sederhana, dan dia bersikap sederhana di sini. Namun, peristiwa yang dijelaskan dalam gambar mempunyai udara palsu tentang mereka. Mungkin spontaniti kepahlawanan sebenarnya tidak boleh digandakan dalam filem. "

Filem ini berakhir dengan Murphy disajikan Medal of Honor, dengan rakan-rakannya yang jatuh diwakili dalam upacara itu dengan penampilan yang hantu. Saya lebih suka halaman terakhir buku di mana, ketika Murphy mendengar bahawa perang akhirnya berakhir, dia berjanji pada dirinya sendiri bahawa dia akan "mencari jenis gadis yang pernah aku impikan. Aku akan belajar melihat kehidupan melalui mata yang tidak sinis, untuk memiliki iman, untuk mengenal cinta. Saya akan belajar bekerja dengan aman seperti dalam perang. "

Tetapi kisah Murphy tidak mempunyai akhir yang bahagia. Dia menikah lagi dan mempunyai dua anak, dan lagu-lagunya direkam oleh orang-orang seperti Dean Martin dan Harry Nilsson, tetapi mimpi buruknya membawanya ke kecanduan pil tidur. Dia tidak pernah mengatasi keterbatasannya sebagai pelakon, dan B-western yang sepertinya sesuai dengannya segera dihimpit oleh siri TV di satu sisi dan edgier, spaghetti western yang lebih ganas di sisi lain. Sebuah filem yang dibayangkannya dibuat dengan McClure, "The Way Back," sekuel memoir perangnya, tidak pernah mendapat pembiayaan.

Menjelang tahun 1960, Murphy, yang mungkin menjadi salah satu inspirasi untuk watak Quentin Tarantino, Rick Dalton (Leonardo DiCaprio), dikurangkan untuk bermain sebagai seorang detektif barat di TV dalam siri "Whispering Smith" yang sering dilupakan.

Ditemubual pada tahun 1962, dia berbicara tentang pengalamannya setelah perang: "Perang merampas mental dan fizikal, ia menguras anda. Segala-galanya tidak menggembirakan anda lagi. Ini adalah perjuangan setiap hari untuk mencari sesuatu yang menarik untuk dilakukan."

Beberapa tahun kemudian, dia bersara dari bertindak, mengembangkan masalah perjudian, membuat pelaburan buruk, bangkrut dan mengisytiharkan muflis pada tahun 1968. Dia diadili kerana cubaan membunuh - pembelaannya pada dasarnya adalah jika dia ingin membunuh lelaki itu dia akan mempunyai

selesai. Juri berjabat tangan setelah mereka membebaskannya.

Setahun kemudian, pada tahun 1971, dia mati. Sebuah pesawat yang disewanya terhempas ketika dalam perjalanan untuk memeriksa peluang pelaburan berpotensi di sebuah kilang yang membuat rumah pra-fab. Dia berumur 45 tahun.

Ketika orang berfikir tentang tentera Amerika dalam Perang Dunia II, sebilangan besar dari mereka langsung mengingatkan John Wayne. Orang-orang mengirimi saya surat-surat marah ketika saya menunjukkan bahawa Wayne, yang berusia 34 tahun pada hari Pearl Harbour dibom, tidak pernah menghabiskan satu hari di angkatan bersenjata, bahawa dia mengambil langkah-langkah untuk mengelakkan perkhidmatan semasa perang.

Mereka dengan senang hati mengandung pahlawan mereka yang menjalankan misi rahsia untuk Wild Bill Donovan's O.S.S., atau bahawa dia diperintahkan oleh FDR untuk membuat filem untuk menjaga semangat.

Saya tidak mempunyai cara singkat terhadap Wayne bahawa dia adalah seorang pelakon, bukan pahlawan, dan dia melakukan apa yang banyak jika tidak dilakukan oleh kebanyakan orang dalam keadaannya.

Tetapi saya memikirkan Audie Murphy, yang datang lemah dan kelaparan di timur Texas, seorang pahlawan asli yang dilupakan pada masa ini ketika keaslian diduga sangat bermakna. Dan buku yang sangat dilupakan yang pernah ditulisnya.


Oleh Tom Huntington

Parti pencarian berjuang melalui hutan tebal di Brush Mountain di Virginia. Di puncak puncak setinggi 3.065 kaki kira-kira 12 batu dari Roanoke, para pencari tiba di bangkai pesawat yang telah dilihat oleh kru helikopter sebelumnya. Mereka menjumpai tiga mayat di badan kapal yang hancur dan tiga yang lain dalam serpihan yang tersebar. Antara yang terkorban ialah Audie Murphy, 46 tahun, veteran paling berhias dalam sejarah AS.

Murphy, yang telah terbang ke Virginia untuk memeriksa peluang pelaburan, telah memperoleh 21 pingat dalam Perang Dunia II, termasuk Kongres Medal of Honor. Selepas perang dia muncul dalam banyak filem, beberapa yang bagus, paling biasa-biasa saja. Pada saat pesawat terhempas pada 23 Mei 1971, dia kelihatan seperti lelaki dari masa yang lain. Berita kematiannya berkongsi halaman depan New York Times dengan catatan mengenai tunjuk perasaan Hari Peringatan menentang Perang Vietnam.

