Bagaimana Heian Era Japanese Clans berfungsi? (terutamanya Taira vs. Minamoto)

Bagaimana Heian Era Japanese Clans berfungsi? (terutamanya Taira vs. Minamoto)


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Wikipedia memberitahu saya bahawa anak-anak kaisar tertentu diturunkan (dikeluarkan dari keturunan kerajaan) dan ditugaskan kepada Taira dan juga "klan" Minamoto selama zaman Heian.

Bagaimana ini berfungsi?

  1. Adakah terdapat rasional khusus untuk menugaskan orang-orang satu sama lain?
  2. Adakah puak seharusnya menjadi identiti sosial yang utama bagi anggotanya?
  3. Adakah mereka menyediakan / memerlukan perkhidmatan khas?
  4. Bagaimana komponen generasi (mis. Saga vs Seiwa Genji) mempengaruhi keadaan? Sebagai contoh, adakah Saga dan Seiwa Genji sama-sama mengenal Minamoto dan oleh itu lebih cenderung untuk bekerjasama antara satu sama lain daripada dengan klan lain?

Perang Gempei

Gion shôja no kane no koe, shogyô mujô no hibiki ari. Shara sôju no hana no iro, shôsha hissui no koto wari wo arawasu. Ogoreru hito mo hisashikarazu, tada haru no yoru no yume no gotoshi. Takeki mono mo tsui ni horobinu, hitoe ni kaze no mae no akuta ni onaji.
Bunyi lonceng kuil Gion Shôja menggemakan ketidakkekalan semua perkara warna bunga sala mengungkapkan kebenaran bahawa untuk berkembang adalah jatuh. Orang yang sombong akhirnya tidak mengalami kejatuhan yang hebat, tidak lebih dari debu di hadapan angin.

  • Tarikh: 1180-1185
  • Tempur: Klan Minamoto (dan sekutu) vs klan Taira (dan sekutu)
  • Hasil: Kemenangan Minamoto Klan Taira sebahagian besarnya musnah
  • Orang Jepun: 源 平 合 戦 (Genpei kassen)

Perang Genpei, yang diperjuangkan antara klan samurai Minamoto dan Taira pada tahun 1180-1185, menandakan berakhirnya pemerintahan oleh Mahkamah Kekaisaran yang dikuasai oleh Taira, dan diikuti tidak lama kemudian oleh penubuhan Kamakura yang shogun karena itu, ia mewakili kejatuhan Taira dan kebangkitan Minamoto, akhir zaman Heian dan permulaan periode Kamakura, dan sempadan antara zaman klasik pemerintahan bangsawan / Mahkamah, dan zaman pemerintahan samurai Zaman Pertengahan.

Perang mengambil namanya dari pada-yomi atau pembacaan "gaya Cina" dari nama kedua klan - Genji dan Heike (atau Heishi) yang masing-masing bermaksud "klan Minamoto" dan "rumah Taira" (atau "klan Taira").

Peristiwa perang diceritakan paling terkenal dalam epik Kisah Kenaikan, yang diturunkan sebagai tradisi lisan oleh pencerita musisi perjalanan untuk beberapa ketika sebelum ditulis untuk pertama kalinya pada tahun 1371. Banyak drama Noh, Kabuki, dan wayang kulit, serta lukisan dan ciptaan budaya lain yang tidak terhitung banyaknya berdasarkan kisah-kisah ini, yang telah berkembang menjadi legenda.


Kandungan

Edit seni Jōmon

Peneroka pertama Jepun adalah orang-orang Jōmon (sekitar 10,500 - sekitar 300 SM), [3] yang diberi nama untuk tanda tali yang menghiasi permukaan kapal tanah liat mereka, adalah pengumpul pemburu nomad yang kemudian berlatih pertanian teratur dan membina bandar dengan populasi beratus-ratus jika tidak beribu-ribu. Mereka membina rumah-rumah sederhana dari kayu dan jerami yang dipasang ke lubang tanah cetek untuk memberikan kehangatan dari tanah. Mereka membuat kapal penyimpanan tembikar yang dihiasi dengan mewah, patung-patung tanah liat yang disebut dogū, dan perhiasan kristal.

