Ernest Hemingway cedera di bahagian depan Itali

Ernest Hemingway cedera di bahagian depan Itali


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Pada 8 Julai 1918, Ernest Hemingway, pemandu ambulans berusia 18 tahun untuk Palang Merah Amerika, dilanggar oleh peluru mortar ketika berkhidmat di bahagian depan Itali, di sepanjang delta Piave, dalam Perang Dunia I.

Berasal dari Oak Park, Illinois, Hemingway bekerja sebagai wartawan untuk Bintang Bandar Kansas ketika perang meletus di Eropah pada tahun 1914. Dia menjadi sukarelawan untuk Palang Merah di Perancis sebelum Amerika memasuki perang pada bulan April 1917 dan kemudian dipindahkan ke barisan depan Itali, di mana dia berada di tangannya untuk rentetan kejayaan Itali di sepanjang Piave delta pada hari-hari pertama Julai 1918, di mana 3.000 orang Austria ditawan.

Pada malam 8 Julai 1918, Hemingway disambar oleh peluru mortar Austria sambil menyerahkan coklat kepada askar Itali dalam keadaan digali. Pukulan itu membuatnya tidak sedarkan diri dan mengebumikannya di bumi dugout; serpihan cengkerang memasuki kaki kanan dan lututnya dan memukul paha, kulit kepala dan tangannya. Dua askar Itali yang berdiri di antara Hemingway dan titik cengkerang cangkang itu tidak begitu bernasib baik, bagaimanapun: seorang terbunuh seketika dan yang lain kedua kakinya diletupkan dan mati tidak lama kemudian.

Rakan Hemingway, Ted Brumbach, yang mengunjunginya di hospital, menulis kepada ibu bapa Hemingway bahawa: "Orang Itali ketiga cedera parah dan yang satu ini, Ernest, setelah dia kembali sedar, mengangkat punggungnya dan dibawa ke tempat pertolongan cemas. mengatakan dia tidak ingat bagaimana dia sampai di sana, dan juga bahawa dia membawa lelaki itu, sehingga keesokan harinya, ketika seorang pegawai Itali memberitahunya semua tentangnya dan mengatakan bahawa telah terpilih untuk memberinya pingat keberanian untuk tindakan itu. " Seperti yang dilaporkan Brumbach, Hemingway dianugerahkan pingat keberanian Itali, Croce de Guerra, atas jasanya. Seperti yang dia tulis dalam suratnya sendiri setelah kejadian itu: "Semuanya baik-baik saja dan saya sangat selesa dan salah seorang pakar bedah terbaik di Milan menjaga luka saya."

Pengalaman Hemingway di Itali semasa Perang Dunia I akan menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari keperibadiannya yang lebih besar daripada kehidupan, dan juga bahan untuk salah satu novelnya yang paling disayangi, Perpisahan kepada Senjata, yang menceritakan cinta seorang pemandu ambulans Amerika muda untuk seorang jururawat Inggeris yang cantik di bahagian depan Itali semasa Perang Besar.

BACA LEBIH LANJUT: Adakah Ernest Hemingway adalah Perisik?


Sejarah Alam Orang Mati

Tiba di mana loji peluru itu, ada di antara kita yang melakukan rondaan mengenai stok peluru yang besar yang untuk beberapa alasan tidak meletup, sementara yang lain dipadamkan untuk memadamkan api yang masuk ke rumput ladang bersebelahan yang tugasnya menyimpulkan, kami diperintahkan untuk mencari kawasan mayat dan ladang di sekitarnya. Kami menjumpai dan membawa ke bilik mayat improvisasi sejumlah besar dan, saya harus mengakui, terus terang, sungguh mengejutkan apabila mendapati bahawa mereka yang mati adalah wanita dan bukannya lelaki. Pada masa itu wanita belum mula memakai potongan rambut mereka, seperti yang mereka lakukan kemudian selama beberapa tahun di Eropah dan Amerika, dan perkara yang paling mengganggu, mungkin kerana yang paling tidak biasa, adalah kehadiran dan, lebih mengganggu lagi, kadang-kadang ketiadaan rambut panjang ini.

Saya masih ingat bahawa setelah kita mencari dengan teliti untuk mati, kita mengumpulkan serpihan. Sebilangan besarnya terlepas dari pagar kawat berduri yang berat yang mengelilingi kedudukan kilang dan dari bahagian yang masih ada di mana kita memilih banyak bit yang terlepas ini yang menggambarkan terlalu baik tenaga letupan tinggi. Banyak serpihan yang kami dapati jauh di ladang, mereka dibawa lebih jauh dengan berat badan mereka sendiri.

Seorang naturalis, untuk mendapatkan ketepatan pemerhatian, mungkin mengurung dirinya dalam pemerhatiannya dalam satu tempoh terhad dan saya akan mengambil yang pertama setelah serangan Austria pada bulan Jun, 1918, ketika orang mati hadir dalam jumlah paling banyak, penarikan diri kerana terpaksa dan pendahuluan kemudian dibuat untuk memulihkan tanah yang hilang sehingga kedudukan setelah pertempuran sama seperti sebelumnya kecuali untuk kehadiran orang mati.

Sehingga orang mati dikebumikan, mereka berubah rupa setiap hari. Perubahan warna pada kaum Kaukasia adalah dari putih ke kuning, menjadi kuning-hijau, hingga hitam. Jika dibiarkan cukup lama dalam panas, daging akan menyerupai tar batu arang batu, terutama di mana ia telah pecah atau koyak, dan ia mempunyai warna warni seperti tar. Orang mati bertambah besar setiap hari sehingga kadang-kadang mereka menjadi terlalu besar untuk pakaian seragam mereka, mengenakannya sehingga kelihatan seperti cukup ditiup untuk meletup. Anggota-anggota individu boleh bertambah lebar sehingga tahap yang luar biasa dan wajah-wajahnya penuh sesak dan globular seperti belon.

Perkara yang mengejutkan, di samping penyakit progresif mereka, adalah jumlah kertas yang tersebar mengenai orang mati. Kedudukan utama mereka, sebelum ada pertanyaan mengenai pengebumian, bergantung pada lokasi poket dalam pakaian seragam. Di tentera Austria, poket ini berada di belakang bokong dan orang mati, setelah sekejap, semuanya berbaring di wajah mereka, kedua-dua poket pinggul ditarik keluar dan, tersebar di sekelilingnya di rumput, semua kertas itu ada di saku mereka terkandung. Panas, lalat, kedudukan indikasi mayat di rumput, dan jumlah kertas yang tersebar adalah kesan yang dikekalkan oleh seseorang. Bau medan perang dalam cuaca panas tidak dapat dikenang. Anda boleh ingat bahawa ada bau seperti itu, tetapi tidak ada yang berlaku kepada anda untuk membawanya kembali.

Perkara pertama yang anda dapati mengenai orang mati adalah bahawa, apabila dipukul dengan teruk, mereka mati seperti binatang. Sebilangan cepat dari luka kecil anda tidak menyangka akan membunuh seekor arnab. Mereka mati akibat luka kecil kerana arnab kadang-kadang mati akibat tiga dari empat butir kecil tembakan yang hampir tidak boleh memecahkan kulit. Yang lain akan mati seperti kucing tengkorak yang pecah dan besi di otak, mereka hidup dua hari seperti kucing yang merangkak ke tong sampah dengan peluru di otak dan tidak akan mati sehingga anda memotong kepalanya. Mungkin kucing tidak mati ketika itu, mereka mengatakan bahawa mereka mempunyai sembilan nyawa, saya tidak tahu, tetapi kebanyakan lelaki mati seperti haiwan, bukan lelaki.

Satu-satunya kematian semula jadi yang pernah saya lihat, di luar kehilangan darah, yang tidak buruk, adalah kematian akibat selesema Sepanyol. Di sini anda tenggelam dalam lendir, tersedak, dan bagaimana anda tahu bahawa pesakit mati: pada akhirnya dia berubah menjadi anak kecil lagi, walaupun dengan kekuatan jantannya, dan mengisi cadar seutas mana pun popok dengan satu yang besar, akhir , katarak kuning yang mengalir dan menggelecek setelah dia hilang.

Cuaca tidak selalu panas bagi si mati, sering kali hujan yang membasuh mereka bersih ketika mereka berbaring di dalamnya dan membuat bumi menjadi lembut ketika mereka dikuburkan di dalamnya dan kadang-kadang kemudian terus sampai bumi lumpur dan dibasuh mereka keluar dan anda harus menguburkannya lagi. Atau pada musim sejuk di pergunungan, anda harus meletakkannya di salji dan ketika salji mencair pada musim bunga, orang lain harus menguburkannya.

Mereka mempunyai tanah perkuburan yang indah di pergunungan, perang di pergunungan adalah yang paling indah dari semua perang, dan di salah satu dari mereka, di tempat yang disebut Pocol, mereka menguburkan seorang jenderal yang ditembak oleh kepala oleh penembak tepat. Di sinilah penulis yang keliru menulis buku yang disebut Jeneral Mati di Ranjang, kerana jeneral ini mati di parit yang digali salji, tinggi di pergunungan, memakai topi Alpine dengan bulu helang di dalamnya dan lubang di depan anda tidak dapat meletakkan jari kelingking anda dan lubang di belakang anda boleh meletakkan penumbuk ke dalam, jika itu kepalan kecil dan anda mahu meletakkannya di sana, dan banyak darah di salji.