Murphy dikebumikan dengan penghormatan ketenteraan penuh di Tanah Perkuburan Nasional Arlington ketika isteri dan dua anaknya melihat. Panglima Tentera Darat William Westmoreland menghadiri upacara tersebut. Gedung Putih Presiden Richard Nixon mengeluarkan pernyataan bahawa Murphy "tidak hanya memenangi kekaguman berjuta-juta atas eksploitasi berani sendiri, dia juga datang untuk melambangkan keberanian dalam tindakan orang-orang yang memerangi Amerika."

Sayangnya, Murphy sama sekali melambangkan kesan gelap kepada "kegembiraan dalam tindakan," jumlah psikologi yang dapat ditimbulkan oleh perang bahkan pada pahlawan yang paling berani. Walaupun dia cedera tiga kali dalam pertempuran, bekas luka terdalamnya tidak fizikal. Dia menderita mimpi buruk yang mengerikan, tidur dengan lampu dan pistol di bawah bantalnya, berjudi dengan berat, dan hanya sedikit yang menarik minatnya setelah keberadaannya yang tinggi di garis depan. "Sepertinya tidak ada yang bisa membuatku teruja lagi - kau tahu, bersemangat?" katanya kepada pengarah John Huston setelah dilakonkan dalam The Red Badge of Courage. "Sebelum perang, saya akan teruja dan tertarik dengan banyak hal, tetapi tidak lagi."

Dilahirkan pada 20 Jun 1924, berhampiran bandar Kingston di Texas, Murphy adalah salah satu daripada sembilan anak orang tua yang masih hidup yang mencari nafkah dari tanah itu. "Kami adalah petani hasil panen," tulisnya. "Dan mengatakan bahawa keluarga itu miskin akan dianggap meremehkan. Kemiskinan menguatkan setiap langkah kita. " Ketika Murphy berusia 16 tahun, ayahnya pergi. "Dia hanya keluar dari kehidupan kita, dan kita tidak pernah mendengarnya lagi," tulis Murphy. Ibunya meninggal pada tahun berikutnya, dan Murphy menanggung kematiannya dengan keras. Keluarga terpaksa berpisah, dan tiga adik bongsu Murphy dihantar ke rumah anak yatim.

Munculnya perang dengan serangan Jepun di Pearl Harbor pada 7 Disember 1941, nampaknya menjanjikan jalan keluar dari situasi buruk, walaupun Murphy — pendek, berwajah jeragat, dan sedikit — nampaknya seorang pejuang yang tidak mungkin. Marinir tidak akan membawanya. Begitu juga penerjun payung terjun. Ketika akhirnya berjaya mendaftar di infanteri, dia berusia 18 tahun, tetapi dia kelihatan lebih muda. Sarjannya di kem latihan memanggilnya Baby, dan Murphy pingsan semasa latihan jarak dekat pertamanya. Komandan berusaha menjauhkannya dari pertempuran, menunjukkan mereka dapat membuatnya diposting sebagai pegawai atau tukang roti. Tetapi dia mahu melawan.

Kesempatan akhirnya datang ketika Syarikat Murphy B dari Rejimen ke-15, Divisi 3, mendarat di Itali. Dia membunuh tentera musuh pertamanya di Sicily: dua pegawai Itali yang cuba berlari dengan menunggang kuda. "Saya merasa tidak keraguan, tidak ada rasa bangga dan tidak menyesal," katanya di To Hell And Back, otobiografi 1949 yang dia tulis bersama wartawan dan rakannya David McClure. "Hanya ada sikap acuh tak acuh yang akan mengikuti saya sepanjang perang." Bahkan pada tahap awal karier tempurnya, dia belajar bagaimana menekan emosinya.

Dari Sicily, syarikat Murphy berpindah ke tanah besar Itali. Penyakit malaria menghalangnya daripada mengambil bahagian dalam pendaratan awal di Anzio, tetapi dia cukup beraksi. Perlawanan Jerman bertambah kuat setelah pendaratan, dan tentera Sekutu mengalami kebuntuan yang menyedihkan. Suatu malam, ketika berada di bawah api, Murphy merangkak ke tangki Jerman yang rosak dan meletakkannya secara tidak tetap. Serangan itu menjadikannya pingat pertamanya, Bintang Gangsa.

Serangan berani seperti itu menjadi tipikal Murphy. Dia adalah tembakan retak, naluri medan perangnya tajam, dan dia sepertinya tidak takut. "Sekiranya saya menemui satu perkara yang berharga pada masa pertempuran awal, itu adalah keberanian, yang sering disalah anggap sebagai keberanian atau kebodohan," katanya. "Bukan begitu. Audacity adalah senjata taktikal. Sembilan daripada sepuluh itu akan membuat musuh tidak seimbang dan membingungkannya. "

Semangat atau tidak, ketakutan tidak pernah hilang sepenuhnya. "Dalam panas pertempuran mungkin hilang," Murphy menulis. “Kadang-kadang ia hilang dalam amarah buta dan merah yang muncul ketika anda melihat seorang rakan jatuh. Sekali lagi anda menjadi letih sehingga anda menjadi tidak peduli. Tetapi ketika anda bergerak dalam pertempuran, mengapa cuba memperbodohkan diri sendiri? Ketakutan ada di sebelah anda. "