Tempoh awal Jōmon Edit

Dalam tempoh Awal Jōmon (5000-2500 SM), [3] kampung mula ditemui dan benda-benda sehari-hari biasa dijumpai seperti periuk seramik yang bertujuan untuk mendidih air. Periuk yang dijumpai pada masa ini mempunyai bahagian bawah rata dan mempunyai reka bentuk terperinci yang diperbuat daripada bahan seperti buluh. Selain itu, penemuan penting lain adalah patung-patung Jōmon awal yang mungkin digunakan sebagai objek kesuburan kerana payudara dan pinggul bengkak yang mereka pamerkan. [3]

Tempoh Jōmon Tengah Sunting

Zaman Jōmon Tengah (2500-1500 SM), [3] berbeza dengan Zaman Jōmon Awal dengan banyak cara. Orang-orang ini menjadi kurang nomad dan mula menetap di kampung. Mereka mencipta alat berguna yang dapat memproses makanan yang mereka kumpulkan dan diburu yang menjadikan hidup lebih mudah bagi mereka. Melalui banyak keramik yang indah secara estetik yang dijumpai dalam jangka masa ini, terbukti bahawa orang-orang ini mempunyai ekonomi yang stabil dan lebih banyak masa senggang untuk membuat barang-barang yang indah. Di samping itu, orang-orang pada zaman Jōmon Tengah berbeza dengan nenek moyang mereka yang terdahulu kerana mereka mengembangkan kapal sesuai dengan fungsinya, misalnya, mereka menghasilkan periuk untuk menyimpan barang. [3] Dekorasi pada kapal-kapal ini mulai kelihatan lebih realistik berbanding dengan seramik Jōmon awal. Secara keseluruhan, penghasilan karya bukan sahaja meningkat dalam tempoh ini, tetapi individu-individu ini menjadikannya lebih hiasan dan naturalistik. [3]

Tempoh Akhir dan Akhir Jōmon Edit

Dalam tempoh Akhir dan Akhir Jōmon (1500-300 SM), [3] cuaca mulai lebih sejuk, sehingga memaksa mereka menjauh dari gunung. Sumber makanan utama pada masa ini adalah ikan, yang menjadikan mereka meningkatkan bekalan dan alat memancing mereka. Kemajuan ini merupakan pencapaian yang sangat penting selama ini. Di samping itu, jumlah kapal banyak meningkat yang mungkin dapat menyimpulkan bahawa setiap rumah mempunyai patung mereka sendiri yang dipaparkan di dalamnya. Walaupun terdapat pelbagai kapal yang dijumpai pada Zaman Akhir dan Akhir Joon, barang-barang ini didapati rosak yang mungkin menunjukkan bahawa mereka menggunakannya untuk ritual. Selain itu, patung-patung juga dijumpai dan dicirikan oleh badannya yang berdaging dan mata seperti kacamata. [3]

Dogū ("figur tanah") adalah patung-patung humanoid dan haiwan kecil yang dibuat pada akhir zaman Jōmon. [4] Mereka dibuat di seluruh Jepun, kecuali Okinawa. [4] Sebilangan sarjana berteori mengenai dogū bertindak sebagai patung orang, yang menunjukkan semacam sihir simpatik. [5] Dogū diperbuat daripada tanah liat dan berukuran kecil, biasanya tingginya 10 hingga 30 cm. [6] Sebilangan besar patung-patung itu terlihat sebagai model wanita, dan memiliki mata besar, pinggang kecil, dan pinggul lebar. [4] Mereka dianggap oleh banyak orang sebagai wakil dewi. Banyak yang mempunyai perut besar yang berkaitan dengan kehamilan, menunjukkan bahawa Jomon menganggap mereka dewi ibu. [6]

Seni Yayoi Edit

Gelombang pendatang berikutnya adalah orang Yayoi, yang dinamakan untuk daerah di Tokyo di mana sisa-sisa penempatan mereka pertama kali ditemui. Orang-orang ini, tiba di Jepun sekitar 300 SM, [7] membawa pengetahuan mereka tentang penanaman padi lembap, pembuatan senjata tembaga dan lonceng gangsa (dōtaku), dan seramik yang dilancarkan roda, dibakar dengan tanur.