Sumber Utama

(1) Ernest Hemingway kemudian menulis tentang pengalamannya bekerja dengan Palang Merah semasa Perang Dunia Pertama.

Seseorang menjadi begitu terbiasa dengan semua lelaki yang mati sehingga penglihatan wanita mati cukup mengejutkan. Saya pertama kali melihat pembalikan jenis kelamin orang mati selepas letupan sebuah kilang peluru yang terletak di kawasan luar bandar berhampiran Milan. Kami pergi ke lokasi bencana dengan trak di sepanjang jalan yang berlindung dengan poplar. Tiba di mana loji peluru itu, ada di antara kita yang melakukan rondaan mengenai stok amunisi besar yang untuk beberapa alasan tidak meletup, sementara yang lain dipadamkan untuk memadamkan api yang telah masuk ke rumput ladang bersebelahan yang tugasnya disimpulkan, kami diperintahkan untuk mencari kawasan mayat dan kawasan sekitar untuk mencari mayat. Kami menjumpai dan membawa ke bilik mayat improvisasi sejumlah besar dan saya harus mengakui, terus terang, kejutannya apabila mendapati bahawa mereka yang mati adalah wanita dan bukannya lelaki.

(2) Ernest Hemingway cedera parah ketika berada di barisan depan di Itali pada bulan Julai 1918.

Ada kilat, seperti ketika pintu tungku terbuka, dan raungan yang mulai putih dan merah. Saya cuba bernafas tetapi nafas saya tidak akan datang. Tanah dirobohkan dan di depan kepalaku ada balok kayu yang terbelah. Dalam sentakan kepalaku terdengar seseorang menangis. Saya mendengar mesingan dan senapang melepaskan tembakan di seberang sungai. Saya cuba bergerak tetapi saya tidak dapat bergerak.

(3) Ernest Hemingway ditemuramah oleh seorang wakil Agensi Akhbar Sepanyol pada 11 Mei 1937.

Semua perang saudara secara semula jadi panjang. Perlu berbulan-bulan, kadang-kadang bertahun-tahun, untuk mewujudkan organisasi perang di bahagian depan dan belakang dan mengubah ribuan orang awam yang bersemangat menjadi tentera. Dan transformasi ini hanya dapat dilakukan dengan menjalani pengalaman pertempuran yang hidup. Sekiranya anda mengabaikan peraturan asas ini, anda berisiko mendapat idea palsu mengenai watak perang saudara Sepanyol.

Sebilangan besar surat khabar Amerika, yang diakui dengan itikad baik, belum lama ini memberi gambaran kepada pembaca mereka bahawa Kerajaan kalah dalam perang kerana rendahnya ketenteraannya ketika tercetusnya konflik. Kesalahan surat khabar Amerika ini adalah kesalahan watak perang saudara, dan tidak menyimpulkan kesimpulan logik dari sejarah Perang Saudara Amerika.

Keadaan tentera Sepanyol, menyusuli hari-hari yang menggembirakan pada bulan Mac, secara konsisten bertambah baik. Tentera tetap yang baru sedang terbentuk yang merupakan model disiplin dan keberanian dan yang secara diam-diam mengembangkan kader baru di akademi dan sekolah tentera. Saya benar-benar percaya bahawa tentera baru ini, yang lahir dari perjuangan, tidak lama lagi akan menjadi kekaguman seluruh Eropah, walaupun pada hakikatnya hampir dua tahun yang lalu tentera Sepanyol dianggap sebagai kumpulan individu yang menyerupai pelakon dalam sebuah komik komik.

Sebagai wartawan perang, saya mesti mengatakan bahawa di beberapa negara seorang wartawan mendapati tugasnya difasilitasi sedemikian rupa seperti di Republik Sepanyol, di mana seorang wartawan dapat benar-benar mengatakan yang sebenarnya dan di mana penapisan menolongnya dalam pekerjaannya, dan bukannya menghalangnya. Walaupun pihak berkuasa di zon pemberontak tidak membenarkan wartawan memasuki kota-kota yang ditaklukkan sehingga beberapa hari kemudian, di republik Sepanyol wartawan diminta untuk menjadi saksi mata peristiwa.

(4) Alvah Bessie, Lelaki dalam Pertempuran (1939)

Di Ebro. negara ini begitu bergunung-gunung seolah-olah beberapa senapang boleh menahan sejuta orang. Kami kembali ke bawah, menyusuri jalan-jalan tepi jalan, persimpangan jalan, melalui bandar-bandar kecil, dan di lereng bukit berhampiran Rasquera kami menjumpai tiga orang kami: George Watt dan John Gates (Brigade Commissar kemudian), Joe Hecht. Mereka terbaring di tanah yang dibalut selimut di bawah selimut yang mereka telanjang. Mereka memberitahu kami bahawa mereka telah menelan Ebro pada awal pagi bahawa lelaki lain telah berenang dan lemas bahawa mereka tidak mengetahui apa-apa tentang Merriman atau Doran, yang menyangka mereka telah ditangkap. Mereka pernah ke Gandesa, telah dipotong di sana, telah berjuang keluar, bepergian pada waktu malam, ditembak oleh artileri. Anda dapat melihat mereka enggan bercakap, jadi kami duduk bersama mereka. Joe kelihatan mati.

Di bawah kami terdapat ratusan lelaki dari British, Batalion Kanada sebuah trak makanan telah datang, dan mereka diberi makan. Roadster Matford yang baru memandu di sekitar bukit dan berhenti di dekat kami, dan dua lelaki keluar yang kami kenali. Yang satu itu tinggi, kurus, berpakaian korduroi coklat, memakai cermin mata berlindung tanduk. Dia mempunyai wajah yang panjang, pertapa, bibir yang tegas, pandangan suram tentangnya. Yang lain lebih tinggi, berat, berwajah merah, salah satu lelaki terbesar yang pernah anda lihat dia memakai kacamata berbingkai keluli dan misai lebat. Ini adalah Herbert Matthews dari The New York Times dan Ernest Hemingway, dan mereka berasa lega melihat kami seperti kami melihat mereka. Kami memperkenalkan diri dan mereka bertanya. Mereka mempunyai rokok yang mereka berikan kepada kami Lucky Strikes dan Chesterfields. Matthews nampaknya selalu pahit.

Hemingway bersemangat ketika masih kecil, dan saya tersenyum mengingat pertama kali saya melihatnya, di Kongres Penulis di New York. Dia membuat pidato umum perdana, dan ketika tidak membaca dengan benar, dia marah padanya, mengulangi kalimat yang dia lontarkan, dengan ketegasan yang luar biasa. Sekarang dia seperti kanak-kanak besar, dan kamu menyukainya. Dia mengajukan soalan seperti kanak-kanak: & quot Lalu bagaimana? Apa yang berlaku kemudian? Dan apa yang anda buat? Dan apa yang dia katakan? Dan kemudian apa yang anda buat? & Quot; Matthews tidak mengatakan apa-apa, tetapi dia mengambil nota pada sehelai kertas yang dilipat. & quot; Siapa nama anda? & quot; kata Hemingway saya memberitahunya. & quot; Oh, & quot; katanya, & quot; Saya sangat gembira melihat anda telah membaca barang-barang anda. & quot; Saya tahu dia gembira melihat saya itu membuat saya merasa baik, dan saya merasa kasihan dengan masa-masa saya mengecamnya dalam tulisan saya berharap dia melupakan mereka, atau tidak pernah membacanya. "Di sini," katanya sambil meraih di dalam poketnya. "Saya mendapat lebih banyak." Dia menyerahkan sebungkus Lucky Strikes kepada saya.

(5) Ernest Hemingway, pidato pada pertemuan Kongres Penulis (4 Julai 1937)

Masalah penulis tidak berubah. Dia sendiri berubah, tetapi masalahnya tetap sama. Selalu bagaimana menulis dengan betul dan setelah mengetahui apa yang benar, memproyeksikannya sedemikian rupa sehingga menjadi sebahagian daripada pengalaman orang yang membacanya. Penulis yang benar-benar baik selalu dihargai di bawah hampir semua sistem pemerintahan yang ada yang dapat mereka toleransi. Hanya ada satu bentuk pemerintahan yang tidak dapat menghasilkan penulis yang baik, dan sistem itu adalah fasisme. Bagi fasisme adalah pembohongan yang diceritakan oleh pengganggu. Seorang penulis yang tidak akan berbohong tidak boleh hidup dan bekerja di bawah fasisme.

(6) Mary Rolfe berada di Sepanyol semasa Perang Saudara Sepanyol. Dia menulis surat kepada Leo Hurwitz mengenai pengalamannya pada 25 November 1938.