Syarikat B meninggalkan Itali pada 12 Ogos 1944, untuk berperang dalam Operasi Dragoon, pencerobohan Sekutu di Perancis Selatan. Orang Amerika berkerumun di darat hampir tanpa bertentangan. Murphy, sekarang seorang sersan, sedang menuju ke pedalaman dengan Syarikat B ketika sebuah senapan mesin Jerman di sebuah rabung di atas kebun anggur menjatuhkan mereka. Private Lattie Tipton, Tennessean berusia 33 tahun yang lincah yang telah menjadi teman rapat Murphy dan tokoh ayah, mengikuti Murphy ke depan untuk menentang Jerman. Murphy mendesaknya untuk kembali dan mendapatkan telinga yang terluka dirawat, tetapi Tipton menolak. "Ayo Murphy," katanya, "mari kita naik. Mereka boleh membunuh kita, tetapi mereka tidak boleh memakan kita. Ini melanggar undang-undang. " Beberapa minit kemudian Tipton mati. Orang Jerman mengibarkan bendera putih, dan Tipton, walaupun seorang infanteri berpengalaman, melakukan kesalahan berdiri. Senapang mesin Jerman dengan pantas menembaknya ke bawah.

Kematian Tipton menyapu Murphy menjadi kabur. "Saya ingat pengalaman itu semasa saya melakukan mimpi buruk," tulisnya. "Setan nampaknya memasuki tubuhku. Otak saya sentiasa peka dan logik. Saya tidak memikirkan bahaya untuk diri saya sendiri. Seluruh makhluk saya tertumpu pada pembunuhan. Kemudian orang-orang itu dijatuhkan di kebun anggur memberitahu saya bahawa saya mengucapkan permohonan dan kutukan kepada mereka, kerana mereka tidak datang dan bergabung dengan saya. " Dengan menggunakan senapang Jerman yang ditangkap, Murphy secara berkala memotong Jerman yang telah membunuh rakannya. "Ketika badan-badan yang dirobohkan jatuh dan menggeliat, saya menyapu mereka lagi," Murphy menulis "dan saya tidak berhenti melepaskan tembakan sementara ada gegaran nyawa yang tersisa di dalamnya." Murphy memenangi Distinguished Service Cross untuk tindakannya pada hari itu. Dia memberikan pingat kepada anak perempuan Tipton.

Hingga saat ini dalam perang, Murphy entah bagaimana selamat secara fizikal tanpa cedera. Dia menerima luka pertamanya ketika Amerika mendorong ke utara melalui Perancis, tentera Jerman mundur di hadapan mereka ke Pergunungan Vosges. Semasa satu pertarungan, peluru mortar melanda di dekatnya, membunuh dua tentera dan menjatuhkannya tanpa sedar. Letupan itu menghancurkan stok karbin bertuahnya (yang disambungkannya kembali), tetapi kecederaannya sendiri hanya sedikit.

Kehebatan medan perang Murphy tidak disedari, dan di sebalik bantahannya bahawa dia ingin tetap berada di antara pangkat dan fail, dia ditugaskan sebagai letnan kedua pada 14 Oktober 1944. Kurang dari dua minggu kemudian, ketika cuaca sejuk membayangkan musim sejuk yang pahit untuk datang, seorang senapang Jerman yang tersembunyi menembaknya di pinggul. Walaupun cedera dan di tanah, Murphy berjaya membunuh penembak tepat sebelum penembak tepat dapat menghabisinya. Tetapi lukanya segera dijangkiti, dan pakar bedah harus mengeluarkan sebahagian besar daging dari pinggulnya. Murphy bergabung semula dengan Syarikat B tiga bulan kemudian, tepat pada waktunya untuk melakukan salah satu tindakan yang paling sukar di unit ini: mengalahkan pasukan Jerman di Colmar Pocket, yang menonjol yang meluas ke Perancis di tebing barat Sungai Rhine.

On January 26, Murphy and Company B found themselves on the outskirts of woods facing the German village of Holtzwihr. The day dawned miserably cold and uncomfortable as the small American force waited tensely for an attack. Finally, six German tanks supported by infantry began moving toward them from the village and quickly put two American tank destroyers near Murphy’s company out of action. Murphy sent his men back, but he stayed put with his field telephone. He was only 20 years old, and it did not look like he would live to see 21.

With his phone, Murphy called in artillery fire on the advancing German infantry. German tanks were approaching on his sides, but Murphy climbed onto a burning tank destroyer—which could have exploded at any second—and began firing its .50-caliber machine gun. He killed dozens of German soldiers, forcing the tanks to fall back due to lack of infantry protection. One German squad sneaking up on Murphy’s right got as close as 10 yards from him before he detected the threat. He shot the whole squad down. Somewhere along the way, Murphy got hit in the leg, but he kept fighting until he ran out of ammunition. Having killed about 50 Germans, he returned to his company, where he refused medical help and instead rallied his men to make a counterattack. The Germans were forced to retreat.