Loceng dōtaku zaman Yayoi, abad ke-3 CE

Cermin gangsa digali di Tsubai-otsukayama kofun, Yamashiro, Kyoto

Jar Karma dari zaman Yayoi

Jar simpanan Yayoi dari 500 SM - 200 CE

Edit seni Kofun

Tahap ketiga dalam prasejarah Jepun, zaman Kofun (sekitar 300 - 710 M), [3] mewakili pengubahsuaian budaya Yayoi, yang disebabkan oleh pembangunan dalaman atau kekuatan luaran. Tempoh ini paling terkenal dengan budaya makamnya dan artifak lain seperti cermin gangsa dan patung tanah liat yang disebut haniwa yang didirikan di luar kubur ini. Sepanjang masa Kofun, ciri makam ini berkembang dari kubur yang lebih kecil yang didirikan di puncak bukit dan rabung ke kubur yang jauh lebih besar yang dibina di atas tanah rata. [8] Makam terbesar di Jepun, makam Maharaja Nintoku, menempatkan 46 gundukan kuburan dan berbentuk seperti lubang kunci, [9] ciri khas yang terdapat dalam kubur Kofun kemudian. [8]

Suntingan seni Asuka dan Nara

Semasa zaman Asuka dan Nara, dinamakan demikian kerana kerusi pemerintahan Jepun terletak di Lembah Asuka dari tahun 542 hingga 645 [3] dan di kota Nara hingga tahun 784, kemasukan budaya Asia benua yang pertama berlaku di Jepun.

Penyebaran agama Buddha memberikan dorongan awal untuk hubungan antara China dan Jepun. Orang Jepun menyedari aspek budaya Cina yang dapat dimasukkan ke dalam mereka sendiri: sistem untuk menukar idea dan suara menjadi penulisan teori pemerintahan yang kompleks, seperti birokrasi yang berkesan dan, yang paling penting untuk seni, teknologi baru, bangunan baru teknik, kaedah casting gangsa yang lebih maju, dan teknik dan media baru untuk melukis.

Namun, sepanjang abad ke-7 dan ke-8, fokus utama hubungan antara Jepun dan benua Asia adalah pengembangan agama Buddha. Tidak semua cendekiawan sepakat mengenai tarikh-tarikh penting dan nama-nama yang sesuai untuk digunakan dalam pelbagai jangka masa antara 552, tarikh rasmi pengenalan agama Buddha ke Jepun, dan 784, ketika ibukota Jepun dipindahkan dari Nara. Sebutan yang paling umum adalah zaman Suiko, 552–645 tempoh Hakuhō, 645–710, dan tempoh Tenpyō, 710–784.

Pagoda dan Kondō di Hōryū-ji, abad ke-8

Patung Buddha Jepun yang paling awal bertarikh abad ke-6 dan ke-7. [10] Mereka akhirnya berasal dari seni Gandhara Yunani-Buddha abad ke-1 hingga abad ke-3, yang dicirikan oleh corak pakaian yang mengalir dan perwatakan yang realistik, [11] di mana ciri-ciri seni Cina ditumpangkan. Setelah seni Buddha Wei Utara China menyusup ke semenanjung Korea, ikon Buddha dibawa ke Jepun oleh pelbagai kumpulan pendatang. [12] Terutama, bentuk Maitreya separa duduk disesuaikan dengan gaya seni Yunani Kuno yang sangat maju yang disebarkan ke Jepun seperti yang dibuktikan oleh patung Kōryū-ji Miroku Bosatsu dan patung Chūgū-ji Siddhartha. [13] Banyak sejarawan menggambarkan Korea sebagai pemancar agama Buddha semata-mata. [14] Tiga Kerajaan, dan terutama Baekje, berperanan sebagai agen aktif dalam pengenalan dan pembentukan tradisi Buddha di Jepun pada tahun 538 atau 552. [15] Mereka menggambarkan titik akhir penyebaran seni Jalan Sutera semasa pertama beberapa abad era kita. Contoh lain dapat dijumpai dalam pengembangan ikonografi Dewa Angin Fūjin Jepun, [16] penjaga Niō, [17] dan corak bunga hampir-Klasik dalam hiasan kuil. [18]