Hemingway berada di sini selama beberapa hari - tetapi setelah anda bertemu dengannya anda tidak mungkin akan melupakannya. Pada hari dia datang, saya agak sakit hati, tetapi Ed datang dan bangun dari tempat tidur untuk menemuinya. Semasa saya masuk ke bilik di mana dia berada, dia duduk di meja dan saya tidak bersedia untuk menjadi gergasi yang menjulang tinggi. Saya hampir menggunakan jari kaki saya untuk mencapai tangannya yang terentang - saya tidak perlu, tetapi itu adalah reaksi pertama saya. Dia hebat - tidak hanya tinggi tetapi besar - di kepala, badan, tangan. "Halo", katanya - melihat saya dan kemudian ke Ed dan berkata, "Anda pasti anda berdua bukan abang dan kakak?" ketika kami memandu pulang ke hotel dari suatu tempat surat-menyuratnya dengan Freddy Keller - bagaimana dia memberitahu Freddy bahawa dia mempunyai barang-barang yang baik, tetapi dia mesti belajar - mesti mendidik dirinya dan lebih penting lagi mempelajari Marx. Itulah yang telah dilakukannya sepanjang musim sejuk di Key West, katanya kepada kami - jika tidak, dia berkata, anda adalah penyedut - anda tidak akan tahu apa-apa sehingga anda belajar Marx. Semua ini dinyatakan dalam kalimat pendek - tanpa cubaan tanda baca. Sebelum dia pergi, dia memberi kami baki peruntukannya - bukan secara isyarat, hanya memberikannya kepada kami kerana dia tahu kami memerlukannya dan kerana dia ingin memberikannya kepada kami. Saya masih kagum dengan ukuran dirinya - dia benar-benar lelaki yang sangat besar!

(7) Selepas Perang Saudara Sepanyol, Ernest Hemingway menulis mengenai peranan Briged Antarabangsa.

Si mati tidur sejuk di Sepanyol malam ini. Salji bertiup melalui kebun zaitun, menyaring akar pokok. Salji melayang di atas gundukan dengan kepala katil kecil. Kerana orang mati kita adalah sebahagian dari bumi Sepanyol sekarang dan bumi Sepanyol tidak akan pernah mati. Setiap musim sejuk akan kelihatan mati dan setiap musim bunga akan hidup kembali. Orang mati kita akan hidup dengannya selama-lamanya.

Lebih 40,000 sukarelawan dari 52 negara berpusu-pusu ke Sepanyol antara tahun 1936 dan 1939 untuk mengambil bahagian dalam perjuangan bersejarah antara demokrasi dan fasisme yang dikenali sebagai Perang Saudara Sepanyol.

Lima kumpulan sukarelawan antarabangsa bertempur atas nama pemerintah Republik yang dipilih secara demokratik (atau Loyalis). Sebilangan besar sukarelawan Amerika Utara bertugas di unit yang dikenali sebagai brigade ke-15, yang merangkumi batalion Abraham Lincoln, batalion George Washington dan batalion Mackenzie-Papineau (sebahagian besar Kanada). Semua diberitahu, kira-kira 2,800 orang Amerika, 1,250 orang Kanada dan 800 orang Kuba berkhidmat di Briged Antarabangsa. Lebih 80 sukarelawan A.S. adalah orang Afrika-Amerika. Sebenarnya, Batalion Lincoln diketuai oleh Oliver Law, seorang Afrika-Amerika dari Chicago, sehingga dia mati dalam pertempuran.

(8) Ernest Hemingway, Di bawah Ridge (1938)

Hari itu adalah hari April yang cerah dan angin bertiup kencang sehingga setiap keldai yang muncul di celah mengangkat awan debu, dan kedua-dua lelaki di hujung tandu masing-masing mengangkat awan debu yang bertiup bersama dan membuatnya, dan di bawahnya, di seberang sungai yang rata, debu panjang bergerak keluar dari ambulans dan menghembus angin.

Saya merasa sangat yakin bahawa saya tidak akan terbunuh pada hari itu, kerana kami telah melakukan kerja dengan baik pada waktu pagi, dan dua kali semasa bahagian awal serangan, kami semestinya terbunuh dan tidak dan ini memberi saya keyakinan . Kali pertama adalah ketika kami pergi dengan kereta kebal dan memilih tempat untuk membuat serangan. Kemudian saya tiba-tiba tidak percaya dengan tempat itu dan kami telah memindahkan kamera kira-kira dua ratus ela ke kiri. Tepat sebelum pergi, saya telah menandakan tempat itu dengan cara tertua iaitu menandai tempat, dan dalam sepuluh minit cangkang enam inci telah menyala di tempat yang tepat di mana saya pernah berada dan tidak ada jejak manusia yang pernah ada pernah ke sana. Sebaliknya, terdapat lubang besar dan jelas di bumi.

Kemudian, dua jam kemudian, seorang pegawai Poland, yang baru saja melepaskan diri dari batalion dan melekat pada staf, telah menawarkan untuk menunjukkan kepada kami kedudukan yang baru ditangkap oleh orang-orang Polandia, dan, datang dari bawah lereng bukit, kami telah memasuki tembakan senapang mesin yang terpaksa kami hayun keluar dari bawah dengan dagu yang rapat ke tanah dan debu di hidung kami, dan pada masa yang sama membuat penemuan menyedihkan bahawa orang Poland tidak menangkap kedudukan pada hari itu tetapi sedikit lebih jauh kembali dari tempat mereka bermula. Dan sekarang, berbaring di tempat perlindungan parit, saya basah dengan peluh, lapar dan dahaga dan berlubang di dalam dari bahaya serangan yang kini sudah selesai.

(9) Alvah Bessie, Lelaki dalam Pertempuran (1939)

Ernest Hemingway membunuh diri pada 2 Julai 1961. Tampaknya dia merasakan bahawa dia telah melalui - sebagai penulis dan juga lelaki. Dedikasinya untuk tujuan Republik Sepanyol tidak pernah dipersoalkan, walaupun orang-orang VALB menyerang novelnya, For Whom the Bell Tolls, sebagai karut romantis ketika tidak memfitnah banyak pemimpin Sepanyol yang kita semua dihormati, dan hampir tidak mewakili dari apa perang itu.

& salin John Simkin, April 2013


Hari ini dalam sejarah: Ernest Hemingway dilahirkan

Ernest Hemingway (21 Julai 1899 & # 8211 2 Julai 1961) adalah salah satu pengarang Amerika yang paling popular. Gaya ekonominya mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terhadap fiksyen abad ke-20. Hemingway menghasilkan sebahagian besar karyanya antara pertengahan 1920-an dan pertengahan 1950-an, dan memenangi Hadiah Nobel dalam Sastera pada tahun 1954. Dia menerbitkan tujuh novel, enam koleksi cerpen, dan dua karya bukan fiksyen. Tiga lagi novel, empat koleksi cerpen, dan tiga karya bukan fiksyen diterbitkan selepas kematian. Banyak karyanya dianggap klasik Amerika.

Walaupun sering dikritik karena hipermasculinisme yang kuat, dengan tekanan homofobia dan anti-Semitisme dalam penulisannya, secara keseluruhan dia mengenal pasti kecenderungan politik progresif pada zamannya, dan menganggap banyak penulis dan intelektual di sebelah kiri sebagai rakan sekerja dan rakan.

Sebagai Hemingway yang berusia 18 tahun berangkat ke front Itali untuk mendaftar dengan pemandu ambulans Perang Dunia I. Pada tahun 1918, dia cedera parah dan pulang ke rumah. Pengalaman masa perangnya menjadi asas bagi novelnya tahun 1929 Perpisahan kepada Senjata. & # 8220Apabila anda berperang sebagai budak lelaki, anda mempunyai khayalan keabadian yang hebat, & # 8221 Hemingway mengatakan mengenai kejadian itu. & # 8220Orang lain tidak terbunuh bukan anda & # 8230 Kemudian apabila anda cedera parah pada kali pertama anda kehilangan ilusi itu dan anda tahu ia boleh berlaku kepada anda. & # 8221

Pada tahun 1921, kini berkahwin & # 8211 dengan yang pertama dari empat isterinya yang terakhir & # 8211 dia berpindah ke Paris, di mana dia bekerja sebagai koresponden dan bergabung dengan penulis dan seniman moden dari tahun 1920-an & # 8220Lost Generation & # 8221 komuniti ekspatriat. Dia menerbitkan novel pertamanya, Matahari Juga Terbit, pada tahun 1926, yang mana banyak pengkritik menganggap karya terbaiknya. Tumpuannya adalah budaya pertempuran banteng Sepanyol.

Semasa Perang Saudara Sepanyol (1936-39), Hemingway pergi ke Sepanyol sebagai wartawan. Akhir tahun 1937, semasa di Madrid, Hemingway menulis satu-satunya drama, Lajur Kelima, ketika kota itu dibom. Dia berkolaborasi dengan komposer Marc Blitzstein dan Virgil Thomson, dan pembuat filem Joris Ivens, dalam filem penggalangan dana untuk Loyalis Sepanyol yang disebut Bumi Sepanyol. Kembali ke Sepanyol pada tahun 1938, dia hadir dalam Pertempuran Ebro, pendirian republik terakhir, dan merupakan antara wartawan terakhir yang meninggalkan pertempuran ketika mereka menyeberangi sungai. Pada bulan Ogos 1939 Hemingway adalah salah satu daripada 400 intelektual AS yang menandatangani surat terbuka & # 8220Kepada Semua Penyokong Aktif Demokrasi dan Perdamaian & # 8221 yang menyatakan bahawa & # 8220tindakan & # 8221 telah & # 8220membakar kepalsuan yang luar biasa bahawa Uni Soviet dan negara-negara totaliter pada dasarnya sama & # 8221 dan mendakwa bahawa USSR telah & # 8220 memperlihatkan demokrasi yang terus berkembang dalam setiap bidang. & # 8221

Setelah perang Sepanyol berakhir dia menulis Bagi Siapa Tol Bell (1940), yang menjadi pilihan Kelab Book-of-the-Month, menjual setengah juta salinan dalam beberapa bulan, dan membantu menghidupkan kembali reputasi sastera pengarang.