Later, Murphy heard that the enemy had stayed away from his burning tank destroyer because it looked ready to blow up. “I do not know about that,” he answered in his memoir, putting himself back into the scene. “I am conscious only that the smoke and the turret afford a good screen, and that, for the first time in three days, my feet are warm.”

Murphy’s heroics at Holtzwihr earned him the Congressional Medal of Honor, the nation’s highest military award. The citation read, “Lt. Murphy’s indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy’s objective.” When the army found out Murphy was going to receive the medal, it pulled him off the front lines too many of these medals had ended up being awarded posthumously. Still, Murphy found a way into combat. On one occasion he went in to rescue his company when it was pinned down by German fire along the Siegfried Line in western Germany.

In June 1945, Murphy finally returned. He was a national hero. Life magazine put him on its cover, identifying him simply as “America’s Most Decorated Soldier.” The story inside told of his return to Farmville, Texas. One photograph showed him with his “special girl,” 19-year-old Mary Lee. “Audie hopes she is his own girl,” the caption read, “but he isn’t quite sure yet because he usually blushes when he gets within ten feet of any girl.” The Murphy Life portrayed could hardly have been more different from the Murphy that McClure came to know. While the two men worked together on To Hell And Back, Murphy told McClure about an Italian family in Rome that had invited him to dinner one day. Murphy said that before dinner he seduced the two daughters, and afterward, for good measure, he seduced the mother. “Audie seduced more girls than any man I ever knew with the possible exception of Errol Flynn,” McClure said. “He might even have topped Flynn.”

The Life story opened an unexpected door for Murphy. Actor James Cagney saw it and invited the young veteran to Hollywood. “All I saw him as was a typical fighting Irishman,” Cagney said. “Perhaps I imagined there was a little bit of me in Audie.” Cagney put Murphy up for a time in his Hollywood home and provided him with acting classes, but after two years, the country’s most decorated soldier was broke and living above a gymnasium.

It was around this time that McClure met Murphy. McClure was a fellow Texan and ex-army man, now working as an assistant to Hollywood gossip columnist Hedda Hopper. He heard of Murphy’s plight and began to champion him. The two men became friends and started working on To Hell And Back, with McClure prodding the reluctant Murphy to provide material he could use in the book. “Audie had been burned out by the war,” McClure said later. “He reacted intensely to the death of his friends in combat. I supposed in order to keep from going insane he buried his emotions so deeply that getting them back was difficult if not impossible.” But McClure persevered, making up the material that Murphy couldn’t—or wouldn’t—supply, and the book came out in 1949 to favorable reviews.

McClure also used his Hollywood connections to help Murphy get movie roles. The first was in 1949’s Bad Boy. Murphy remained clear-eyed about his abilities. “You must remember I’m working under a handicap,” Murphy told the director in his self-deprecating way. “No talent.”

For the most part, Murphy acted in Western B-movies. One exception was The Red Badge of Courage, director John Huston’s 1951 adaptation of Stephen Crane’s story about a Civil War soldier who flees from battle. MGM didn’t want Murphy, but Huston fought for him, realizing he had the right qualities for the role. “They just don’t see Audie the way I do,” he said. “This little, gentle-eyed creature. Why, in the war he’d literally go out of his way to find Germans to kill. He’s a gentle little killer.”

There was another famous WWII veteran in Red Badge: Bill Mauldin, whose cartoons about the inanities of army life entertained GIs in the army publication Stars and Stripes. He had some sharp recollections of Murphy. “He was a scrappy little sonofabitch,” Mauldin said. “He would get into bare-knuckle fistfights just for fun with stuntmen. He was five foot four and he’d beat these guys up. They were tangling with a wildcat. That’s why Huston really liked him.”

Murphy delivered a fine low-key performance, but the movie never found an audience. After two disastrous previews, MGM cut the running time to less than 70 minutes and the film flopped. Red Badge was probably Murphy’s best shot at stardom now he slowly slipped back into the grind of forgettable B-movies. “I’m grateful to the movie business,” he said. “The only trouble is the type-casting. You make a success in Westerns, they milk it dry—until you are dry. That’s why Hollywood has just about dried up for somebody like me.” Murphy categorized himself as “a middle-sized failure.”

Murphy had one undeniable film success: playing himself in Universal’s 1955 adaptation of To Hell And Back. He re-created his combat experiences—even though they were layered over with Hollywood gloss—with an understated dignity that helped lift the movie above its otherwise pedestrian treatment of the war. The movie remained Universal’s biggest moneymaker until Jaws in 1975.

On the personal front, Murphy’s life maintained a slow downward slide. He married starlet Wanda Hendrix in 1949, but the marriage lasted only 15 months. Four days after his divorce, in 1951, he married Pamela Archer. That marriage, too, was strained. Murphy was a haunted man, tortured by insomnia, his nights interrupted by a recurring nightmare in which an army of faceless men attacked him on a hill. Murphy fought back in the dream with his trusty M-1 Garand rifle, but pieces of the gun kept flying off until he had only the trigger guard left.

Plagued by nightmares and sounds he thought he heard, Murphy began sleeping in a bedroom made up in his converted garage, with the lights on and with a pistol under his pillow. He tried using tranquilizers but got addicted to them, finally throwing away the pills and locking himself in a hotel room until the withdrawal symptoms ceased. He acted in more and more forgettable movies, invested in real estate, bred horses, and gambled. “I didn’t care if I won or lost,” he said “it was as if I wanted to destroy everything I had built up.” In 1968 he went bankrupt. Two years later, he was in the headlines again, when he and a friend were charged with beating up a dog trainer. In every news story, he was invariably identified as “America’s most decorated soldier.”

The experiences that had earned Murphy his decorations had taken their toll. Today, his symptoms would be diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder, but that term didn’t exist during his lifetime. He had emerged from the crucible of war, but he had not emerged unchanged. He had seen men die—ripped apart by machine guns, run over by tanks, obliterated by mortar fire. He had killed many men himself, supposedly accounting for 240 Germans single-handedly. “To become an executioner, somebody cold and analytical, to be trained to kill, and then to come back into civilian life and be alone in the crowd—it takes an awful long time to get over it,” he told journalist Thomas Morgan in 1967. “Fear and depression come over you.”

When Morgan visited Murphy at his house in California to interview him, he saw a small glass display box with some of his medals inside. The display was in disarray. The Medal of Honor looked “tacky,” Morgan noted, while the first of Murphy’s three Purple Hearts had fallen and lay face down at the bottom of the case. Like Murphy himself, the medals were ignored, forgotten. At the time of Morgan’s visit, Murphy, America’s most decorated soldier, had four more years to live. But part of him had already died, long before his airplane crashed into the top of Brush Mountain.

Tom Huntington, a contributing editor to America in WWII, has written for Smithsonian, Warisan Amerika, Yankee, and other publications. This article appeared in the February 2007 issue of America in WWII. Find out how to order a copy of this issue here. To get more articles like this one, subscribe to America in WWII majalah.

Photos: Audie Murphy after the war, in 1945, at age 21 Murphy (right) with siblings Murphy playing himself in the 1955 movie To Hell and Back.


Military Career

A few months later, Murphy&aposs division moved to invade Sicily. His actions on the ground impressed his superior officers and they quickly promoted him to corporal. While fighting in the wet mountains of Italy, Murphy contracted malaria. Despite such setbacks, he continually distinguished himself in battle.

In August 1944, Murphy&aposs division moved to southern France as part of Operation Dragoon. It was there that his best friend, Lattie Tipton, was lured into the open and killed by a German soldier pretending to surrender. Enraged by this act, Murphy charged and killed the Germans that had just killed his friend. He then commandeered the German machine gun and grenades and attacked several more nearby positions, killing all of the German soldiers there. Murphy was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions.

Over the course of World War II, Murphy witnessed the deaths of hundreds of fellow and enemy soldiers. Endowed with great courage in the face of these horrors, he was awarded 33 U.S. military medals, including three Purple Hearts and one Medal of Honor.

In June 1945, Murphy returned home from Europe a hero and was greeted with parades and elaborate banquets. LIFE magazine honored the brave, baby-faced soldier by putting him on the cover of its July 16, 1945 issue. That photograph inspired actor James Cagney to call Murphy and invite him to Hollywood to begin an acting career. Despite his celebrity, however, Murphy struggled for years to gain recognition.


Quality journalism doesn't come free

Perhaps it goes without saying — but producing quality journalism isn't cheap. At a time when newsroom resources and revenue across the country are declining, The Texas Tribune remains committed to sustaining our mission: creating a more engaged and informed Texas with every story we cover, every event we convene and every newsletter we send. As a nonprofit newsroom, we rely on members to help keep our stories free and our events open to the public. Do you value our journalism? Show us with your support.


The Incredible Story of How I Came to Possess the Gun Audie Murphy Learned to Shoot With

In 1966, I was a young boy of nine years old, and my father took me to Renner Road, a section of of land near Dallas, Texas that was once a rural community of about 10 square miles. There he let me shoot a Winchester single shot .22 caliber rifle for the first time.

But it wasn’t just any Winchester single shot .22 caliber rifle.

After a few hours had passed, and my dad was placing the rifle back into its leather gun sleeve, he turned and looked at me and said, “Don’t ever let go of this gun. Audie Murphy used it.”

I looked at him in bewilderment, and being only a young boy then, replied, “Who is Audie Murphy?” My father just smiled and said, “Someone we grew up with in Farmersville.”

Reminiscing Leads to Researching
This Winchester has been in my possession for many, many years. But as a young man attending college, then married with children and working, etc., I had no time to hunt or think about what I had in my possession up through adulthood.

After my parents passed, I started to reminisce about the days I had spent with my father in my youth. Then the thought hit me about shooting the rifle, and I remembered I had a gun my dad told me never to get rid of. One that Audie Murphy had used to hunt when he and my dad were both young boys.

According to research records, the rifle was manufactured sometime between 1935-37, and was most likely shared back and forth between the boys until they enlisted in 1942. Although I can’t say how many times Audie may have shot the rifle, my father’s words, along with the dates, make me confident it was more than just a few times.