Pada tahun 1939, Hemingway menyeberang dengan perahu dari rumahnya di Key West ke Cuba. Dengan isterinya yang baru menjadi calon Martha Gellhorn, dia menyewa & # 8220Finca Vigia & # 8221 (Lookout Farm), sebuah harta tanah seluas 15 ekar yang berjarak 25 km dari Havana. Dia kemudian membelinya untuk kediaman musim sejuknya. Ia menjadi terkenal kerana puluhan kucing yang dibiarkannya berkeliaran dan membiak di sana.

Hemingway berada di London semasa Perang Dunia II, hadir di pendaratan Normandia dan pembebasan Paris 1944.

Sejurus selepas penerbitan Orang Tua dan Laut (1952), ditempatkan di Cuba, yang memenangkannya sebagai Hadiah Pulitzer, Hemingway pergi ke safari ke Afrika, di mana dia hampir terbunuh dalam dua kecelakaan pesawat berturut-turut yang menyebabkan dia kesakitan atau sakit sepanjang hayatnya.

Setelah Revolusi Hemingway tetap dalam hubungan mudah dengan pemerintah, memberitahu New York Times bahawa dia & # 8220dilight & # 8221 dengan Castro & # 8217s penggulingan diktator Fulgencio Batista. Dia terkenal melakukan lawatan memancing bersama Fidel Castro. Pada bulan Julai 1960, Hemingways meninggalkan Cuba untuk kali terakhir, meninggalkan seni dan manuskrip di peti besi bank di Havana. Selepas Invasi Teluk Babi 1961, sesuai dengan kebijakan menasionalisasi harta benda Amerika di Kuba, Finca Vigia diambil alih oleh pemerintah Kuba, lengkap dengan koleksi Hemingway & # 8217 dari beberapa ribu buku. The Finca adalah tempat pelancongan yang popular sekarang. Dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, pemerintah Kuba membuat perjanjian dengan institusi akademik Amerika untuk menyalin kertas kerja Hemingway & # 8217s dan menyediakannya untuk para sarjana.

Pada tahun 1959, dia telah membeli sebuah rumah di Ketchum, Idaho, di mana, masih menderita kesakitan dan kemurungan, dia membunuh diri pada tahun 1961.

Diadaptasi dari Wikipedia dan sumber lain.

Foto: Hemingway (tengah) bersama pembuat filem Belanda Joris Ivens dan penulis Jerman Ludwig Renn (bertugas sebagai pegawai Briged Antarabangsa) di Sepanyol semasa Perang Saudara Sepanyol, 1937. | Wikimedia (CC)


Lelaki Tua dan Laut (dan Tommy Gun-nya)

Hemingway & ldquofishing & rdquo dengan senapang mesin Thompson miliknya.

Karya terkenal Ernest Hemingway & lsquos, the Lelaki Tua dan Laut, mungkin lebih benar dari hidup daripada yang anda tahu. Nampaknya olahragawati / penulis bermain sendiri dengan sebungkus jerung di atas marlin setengah tan besar. Tidak banyak yang mereka tahu Heming-cara termasuk mengemas pistol Thachson submachine ke dalam kotak peralatan.

Lelaki & Dunia Paling Menarik di Dunia & rsquo

Ernest Miller Hemingway, yang dilahirkan dalam enam bulan terakhir tahun 1899, sepertinya berada dalam pertandingan sepanjang hayat untuk mencetak setiap tempat di kad mannya. Pada usia 18 tahun, dia cedera di bahagian depan Itali semasa Perang Dunia 1 ketika berkhidmat sebagai pemandu ambulans. Dia kemudian bertugas sebagai koresponden perang dalam tidak kurang dari tiga perang menembak langsung, bahkan berehat pada tahun 1944 untuk membantu mengatur serangan ke atas kedudukan Jerman oleh

Mabuk membanggakan, kisah ikan Hemingway & rsquos yang paling terkenal adalah berdasarkan pengalaman hidup sebenar.

Perlawanan Perancis dalam Perang Dunia 2. Seorang petinju amatur, dia biasa menaja pertandingannya sendiri dengan sukar, menawarkan $ 50 kepada sesiapa sahaja yang dapat melakukan jarak di gelanggang dengannya. Dia dan Orson Welles bahkan bertempur dengan janggut kerana perselisihan yang menyebabkan pukulan superman dan kerusi patah gaya WWE, kemudian ditambal dengan wiski.

Papa menjauh dari api sikat, kapal tenggelam, lima kemalangan kereta, dan tidak kurang dari dua kemalangan pesawat terpisah di Afrika, salah satunya meninggalkannya dengan sfinkter lumpuh dan bocor serebrum. Sebagai pemburu dan pemancing, dia menjelajahi planet ini untuk menangkap ikan pelagis permainan besar serta binatang paling sukar di beberapa benua.

Hemingway dengan singa di safari.

Apabila tidak meliputi perang, menangkap ikan, atau berkahwin empat kali, dia juga mendapat beberapa tulisan (tujuh novel, enam koleksi cerpen, dan dua karya bukan fiksyen) yang membuatnya mendapat Hadiah Nobel dalam Sastera pada tahun 1954.

Hemingway dan marlin pemenang hadiah.

Ikan

Di atas semua pengembaraan legendaris ini, salah satu peristiwa paling menarik yang berlaku pada Hem terjadi pada tahun 1935. Pada masa itu, dia berkeliaran di sekitar Key West, Cuba dan kepulauan Bimini dengan rasa bangga dan gembira, kapal penjelajah kabin setinggi 38 kaki Pelik, dinamakan salah seorang isterinya. Dia mengejar raksasa terbesar di bawah laut dengan kapal ini, memenangi pertandingan memancing laut dalam di seluruh Caribbean. Hanya beberapa tahun sebelumnya, dia menangkap tidak kurang dari 52 marlin sendirian. Pada musim panas dan musim panas & rsquo35, Hemingway dan seorang rakan, pelukis Henry (& ldquoMike & rdquo) Strater menghabiskan 86 hari berturut-turut di laut, dan tidak ada yang dapat ditunjukkan. Kemudian mereka menggigit.

Ernest Hemingway dan menaiki Pelik pada tahun 1935.

Hemingway dan M1921 Tommy Gun-nya (tidak pernah meninggalkan pantai tanpa satu).

Di garis Strater & rsquos, mereka membawa ikan leviathan, lebih dari 14 kaki ke permukaan. Itu adalah marlin raksasa. Walaupun begitu, sebelum keduanya dapat membawa ikan masuk, hiu kelihatan menyerang ikan bilis yang letih. Hemingway, dalam usaha untuk mengalahkan hiu, meraih pistol mesin tempur Thompson yang dipercayai (yang selalu dia bawa ke laut) dan mulai menaburkan serigala pelayaran dengan peluru. Merobek 0,45 ACP keluar ke dalam air hingga 850 putaran per minit, Hem memutar laut, memukul sejumlah hiu dan menambahkan darah mereka ke kolam chum yang berkembang pesat. Ini seterusnya membawa lebih banyak jerung sama seperti membunyikan loceng makan malam.

Ketika ikan akhirnya dibawa ke dalam kapal, ia & lsquoapple-cored & rsquo dengan seluruh bahagian belakang makhluk dicabut setiap bahagian daging hingga ke tulang belakangnya. Ketika mendarat, panjangnya 14 kaki, 6 inci dan beratnya sekitar 560 paun. Dianggarkan bahawa jika separuh belakang tidak dikonsumsi, itu akan menghabiskan hampir setengah ton atau lebih, yang akan menjadi catatan tempatan untuk Bimini.

Marlin 1000-pound & ldquoapple-cored & rdquo yang mengilhami klasik moden dalam huruf Amerika.

Papa & rsquos Tommy Gun

Hemingway & rsquos Thompson Model 1921A, dengan punggung yang boleh dilepas, cengkaman pistol depan, dibuat oleh Auto-Ordnance Corporation. Pada hari-hari sebelum NFA tahun 1934, adalah sah bagi mana-mana warganegara untuk membeli salah satu pesanan mel senjata ini tanpa cap cukai, cap jari, tandatangan CLEO atau sejenisnya.

Subgun Thompson Hemingway yang dimiliki dan digemari adalah model 1921 seperti ini. Anda dapat mengetahui dengan sirip tong, menyekat penglihatan belakang dan kekurangan pemampas Cutts pada moncong.

Hemingway bergambar dengan Kolonel.

Menurut legenda, penulis memperolehnya secara kebetulan dari William B. Leeds yang berjuta-juta. Senjata khas Hem & rsquos mempunyai gaya awal & lsquopre-1926 & rsquo dengan sirip penyejukan radialnya, pada tong 10.5 inci tanpa Cutts Compensator. Model-model awal ini mempunyai kadar tembakan yang jauh lebih tinggi daripada Tommy Guns era Perang Dunia II yang lebih tua serta kesesuaian dan kemasan yang indah. Hemingway nampaknya lebih suka majalah kotak 20 pusingan kerana ketepatannya daripada gendang 50 dan 100 putaran yang tersedia dan lebih ikonik. Telah diperhatikan oleh banyak pengguna senjata Tommy bahawa mag drum membuat senjata itu tidak seimbang dan menghalang tembakan bahu yang tepat kerana sudut aneh yang memaksa tangan penyokong masuk. Hemingway nampaknya telah bersetuju.

Hemingway dan anak lelaki Jack menunggu geli di Pilar. Perhatikan ukuran kekili yang besar (dan pistol Tommy).

Kisah

Penulis melancarkan pengalaman perjalanan memancing epik ini ke dalam beberapa karya fiksyen. Novel Pulau di Aliran, serta karya kemudiannya, Orang Tua dan Laut, menarik banyak kehidupan dari Papa Hemingway & rsquos di atas air termasuk kejadian ini. Seperti yang anda ingat dari kelas lampu sekolah menengah, di Orang Tua dan Laut, pahlawan, Santiago, menangkap marlin yang sangat besar, yang terbesar yang pernah dilihatnya, hanya untuk mendapatkannya dengan sebiji ikan hiu ketika dia tanpa harapan berusaha untuk mengalahkan mereka.

Hemingway sendiri pernah berkata mengenai penulisan: & ldquoSemua buku yang baik sama seperti buku itu lebih benar daripada jika ia benar-benar berlaku dan setelah anda selesai membacanya, anda akan merasakan bahawa semua yang berlaku kepada anda dan selepas itu semuanya milik anda: yang baik dan yang buruk, kegembiraan, penyesalan dan kesedihan, orang dan tempat serta bagaimana cuaca. Sekiranya anda dapat memperolehnya sehingga anda dapat memberikannya kepada orang, maka anda adalah penulis. & Rdquo

Kami di Guns.com tidak dapat bersetuju lebih banyak lagi.

Epilog

Papa tidak pernah menangkap kapal itu.

Strater dan Hemingway berpisah dengan buruk, dengan keduanya menyuarakan perasaan keras mereka sendiri atas kehilangan (setengah) ikan yang begitu indah. Hemingway kekal di Cuba sepanjang hayatnya selain Perang Dunia 2 dan safari selama 10 minggu ke Afrika. Bercakap tentang Perang Dunia II, ahli sukan menawarkan diri untuk mengambil Pelik out on wartime patrols in the Florida Straits looking for German U-Boats who were sinking ships almost nightly in 1942. Surprisingly, the local government accepted and Hem loaded up his fishing boat with radio equipment, a crew of trusty volunteers, hand grenades, and&hellipwait for it&helliphis tommy gun.


Young Mr. Hemingway in Italy

In the winter and spring of 1918, Ernest Hemingway churned out several feature stories for The Kansas City Star about military recruiting campaigns. The Navy, the Tank Corps, and even the British had set up local offices to seek troops after the United States joined its allies in Europe.

Hemingway at the time was a recent high school graduate who had landed a reporting job in Kansas City in lieu of going to college or enlisting. At 18, he was too young to join without parental permission, but he talked a lot about getting into the war, a desire he expressed in several letters to his sister Marcelline. After arriving in Kansas City in mid-October 1917, he joined the Missouri Guard and even trained at Swope Park. Further military service was not in the cards, but a Kansas City friendship led him down another path toward serving in the war. In February 1918, the American Red Cross announced it was seeking volunteers to join the ambulance service in Italy. Hemingway most likely heard about this directly from Dell D. Dutton, who ran the Red Cross office in Kansas City.

Hemingway had learned much about the wartime ambulance corps from Theodore Brumback. The son of a prominent judge, Brumback had spent five months as an ambulance driver in the war-ravaged countryside of northern France. Hemingway met Brumback on the latter’s return to Kansas City in November 1917 and interviewed him in The Star’s newsroom. Brumback eventually wrote a lengthy, action-filled account of his dangerous posting in France, which appeared in the newspaper in February 1918, about the time the young men volunteered. Hemingway finished his reporting job at the end of April, returned home to Oak Park briefly and corresponded with Brumback about their forthcoming mission to Italy.

Hemingway, Brumback and their fellow volunteers spent two weeks training and sightseeing in New York. After an Atlantic crossing aboard a grimy French steamship and fleeting stops in Bordeaux and Paris, Hemingway arrived in Milan in early June 1918. An unexpected assignment turned up immediately. Hemingway and others were sent to the gruesome site of a munitions plant explosion a dozen miles outside Milan. Bodies and body parts were strewn everywhere. “We carried them in like at the General Hospital, Kansas City,” the young man reported on a postcard he sent back to his former colleagues at The Star. Despite the horrific detail of his “baptism of fire,” which Hemingway detailed years later (“A Natural History of the Dead”), he couldn’t hide his enthusiasm over arriving in Italy: “Having a wonderful time. "

The next day Hemingway and Brumback were split up and sent to different sections of the Red Cross service. Hemingway landed in Schio, 150 miles northeast of Milan in a valley below the Dolomite Mountains. There is little evidence to suggest that Hemingway actually drove an ambulance during his stint there. Hemingway, in fact, expressed a sense of boredom, because there wasn’t enough to do. In mid-June, hostilities resumed as Austro-German forces began an offensive along a wide stretch of the Piave River. Italian defenses stiffened and casualties mounted throughout the rain-drenched countryside. When an opportunity to get closer to the action arose later in June, Hemingway eagerly signed on. He left the relative quiet of his ambulance unit and took over a rolling canteen operation near the villages of Fornaci and Fossalta. As he reported to his mother in a letter that year, the change gave him yet more wartime experience: “I have glimpsed the making of large gobs of history during the Great Battle of the Piave and have been all along the Front From the mountains to the Sea.”

Hemingway’s daily routine at Fossalta involved handing out coffee, chocolate, cigarettes and postcards to Italian soldiers in the trench, about 20 yards off the Piave. Rather than a motorized vehicle, Hemingway traveled by bicycle. Hemingway observed snipers in action. He saw and felt artillery blasts in the night. Then, on the night of July 8, 1918, an Austrian Minenwerfer mortar shell screamed through the darkness and exploded just feet away from Hemingway. It killed an Italian soldier, wounded others and blasted Hemingway unconscious. Two hundred twenty-seven shards of metal pierced his flesh, and Hemingway ended up spending most of the rest of the war in the American Red Cross hospital in Milan.

Hemingway’s hospital experience is a thing of legend. There was booze and there was an epic love affair that lasted weeks beyond the Armistice. Hemingway immortalized his relationship with the Red Cross nurse Agnes von Kurowsky years later in A Farewell to Arms. About 10 years his senior, she wrote it off as innocent puppy love, and when she finally broke it off, after Hemingway returned to the states, he was devastated.

By the end of 1918 Hemingway received an Italian medal of valor for having served in his supporting role with honor. He also earned an Italian war cross, apparently in recognition that Hemingway served during an Italian campaign in the mountains in late October. That appearance ended quickly when Hemingway came down with a case of jaundice and returned to the hospital.

Hemingway’s experiences in Italy, including the physical therapy that continued into December 1918, contributed to at least two of his future novels and several pieces of short fiction. Most notable are the novel A Farewell to Arms and three short stories set in Italy and featuring Nick Adams, who is often read as Hemingway’s alter-ego – “Now I Lay Me,” “In Another Country” and “A Way You’ll Never Be.”

Debates continue among scholars about the aura of heroism that accrued around Hemingway following his wounding. Did the teen-ager, still only eighteen years old, really carry a wounded Italian on his shoulders to safety through a hail of machine-gun bullets? Very unlikely. But as with much of the Hemingway legend, in Italy and beyond, it makes for a compelling tale.


First Person: The Hemingway I Remember

By Bill Horne 1913, as told to Virginia Kleitz Moseley

(From the Nov. 11, 1979, issue of PAW)

In May 1918, I went to New York City to report as a volunteer ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Italy. The U.S. had entered the war in Europe but would have no troops ready for another month, so the Red Cross was sending ambulance sections, with huge American flags painted on the sides, as a way of telling the Allies, “Boys, we’re with you!” Among the 120 drivers recruited from all over the country—mostly the halt, the half-blind like me, the too young and too old—was a handsome, 18-year-old giant named Ernest Hemingway. He had signed up in Kansas City, where he was a cub reporter for the Bintang.

We sailed on the French Line ship Chicago, said to be U-boat proof because the spies went back and forth on it. During the ten-day crossing, Ernie and I became good friends. We landed at Bordeaux the day the enemy was stopped at Belleau Wood, and all of us got high on the native product. Though honorary second lieutenants in the Italian Army, we were just kids, and getting half a bottle of wine into you was pretty serious business. We took the night­train to Paris and were received as persona grata. We were even saluted by French generals!