Now, several years later, I was an educated adult and acutely aware of who Audie Murphy was and the legacy he left behind. Since most of his generation has now passed on, I went into a state of mild panic, because I apparently had an irreplaceable piece of history in my possession, but just an oral statement from my father many years ago attesting that it was used by Audie Murphy.

I had by now obtained a bachelors and a masters degree, and I went into student research mode and began my personal project on the rifle in 2014. I didn’t know at that time what a daunting task I was about to face…

Discouraged but Not Defeated
My first thought was to discover if there were any direct living relatives of Audie Murphy. To my surprise, Nadine, one of Audie’s sisters, was alive, and I was given her phone number by the Audie Murphy Museum in Greenville, Texas.

My first contact did not go as well as I wanted it to. Given that she was 79 years old, I had no idea how healthy Nadine would be. I quickly learned that not only was she healthy, but she also had the old spark of an Irish woman. Once I had spoken to her about the rifle and its history, she really didn't have much to say about the rifle, and added in a stern voice, “I don't remember your family!”

I thanked her for taking my call and also thanked her for Audie's heroism during WWII. Nadine replied firmly that, “He wasn't my only brother I had who was a hero.” A bit taken aback by that, I simply told her I agreed! Nadine had a brother who worked as a Deputy Sherriff and who was tragically killed on duty. With apologies and gratitude, I said my goodbyes.

Being so discouraged from that initial conversation, I nearly gave up hope that I could ever learn the real history of the rifle my dad left me. It seemed everything about Audie Murphy had already been told, found, sold, displayed on websites, available for view in museums or in pictures hung on walls in his honor across the nation.

But there I sat with the gun that was used by Audie and my father as young boys hunting to put food on the table. Moreover, this was the rifle that created the marksman who went on the become the most decorated soldier of WWII, and whose sharpshooting skills during the frontline battles with German soldiers saved countless American lives.

With these thoughts in my mind, I was once again energized to seek out more details to substantiate my father’s words and the rifle he passed down to me.

A Modern Key to the Past
Both sides of my family lived within close proximity of the Murphys while in the Farmersville area. Because they were all sharecroppers picking cotton, planting onions, and the like, they would travel to where there was work to be had. This would include not only Farmersville, but other rural communities, namely: Princeton, Celeste, Floyd, all the way to Emory – where my parents were married. Nothing between these towns but old Texas black clay dirt and row after row of cotton… not much different from today.

My next quest was to see if there were pictures on the internet with Audie holding the Winchester. I had low expectations going in, but to my surprise, I came across one picture showing Audie after a squirrel hunt holding a rifle and standing next to an old car, and yes, may dead squirrels.

I researched Audie’s height, weight, and physical characteristics, which I found online. I also used the picture to estimate some of the dimensions of the rifle. I then considered who would be a perfect match for these measurements of Audie for comparison purposes? I turned to ask my wife, and behold! I had Audie standing in front of me – at least the female version.

My first thought was, “Wow! How did a young man this small cause so much damage in WWII?” I had my wife position herself with the gun just like Audie in the picture. It matched perfectly. I also had her move her hands up the barrel and made more comparisons to the picture. Still a perfect match. Lastly, I had a professional authenticator successfully examine the picture along with my gun to confirm it was a Winchester rifle like my father’s.

Connecting the Dots
So now I have my dad’s word, some family history connecting us to the Murphys, and a childhood picture of Audie holding a rifle matching the one I have in my possession.
Backtracking a bit for a moment – many years ago I was sifting through some family pictures my mother handed down to me. I came across a picture of a small group of women standing together by an old white house (it was more like a shack) with the solemn background of a cotton field.

My mother – thank goodness! – could always be relied upon to put the names of people who were pictured on the back of photos for future reference. When I flipped the card over, I was elated to find that she had written “Audie’s sister” as one of the ladies in the picture!

Now I have a dated rifle, a picture of Audie with a very similar looking rifle, and a picture showing that our families did intertwine with each other. I wished there had been more pictures like this, but I'm sure they were hard to come by during the Depression era. I was ecstatic to have at least this one, almost conclusive, piece of evidence.

The Light at the End of a Very Long Tunnel
Pushing forward about five years, I finally saw the light at the end of a very long tunnel.

I thought it would be a good time to reach back out to Audie’s last, surviving, immediate family member, Nadine. Some years had passed since we first spoke, and I wasn’t sure she was even still alive or would accept any contact.

Again, I reached out to the museum, and they gave me the good news that she was still alive, but aging. The people at the museum told me she would only accept mail as communication. I set out to write her an update on what I had discovered and requested that we meet so I could show her the rifle.

I waited for her response for several weeks to point that I assumed she wasn't going to respond at all. Then, one day, to my surprise, I received a letter back from her. Again, in her persistent Irish way wrote, she said she did not know of me or the gun and that it was so long ago.

Well, being a stubborn Irishman myself, I googled her phone number and found a match. Before I called her, I looked at my wife and exclaimed, “I am a sixty-one-year-old male, and I am terrified to call this lady!”