From Paris we proceeded to the Ameri­can Red Cross headquarters in Milan. After a few days, we were sent to five stations, or sections, about 20 miles behind the mountain front. Our ambulances would fan out from the town of Schio at the west end of the Italian-Austrian line, and we’d cover our sectors a little east of Lake Garda, bringing in the wounded. By great good fortune I was assigned with Hemingway, Fred Spiegel, Larry Barnett, Jerry Flaherty, and “Little Fever” Jenkins to Section IV, which we came to call the “Schio Country Club.” For nearly 60 years they were my dearest friends but now all are gone except me.

In early June, during a lull on our end of the front, an officer came through, recruiting men to go to the Piave River. There the offensive was hot, and men were needed to run the canteens. Everyone from Section IV volunteered, and eight were chosen, including Ernie and me. I was dropped at the 68th Brigata Fanleria, San Pedro Novello, one of the little villages, and Ernie went to Fossalta.

We lived in a half-blown-apart house and no one brought us supplies to dole out. Ernie grew restless, so he borrowed a bike and pedaled to the front. He was at an advanced listening post—a hole in the ground—when the Austrians discovered it and sent over a Minenwerfer. It landed right smack on target. One man was killed, another badly hurt, and Ernie was hit by shell fragments. He dragged out his wounded companion, hoisted him on his back, and headed for the trenches 100 yards away. The Austrians turned their machine guns on him and he took a slug under one knee and another in the ankle, but he made it.

Ernie lay in a surgical post until another ambulance driver came along and identified him. They took him to the front-line dressing station, then to the Red Cross hospital in Milan. That’s where he met Agnes von Kurowsky, an American volunteer nurse. They fell in love and planned to be married.

After the Piave line became stable, I returned to Schio and relative calm until late fall, when the Allies started the Vittorio Veneto offensive at the Adriatic mountain end of the line. One night I drove our N.8 Fiat to Bassano to see Ernie, and we had a jolly time together. Later, he got jaundice and was returned to Milan. Meanwhile, I went to the front line atop Mt. Grappa and had a steady week of carrying wounded until the battle was over. In November, the war in Italy ended.

It took only a few days for the Red Cross to say, “Break ’em up and send ’em home.” The difference between war and peace was like night and day, with no dawn in between. After a short leave, I picked up my footlocker at Section IV and six of us left for the U.S. on the French liner Lorraine. Ernie remained behind in the Milan hospital. They had taken out 250 pieces of metal and were giving him muscular therapy.

He sailed on the Guiseppe Verdi shortly after New Year’s 1919, wiring me the time of arrival. I met the boat, and he was a darn dramatic sight: over six feet tall, wearing a Bersagliere hat with great cock feathers, enormous officer’s cape lined with red satin, a British-style tunic with ribbons of the Valor Medal and Italian War Cross, and a limp! The New York Times carried a front-page story and a picture headlined, “Most Wounded Hero Returns Today.” Heads turned as we walked uptown to the Plaza to meet my best girl for tea. When she saw Ernie, she hardly even said hello to me.

Ernie stayed with me a few days in Yonkers before returning home to Oak Park and a hero’s welcome. That spring while he was adjusting to being back and trying to write at his parents’ summer place in Michigan, he received a letter from Agnes, who was still in Italy. She wasn’t going to marry him. Ernie was heartbroken.

It was two years before Ernie and I got together again. I was in Chicago, terribly miscast selling axles, but I was making $200 a month. So I wrote Ernie, suggesting he let me grubstake him while he became a writer. I thought he had talent, though I had no idea how much. He was a dear friend, still sad about Ag, wanted to come to the city and write, but needed money to live on. With my fabulous salary and $900 savings, I was feeling rich—we could live on that a long time.

He wired that he was coming, and a week later we had a happy reunion. We rented a fourth-floor room in a house at 1230 N. State Street. It was the kind with a washstand in the corner and a bath down the hall. Meals weren’t included, so we usually ate at Kitso’s, a Greek restaurant on Division Street. It was a quick lunch place with tables, a counter, and a hole in the wall for shouting orders into the kitchen. They served pretty good dinners for 65 or 70 cents, and I think Kitso’s was the scene of Ernie’s story, “The Killers.”

We often got together with our war buddies, feeling like kids who had been in the same high school class, then separated for a few years and reunited. We would eat at one of the Italian restaurants on the near North Side, and turn up our noses just a little at guys who hadn’t been in Section IV and shared our great experience.

After some months at the roominghouse, Kenley Smith—brother of Ernie’s oldest friend, Bill—invited us to move into his apartment around the corner on Division Street. He and his wife had plenty of space and liked to have a lot of people around. It was an exciting atmosphere. Kenley was an erudite advertising man, with lots of intellectual friends like Sherwood Anderson, who had been a copywriter in his firm. On winter evenings, we’d sit around the fireplace and Ernie would read his stories with Sherwood commenting. Anderson recognized Ernie’s talent.

Of the many people who visited the Smiths, one particular girl, Hadley “Hash” Richardson, managed to cure Ernie of his broken heart. In fact, it was love at first sight. Soon after she returned home to St. Louis, Ernie and I went there to visit her for a long weekend. We had great fun making gin by boiling the ether out of sweet spirits of nitre over an open-topped burner. It was a silly thing to do, as it was very explosive and we got only about two teaspoonfuls of liquor. By the time we left, Ernie and “Hash” were certainly engaged.

I was an usher at their wedding the following summer. The newlyweds lived for a few months in Chicago but their hearts were set on going to Europe where so many aspiring writers were congregating. Ernie got letters of introduction from Sherwood Anderson, made a deal to report for The Toronto Star, and set off on his second voyage to Europe.

In August 1923, Ernie and “Hash” returned for “Bumby” to be born in America. We saw each other several times, and he gave me a copy of a little volume of his work which had been printed in Paris under the title, Three Stories and Ten Poems. He inscribed the book’s gray paper cover with a personal note beginning, “To Horney Bill . “ (Of all things, I lost it during the next few years of moving from one place to another. Last year I saw a copy offered by a London bookseller. The price was $3,500, without any personal inscription.)

Ernie’s next book of stories, ln Our Time, was published with the help of my classmate Harold Loeb ’13, one of the young American expatriates in Paris who became a tennis and drinking companion of Ernie’s. Loeb’s novel, Doodab, had been accepted by an American publisher and he had gone to bat for Ernie. When Ernie got up a party to see the bullfights in Spain, Loeb went along. But in his first novel, The Sun Also Rises, Ernie cast Loeb as the heavy. Thirty years later, Harold wrote a book called Jalannya, basically a rebuttal.

In the summer of 192 8, Ernie returned to the States again with his second wife, Pauline, so their baby could be born here. After Patrick’s arrival in Kansas City, Pauline was resting at her parents’ Arkansas home. Ernie wrote to me in Chicago, suggesting we go west and do some fishing while he finished his novel, A Farewell to Arms.

I took the train to Kansas City and Ernie met me in his Ford runabout. We drove across a corner of Nebraska, up the Platte into Wyoming, and bumped over rocks and ruts in the Red Grade road, climbing the Big Horn Mountains. As we snaked around hair-pin turns with steep drop-offs, I kept saying. “Look out, Ernie!” He endured it patiently and finally said, “Do me a favor, Horney, when you get out, just close the door.” I didn’t peep after that.

On a plateau 8,000 feet up, we reached our destination, the Folly Ranch, owned by Eleanor Donnelley. At least 16 lovely girls, mostly Eleanor’s Bryn Mawr classmates, were waiting to greet us—including my future wife, Frances “Bunny” Thorne. The place turned out to be heaven, or a reasonable facsimile thereof, with a swell cook, Folly the collie, and some active trout ponds.

Bunny’s log of that summer records some of the high spots: bridge, dancing, singing around the piano, and one night, “with his hands doing most of the talking, our author gave us the low-down on Dorothy Parker’s and Scott Fitzgerald’s burning inspirations. Then he was dis­tracted by a bull-fight.” I think he was the matador dan the bull.

Ernie loved ranch life, not to mention being admired by all the girls, but he had taken too much time off from his writing. After I left, he retreated to a quieter cabin to work on his book. He finished A Farewell to Arms that summer, and when Bunny and I were married the following year, he gave us a first-edition presentation copy.

While at Folly, Ernie and I had studied a map of Wyoming and Montana with an eye to future fishing. He pointed out a lonely looking stream that started in the north, went for miles along Yellowstone Park’s wild eastern edge, looped down south through wilderness, and finally swung north to the Yellowstone River, hundreds of miles and two mountain ranges away. “Horney,” he said, “that’s the place. Someday you and I will go there and slaughter ’em!”

Two years later we did. Ernie was always right about a map or trout, and the stream he picked was the Clark’s Fork of the Yellowstone. Bunny and I went to join him and Pauline at Lawrence Nordquist’s L Bar T ranch in the northeast corner of the Park. We spent a day or two getting to Yellowstone on the train, then a bus took us across the western half of the Park to old Cook City, Montana. There the group met us on horseback, with mounts for us, and I can still see Ernie on that big steed. He rode straight-legged, Indian fashion, because of his gimpy knee, and he looked like the man who invented Montana.

It was a nine-mile ride down the southerly valley, past Index and Pilot peaks. We arrived before dusk. The land rose above the Fork’s east bank into steep hills and hogbacks. There were narrow stretches of forest, green and yellow steps leading to the ridges of Beartooth Buttes, 15 miles away to the east. We had the happiest time imaginable, although for a while it rained and the trout hid behind rocks. Finally the rain stopped, and I’ve never seen anything like it in the way of stream fishing. We were using mostly wet flies, usually a McGinty at the end of the leader and two droppers along its length. The fish were so hungry and profuse that many times we had two on at once, occasionally three.

Ernie, who was then writing Death in the Afternoon, had brought along bushels of Spanish bull-fighting periodicals. We were at a spot where the river was about to dive down into a canyon, fast beautiful water full of trout, the kind of thing an avid fisherman would sell his soul for. Yet morning after morning, Ernie sat in the sun in an old rocker, reading the latest on corridas.

He was enjoying his fame then, and I remember him as dominant, exuberant, damned attractive, a stand-out in any group. But when he was with his friends, he was dengan them, not apart from them.

The last time I saw Ernie was in the spring of 1958, when Bunny and I visited·him and Mary, his fourth wife, at the Finca, their lovely country house in Cuba. He was the bearded “Papa” by that time. In the evening, they took us to dinner at Floridita, the restaurant Ernie had made famous. We were much impressed with Mary—she seemed a fine wife for Ernie.

Ernie died on July 2, 1961—the same weekend that we were having a Section IV reunion at Jerry Flaherty’s. I remember the headline: “Own Gun Kills Hemingway.” It was hard on all of us nobody had thought to invite him from Idaho, and maybe it would have helped his depression. Mary wired, asking me to be an honorary pallbearer, and everyone was giving me messages of condolence to carry. But because of the holiday the banks were closed and I didn’t have enough cash to make the trip. Fred Spiegel came to my rescue: “I’ve been to the Arlington track and did pretty well. How much do you need?” I told him about $300. He took out a roll of bills and peeled it off.

So with a little help from Section IV, Bunny and I flew out to the funeral. The graveside service was on a hill outside Ketchum, under a blue sky with the Sawtooth Mountains as backdrop. Everyone there had some bond with Ernie. Mine was having been an ambulance driver with him in Italy. Also, I was the first of a dozen or more Princetonians—including, most prominently, Scott Fitzgerald ’17, a classmate of my younger brother, Jimmy—who had played important roles in his life. Though there were long gaps when we didn’t see each other, we kept in touch for 43 years. Ernie and Bunny have been the two great things in my life.


A Farewell To Arms: Hemingway’s Italy

In the summer of 2012, American Publishing giants Scribner released a revised version of Ernest Hemingway’s classic novel, A Farewell to Arms. The new edition includes not only the original artwork, but also 47 alternative endings that give new insight to this First World War masterpiece. On its original publication, in 1928, A Farewell to Arms reached the bestseller list and cemented Hemingway’s reputation as a literary heavyweight.

Although Hemingway is most commonly associated with Florida’s Key West, Spain and Cuba, the latter serving as inspiration for his Nobel Prize Winning novella The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway also had a long, and sometimes painful, relationship with Italy. In 1918, as war raged in Europe, an 18 year old Ernest Hemingway responded to a plea for ambulance drivers on the Italian front, and left for Europe. He arrived in Milan and immediately received a baptism of fire when he was sent to the scene of a bombed munitions factory to collect "the fragments" of female workers. A scene he vividly described years later in his book Death in the Afternoon.

Fossalta di Piave on the Italian Front

A few days later he was transferred to Fossalta di Piave on the Italian Front. The Italian Front stretched from more than 400 miles, with much of the fighting being conducted in or around the Alps, with the Italians on one side and the Austro-Hungarian armies on the other. The Italian Front could be every bit as deadly a killing field as the Somme or Passchendaele on the Western Front, with some 650,000 casualties inflicted on the Italian Army alone. Soldiers fought against the enemy but also against the hostile weather that could reach as low as -45c during the winter months. In those freezing conditions, a single mortar round could inflict casualties as far as one mile away, as the shards of ice cut through the air like daggers. Avalanches were also a constant fear and often intentionally caused by opposing Armies. One such avalanche in 1916 killed more than 10,000 Austrian troops near Cortina d’Ampezzo in Northern Italy. It would later become known as White Friday. The "war in the mountains" would rage for almost three and a half years until French, British and American soldiers could reinforce the Italians. After the decisive battle of Vittorio Veneto the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed and an Armistice was signed.

Italian Silver Medal of Bravery

Several months earlier on 8th July 1918 Ernest Hemingway was seriously wounded,while delivering cigarettes and chocolates to front line troops, when a mortar exploded next to him. Despite the severity of his own wounds, Hemingway still managed to carry an Italian soldier to safety, for which he received the Italian Silver Medal of Bravery. He spent the next six months recovering from the 227 shrapnel wounds to his legs in a Milan hospital. During this time Hemingway fell in love with Nurse Agnes von Kurowsky, who he fictionalised as Nurse Catherine Barkley in A Farewell to Arms.

A Farewell to Arms

Although the novel is a work of fiction, the parallels between the young protagonist, Frederick Henry, and Hemingway's own life are clear. And this perhaps is what gives it such a quality of authenticity: from the description of the battle of Caporetto, to the relationship between Henry and Catherine, and the novels final heart-wrenching climax. Hemingway speaks to the reader with conviction and, sometimes, brutal honesty. His “to the point” style is as much about what is not written as what is, and this shift in style, away from the overly flowery language of his peers, allows the reader to “fill the gaps", and almost become part of the story.


Stresa, Lake Maggiore

Lake Maggiore, his “home from home"!

In September 1918, just two month after his injury, a 19 year old Ernest Hemingway was given 10 day Convalesce-Pass and headed for Stresa, just an hour drive from Milan on Lake Maggiore. He checked into room 106 (now the Hemingway Suite) at the Grand Hotel Des Iles Borromees, and headed straight for the bar. Unfortunately, for visitors looking for a "Hemingway experience" that bar has long since been closed the good news is that the new bar has not forgotten Him. Several photos of him adorn the wall, and a Hemingway Special cocktail can still be found on the drinks menu. But surely, it’s the framed page of the guest book he signed on a return visit in 1948 that is the most intriguing. It simply reads: "Ernest Hemingway (an old client)".

Hemingway spent 7 of his 10 day leave at the Grand Hotel Iles Borromées. While there he spent much of his time playing pool with a "99 year old count", talking with the barman over a dry martini (Hemingway's drink of choice back then) and taking boating trips to the small island of Pescatori on Lake Maggiore. All of which were fictionalised in A Farewell to Arms.


Grand Hotel Des Iles Borromees Stresa

It's a strange feeling to sit at the bar in the Hotel Borremées, looking out across the lake and knowing that somewhere in that still water, or in the mountains behind, Hemingway found his inspiration. In a letter to his parents in 1918, Hemingway wrote "I'm up here in Stresa, a little resort on Lake Maggiore. One of the most beautiful Italian lakes.".

So it seems not much has changed since Hemingway’s time, it is still just as beautiful and still remains a perfect location to relax and enjoy the fresh air of the lakes. The many tiny islands on Lake Maggiore offer some of the most beautiful gardens in Europe and can easily be reached in a matter of minutes by the excellent passenger boats that operate throughout the day.


Hemingway Suite - Grand Hotel Des Iles Borromees Stresa

Alternatively, the Lake Maggiore Express train takes you along a scenic coastal route that ventures right into the heart of the Swiss Alps and back in time for a Dry Martini. For a more sober experience, it is worth visiting the Stresa War Museum that has many artefacts relating to the "war in the mountains" and also a poem written by Hemingway to honour the fallen. Hemingway visited Stresa several times during his lifetime and often referred to it as his “home from home."

Hemingway's spares writing style and universal themes never failed to captivate the reader. He wrote with an honesty that was sometimes painful to read, but always impossible not to. He pulled no punches and made no apologies for it. Snippets of his own life were so delicately inserted into his novels that it is only in hindsight that we can fully understand what he meant when he described the process of writing as “bleeding into a typewriter.” Unfortunately, the legend that Hemingway himself had helped to create has often threatened to overshadow the great contribution he made to modern literature. By his final years his novels and real life had become so intertwined that even he couldn’t tell them apart.


The Italian Soldier Who Saved Hemingway’s Life

James McGrath Morris is the author of The Ambulance Drivers: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and a Friendship Made and Lost in War (March 2017). He has started a project to identify the Italian soldier discussed in this article.

Hemingway in uniform in Milan, 1918.

Along the Piave River in northern Italy stands a memorial near where Ernest Hemingway almost lost his life in the closing months of World War I. “On this levee,” the inscription reads in Italian, “Ernest Hemingway, American Red Cross volunteer, was wounded the night of July 8, 1918.” The moment is so central to the author’s life that in 2014 the Ernest Hemingway Society brought a group of its members to the spot during its biennial international conference in Venice, Italy.

What is missing from the memorial, however, offers a lesson greater than that of an insight into Hemingway’s life. Absent from the marker is any mention of the Italian soldier whose death that night ensured the life of one of the twentieth century’s most important authors. In short, had the soldier not been where he was, there would be no Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tools, tidak juga The Old Man and the Sea.