But I did call her. An older female answered the phone: “Hello?” I thought, “So far, so good!” I asked her, “Are you Nadine, Audie's sister?” Her reply was, “Yes I am…”
All of a sudden, I couldn't speak. A lump developed in my throat, and I was afraid she was going to hang up on me if I told her who I was. I finally untied my tongue and took a deep swallow before I told her I was William Trammell, the man who mailed her the letter about the rifle.

Then the clouds parted, and sunshine filled the room. Nadine said she was so sorry about the brash letter response, and that she had been thinking of me ever since she had mailed it.

Thereafter, I had the most wonderful conversation from the loveliest lady since my own mother was alive. It turned out that Nadine had worked at Texas Instruments, where my mother worked as well. We discussed many things that night, and by the end of our conversation, I thought I was actually talking to my mother. She said that she thought I was an “good honest young man,” and added she was sorry that so many people have tried to approach her who deceived her family. She had just been protecting herself. I told her, “I don't blame you one bit for that. I would do the same if my brother were Audie Murphy!”

We ended a long, fruitful conversation, and at the end, I let slip quickly, as though I were talking on the phone with my own mother, "I love you.” She replied, "I love you, too.”

What a sweet woman to have had the time to spend with – even if were only by phone. I hope we get to meet each other in person at the Audie Murphy Day celebration in June 2019. That is our plan.

My wife overheard our conversation, and I was so excited that I wanted to keep talking about it. That's when I realized I have an Uncle John Smith (my mother's brother) who would be the same age as Nadine. Maybe he knew the Murphys?

I contacted Uncle John and asked if he ever remembered the Murphy family. He said, “Of course. One of them lived directly behind us at one time.”

Really? Now living “directly behind” someone then does not mean what it means now. The house my uncle referred to was on the other side of a cotton field, probably.
My Uncle John was born in 1934, as was Nadine. So they were much younger than Audie and my parents. Audie was born the same year as my mother – in 1925, not in 1924! He had to “exaggerate” his age to enter the service. Although Audie was born in Kingston, Texas, it was soon after that his family moved to Farmersville, where my family had already been established.

I told my uncle about the Winchester, and he said he remembered my father (Dub) showing it to him. My wife and I just recently returned from a trip to see my uncle. Once I showed him the gun, he remarked, “That’s it.”

The last piece of the puzzle is a snippet I found in a television documentary in which Nadine is interviewed. At the very end she talks about how great a shooter Audie was, and that they would have starved had it not been for his hunting skills. She goes on to say that, “He used a little old .22, but I’m not sure where he got it from.”

Well, I think I can safely say where he got it. It was my father’s Winchester rifle that he shared with Audie Murphy, and which is still in my possession today.


Audie Murphy, From World War II Hero to Hollywood Hitmaker

Audie Murphy was a bona fide World War II hero, a term which, in these days of endless American conflicts, seems both antiquated and slightly offensive even. But in his time, Murphy — maybe the greatest war hero the country ever has seen — was an out-and-out superstar. He fashioned a grateful country's unbridled adulation into a career as one of Hollywood's biggest draws, most famously playing the lead role in his own film autobiography, "To Hell and Back."

Yet the war that made him famous, as is the case with many who fight, never left him.

"A hero is somebody who takes an abstract virtue and embodies it for a short time," says David A. Smith, the author of "The Price of Valor: The Life of Audie Murphy, America's Most Decorated Hero of World War II." Smith teaches history at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. "As human beings, we're not comfortable with abstractions. But if you show me what honor looks like, even a glimpse, I'll know. If you show me what valor looks like, then I'll know what it means.

"Audie Murphy fit the role of a hero. Being a hero is great for the society. But it's really hard on the person who, for a moment, becomes a hero."

The Roots of a Legend

Born in Hunt County, Texas, in 1925, the son of Irish sharecroppers, Audie Leon Murphy grew up in extreme poverty — the Great Depression began in 1929 — inside a family in turmoil. Murphy's father deserted the family when he was just a kid. When Murphy was 16, as World War II broke out in Europe, his mother died. Some of his younger siblings were placed in an orphanage.

"[T]o say that the family was poor would be an understatement. Poverty dogged our every step," Murphy wrote in "To Hell and Back," his 1949 memoir. "Year after year the babies had come until there were nine of us children living, and two dead. Getting food for our stomachs and clothes for our back was an ever-present problem. As soon as we were old enough to handle a plow, an ax, or a hoe, we were thrown into the struggle for existence," he wrote.

Just 5-foot-5 (1.6 meters) and barely 100 pounds (45 kilograms), Murphy dreamed of the service as a way out. After his mother died, he tried to join the Marines but was turned down for being too small and too young. He was finally accepted into the U.S. Army, with some tweaked documentation, in June 1942. He was just 17.

After his training in the States, Murphy was shipped to North Africa with the 3rd Infantry Division, the beginning of a short but unparalleled career in which he was awarded every medal for valor that the Army could confer. (Some of the original commendations are here.) One of his battlefield exploits, in particular, became legendary.

During a firefight in France on Jan. 26, 1945, an American tank destroyer was hit by German fire, setting it ablaze and forcing the crew to abandon. Murphy ordered artillery fire on the German positions and called for his men to retreat to nearby woods. But Murphy did not fall back. Instead, he mounted the burning tank, grabbed control of its .50-caliber machine gun, and faced with hostile fire from three sides for more than an hour, kept the Germans at bay, killing scores of them. Murphy was wounded in both legs in the fight.