That this soldier is left off the monument and the pages of history is a cold reminder of history’s cruelty. The recording of deaths is hardly a democratic matter. The less accomplished lives are often forgotten even when they change history.

The unremembered soldier was one of many young Italian men conscripted and crammed into trenches along the banks of the Piave River in July 1918. Holding back Austrian forces had come at great price. The Italians suffered more than 600,000 casualties. They greatly welcomed the presence of Red Cross volunteers who brought cigarettes, chocolates, and coffee.

Hemingway, who had come to Italy as an eighteen-year-old Red Cross volunteer ambulance driver, requested that he be assigned to ride a bicycle to the front trenches with panniers full of chocolates and cigarettes. On the night of July 8, 1918 Hemingway took his supply from the bike’s basket and stepped down into a trench that ran in a serpentine path along the Piave. As he handed out his bounty to the soldiers, he could make out in the distance the sound of mortar fire coming from the enemy’s line. Filled with explosives and metal shards, mortars travel in a high arc and descend vertically into the trenches, whose walls channel the detonation into a deadly affair.

When one of the Austrian mortars fell into the trench, Hemingway saw the flash first and then heard the roar that followed. The heat was intense, the ground seethed upward, wood beams splintered, and the men were tossed about like rag dolls. The nameless Italian soldier who stood close to the detonation point was dead. His body had taken the brunt of the blast and shielded Hemingway, who now lay unconscious, covered in dirt and debris. He sustained hundreds of shrapnel wounds and spent six months recuperating in the Red Cross hospital in Milan.

When I researched the incident for my book The Ambulance Drivers: Hemingway, Dos Passos, and a Friendship Made and Lost in War, I presumed that some scholar by now would have identified the dead soldier’s name. To my surprise no one seems to have been interested in pursuing this line of research. None of Hemingway’s biographers lament the absence of a name.

The records are certainly a challenge to anyone who might want to find the name of the soldier who took Hemingway’s mortar. None of the contemporaneous sources, such as the citation of the Italian Military Valor award given to Hemingway for courage and self-sacrifice, note the dead soldier’s name. Sometimes they don’t even mention his death. As a result this young man joined the many anonymous figures of history labeled as “an Irish maid,” or a “French soldier,” or “steelworker,” or in this case, an “Italian soldier.”

But not including a name in a combat story is like leaving a soldier behind. To be nameless is to be forgotten. The quest for naming dead soldiers was so strong after the Great War that worry over unidentified corpses prompted the U.S. Congress to create a tomb for an unknown soldier. The nation has kept entombing representative unknown soldiers up to the Vietnam War. That corpse, however, was later identified using DNA testing and now that crypt remains empty.

“Every man’s life ends the same way,” Hemingway once told his friend Aaron Hotchner, “and it is only the details of how he lived and how he died that distinguishes one man from another.”

When the name the name of the dead Italian soldier is added to the memorial along the Piave River, he too will have the distinction he deserves.


Ernest Hemingway – A Short Biography

Ernest Hemingway, famous author and journalist, was born in the affluent Chicago suburb of Oak Park, Illinois, on July 21, 1899. His father was a doctor his mother, a musician. He was named after his maternal grandfather, Ernest Hall. As a young man, he was interested in writing he wrote for and edited his high school’s newspaper, as well as the high school yearbook. Upon graduating from Oak Park and River Forest High School in 1917, he worked for the Kansas City Star newspaper briefly, but in that short time, he learned the writing style that would shape nearly all of his future work.

As an ambulance driver in Italy during World War I, Ernest Hemingway was wounded and spent several months in the hospital. While there, he met and fell in love with a Red Cross nurse named Agnes von Kurowsky. They planned to marry however, she became engaged to an Italian officer instead.

This experience devastated Hemingway, and Agnes became the basis for the female characters in his subsequent short stories “A Very Short Story” (1925) and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” (1936), as well as the famous novel “A Farewell To Arms” (1929). This would also start a pattern Ernest would repeat for the rest of his life – leaving women before they had the chance to leave him first.

Ernest Hemingway began work as a journalist upon moving to Paris in the early 1920s, but he still found time to write. He was at his most prolific in the 20s and 30s. His first short story collection, aptly titled “Three Stories and Ten Poems,” was published in 1923. His next short story collection, “In Our Time,” published in 1925, was the formal introduction of the vaunted Hemingway style to the rest of the world, and considered one of the most important works of 20th century prose. He would then go on to write some of the most famous works of the 20th century, including “A Farewell to Arms,” “The Sun Also Rises,” “For Whom the Bell Tolls,” and “The Old Man and the Sea.” He also won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.

Ernest Hemingway lived most of his later years in Idaho. He began to suffer from paranoia, believing the FBI was aggressively monitoring him. In November of 1960 he began frequent trips to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, for electroconvulsive therapy – colloquially known as “shock treatments.” He had his final treatment on June 30, 1961. Two days later, on July 2, 1961, he committed suicide by shooting himself in the mouth with a twelve-gauge shotgun. He was a few weeks short of his 62nd birthday. This wound up being a recurring trend in his family his father, as well as his brother and sister, also died by committing suicide. The legend of Hemingway looms large, and his writing style is so unique that it left a legacy in literature that will endure forever.


Ernest Hemingway

This preeminent literary figure of the 20th century moved to Key West in 1928, living there periodically through 1940. Hemmingway wrote all or part of his most famous works including A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, To Have and Have Not and The Snows of Kilimanjaro in Key West. In 1954, he became only the fifth American to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Born Ernest Miller Hemingway in Oak Park, Illinois, Hemingway grew up in an affluent home (his father was a physician and his mother a professional opera singer) where he was exposed to art, literature, music and also the great outdoors. At the family's lake house in Michigan, the athletic, outdoorsy Hemingway developed a passion for hunting and fishing.

After graduation from high school in 1917, Hemingway decided to forego college and become a cub reporter for The Kansas City Star. He worked there for only six months, but the newspaper style of writing–concise and austere–heavily influenced all of his writings for the rest of his life.

Displaying a restlessness that would mark a seemingly larger-than-life career, in the waning months of World War I Hemingway volunteered as an ambulance driver for the Red Cross in Europe. Badly wounded on the Italian Front, he spent six months recuperating in a Milan hospital before returning, at age 19, to the U.S.

Hemingway's interest in journalism eventually carried him to Chicago in 1920, where he worked as an associate editor of the monthly journal Cooperative Commonwealth. There he befriended Sherwood Anderson, already a respected novelist. Shortly thereafter, Hemingway met and married his first (of four) wives, Elizabeth H. Richardson. In 1921, the couple left for Europe, Hemingway having accepted a post as foreign correspondent for The Toronto Star. Anderson persuaded Hemingway to set up shop in Paris, a decision that proved remarkably fortuitous for a young newspaperman who yearned to be a novelist.

In Paris, Hemingway met many of the leading figures of the so-called "Lost Generation," a term originated by Gertrude Stein, among the most notable European writers who took Hemingway under their wings. Other Parisian luminaries that Hemingway spent much time with included Ezra Pound, James Joyce, Pablo Picasso, Joan Miro and F. Scott Fitzgerald. After a brief return to Toronto in 1924, Hemingway and his family (son Jack was born in Toronto) returned to Paris, where he finished his first novel (of seven). The Sun Also Rises (Scribner's, 1926), a story built around a group of expatriates living in Paris, made Hemingway famous.

In 1928, Hemingway was divorced, remarried (this time to Pauline Pfieffer, a fashion writer) and–at the suggestion of novelist and friend John Dos Passos–moving to Key West, where he fell in love with the island's lush tropical greenery and seclusion. He would spend an eventful and highly productive decade there before moving to Cuba (with his third wife Martha Gellhorn, a journalist and war correspondent) in 1940.

From 1941 through the mid-1950s, Hemingway led an astonishingly colorful and dramatic life. The period was punctuated by his frequent forays overseas as a war correspondent (he covered the Spanish Civil War as a champion of the losing rebel side) and World War II (where his extra-curricular exploits at the front almost got him court-martialed but later earned him a Bronze Star) a second African safari (where he and his last wife, Mary Welsh, narrowly escaped death in two plane crashes in two days) his winning the world's top literary prizes (the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 for the novel The Old Man and the Sea) and the 1954 Nobel Prize for Literature) and two more failed marriages.

In 1959, Hemingway and Welsh bought a home in Ketchum, Idaho. Suffering from depression and failing health–a casualty of his numerous serious injuries and a lifelong habit of hard drinking–in July 1961 Hemingway committed suicide.

Hemingway's legacy as a titan of modern American literature is immortalized by two nonprofit foundations (The Hemingway Oak Park Foundation and the Hemingway Society) a national literary prize in his name a number of formal memorials and other tributes more than a dozen biographies numerous Hemingway studies programs on campuses around the world and at least five museums.

Hemingway's Florida days are commemorated by the Ernest Hemingway Home and Museum, located at the home he owned on Whitehead Street in Key West. The attraction annually draws thousands of visitors from around the world, as does the annual Hemingway Days celebration, held in Key West during the week of his birthday in July.


Tonton videonya: Ernest Hemingway and World War I