He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions. From the his citation (via the Smithsonian Institution):

Murphy returned home to parades — some 300,000 people in San Antonio — more awards (from France and Belgium, too), and rewards that enabled him to buy a house for his older sister, where his younger siblings came to live for some time. On July 16, 1945, a smiling Murphy was featured on the cover of Life Magazine with the words "Most Decorated Soldier."


6. Tidak patah (2014)

After crashing their plane in WWII, Olympian Louis Zamperini spends 47 days on a life raft with two fellow crewmen. Eventually, he’s caught by the Japanese and sent to a prisoner-of-war camp where he’s tortured and forced to endure hard labor — but he never gives up.

(Image via Universal Pictures)


North Korea threatens pre-emptive strikes after ‘madcap joint military drills’

Posted On February 04, 2020 17:24:11

North Korea has threatened its own pre-emptive strikes in response to recent drills for “decapitation” strikes by U.S. and South Korean special operations forces aimed at taking out the leadership in Pyongyang.

The simulated strikes reportedly targeted the upper echelons of the North Korean regime, including leader Kim Jong Un, as well as key nuclear sites.

They also involved the participation of the U.S. Navy’s SEAL Team 6 — the outfit famed for killing al-Qaida founder Osama bin Laden in Pakistan in 2011, the Asahi Shimbun reported earlier this month. Media reports said a number of U.S. special operations forces also participated, including U.S. Army Rangers, Delta Force and Green Berets.

North Korea recently launched satellite-carrying Unha rockets, which is the same delivery system as North Korea’s Taepodong-2 ballistic missile, which was tested successfully in December 2012 and January 2016. (Photo: Reuters/KNCA)

In a statement released March 26 by the Korean People’s Army (KPA), a spokesman said the “madcap joint military drills” would be met with the North’s “own style of special operation and pre-emptive attack,” which it said could come “without prior warning any time.”

The statement, published by the official Korean Central News Agency, said the U.S. and South Korea “should think twice about the catastrophic consequences to be entailed by their outrageous military actions.

“The KPA’s warning is not hot air,” the statement added.

In mid-March, several U.S. Marine F-35B stealth fighter jets conducted bombing practice runs over the Korean Peninsula as a part of the joint exercises, the South’s Yonhap news agency reported Saturday.

The dispatch of the fighters, based at Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni in Yamaguchi Prefecture, was the first time they had been sent to the Korean Peninsula. The fighters returned to Japan after the drills wrapped up.

Pyongyang has stepped up efforts to mount a nuclear warhead on a long-range missile over the last year and a half, conducting two atomic explosions and more than 25 missile launches — including an apparent simulated nuclear strike on the U.S. base at Iwakuni.

In the event of conflict on the Korean Peninsula, U.S. troops and equipment from Iwakuni would likely be among the first deployed.

The administration of U.S. President Donald Trump is in the midst of a policy review on North Korea, and has said all options, including military action, remain on the table.

But this review could be bumped up Trump’s list of priorities in the near future.

U.S. and South Korean intelligence sources, as well as recent satellite imagery, has shown that the North is apparently ready to conduct its sixth nuclear test at any time, media reports have said.

MIGHTY TRENDING

Audie Murphy received every combat award which the United States Army could offer, as well as awards from its European Allies France and Belgium, for his heroism as an infantryman during the Second World War. He wrote memoirs of his combat days entitled To Hell and Back and appeared as himself in a film made of the book under the same name.

Murphy enjoyed a film career of just over twenty years, in war films and westerns, and eventually branched into television. Murphy became an accomplished horse breeder and though not a performing musician wrote several songs which were recorded by artists such as Harry Nilsson, Roy Clark, Bobby Dare, Dean Martin, and many others.

In late May of 1971, Murphy was killed in a private airplane crash near Roanoke, Virginia. He was buried with military honors at Arlington National Cemetery, and his widow began what became a 35-year career with the Veteran&rsquos Administration as a clerk, living in a small apartment in Los Angeles. Given that the war hero had enjoyed a lengthy and successful career in entertainment, with a best-selling book, numerous successful films, and television and music success, questions arose over his finances. What happened to Murphy&rsquos money?

Most of his money was lost in poor investments with his horses. Murphy made many bad business decisions regarding his horse breeding investments and the losses contributed to a depression that originated in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) resulting from his combat experiences. He developed a gambling habit that put greater strain on his available funds. He tried to make business deals in areas in which he had little expertise &ndash looking for a quick return &ndash and lost still more money.

In the late 1960s, an oil deal in Algeria collapsed costing Murphy over a quarter of a million, and unpaid taxes to the IRS were troubling him too. Murphy, a child of the depression, had come from a virtually destitute family and sadly died in similar circumstances. After his death, a lawsuit over the causes of the plane crash in which he died eventually afforded his family some financial relief.


Tonton videonya: AUDIE MURPHY, PRAJURIT AMERIKA SENDIRIAN HADAPI RATUSAN TENTARA JERMAN DAN TANK PANZER IV