Struktur Buddha terawal yang masih ada di Jepun, dan bangunan kayu tertua di Timur Jauh terdapat di Hōryū-ji di sebelah barat daya Nara. Pertama kali dibina pada awal abad ke-7 sebagai kuil peribadi Putera Mahkota Shōtoku, ia terdiri daripada 41 bangunan bebas. Yang paling penting, ruang ibadat utama, atau Kondō (Dewan Emas), dan Gojū-no-tō (Pagoda lima tingkat), berdiri di tengah-tengah kawasan terbuka yang dikelilingi oleh biara yang berbumbung. The Kondō, dalam gaya ruang ibadat Cina, adalah struktur dua tingkat pembinaan pasca dan balok, yang ditutup oleh irimoya, atau atap jubin seramik berpeluk pinggul.

Di dalam Kondō, di platform segi empat tepat yang besar, adalah beberapa arca terpenting pada zaman itu. Gambaran utamanya adalah Shaka Trinity (623), Buddha bersejarah yang diapit oleh dua bodhisattva, patung yang dilukis dengan tembaga oleh pemahat Tori Busshi (berkembang pada awal abad ke-7) sebagai penghormatan kepada Pangeran Shōtoku yang baru saja meninggal. Di empat penjuru platform adalah Raja-raja Pengawal Empat Arah, diukir kayu sekitar 650. Juga ditempatkan di Hōryū-ji adalah Tamamushi Shrine, replika kayu dari Kondō, yang terletak di atas dasar kayu tinggi yang dihiasi dengan lukisan figural yang diekspresikan dalam medium pigmen mineral yang dicampur dengan lakuer.

Pembinaan kuil pada abad ke-8 difokuskan di sekitar Tōdai-ji di Nara. Dibangunkan sebagai markas untuk jaringan kuil di setiap provinsi, Tōdaiji adalah kompleks keagamaan yang paling bercita-cita tinggi yang didirikan pada abad awal pemujaan Buddha di Jepun. Dengan tepat, Buddha 16,2-m (53-kaki) (selesai 752) diabadikan di dewan Buddha utama, atau Daibutsuden, adalah Buddha Rushana, sosok yang mewakili inti dari Buddhahood, sama seperti Tōdaiji yang mewakili pusat Buddhisme yang ditaja oleh Imperial dan penyebarannya ke seluruh Jepun. Hanya beberapa serpihan patung asli yang tersisa, dan dewan dan Buddha pusat yang ada sekarang adalah pembinaan semula dari zaman Edo.

Berkumpul di sekitar Daibutsuden di lereng bukit yang landai dengan lembut adalah sejumlah dewan menengah: Hokke-dō (Lotus Sutra Hall), dengan gambar utamanya, Fukukenjaku Kannon (不 空 羂 索 観 音 立 像, bodhisattva yang paling popular), dibuat dari lakuer kering (kain dicelupkan ke dalam lakuer dan dibentuk di atas angker kayu) Kaidanin (戒壇 院, Ordination Hall) dengan patung-patung tanah liatnya yang indah dari Four Guardian Kings dan gudang, yang disebut Shōsōin. Struktur terakhir ini sangat penting sebagai cache sejarah-seni, kerana di dalamnya disimpan peralatan yang digunakan dalam upacara pengabdian kuil pada tahun 752, ritual membuka mata untuk gambar Rushana, serta dokumen pemerintah dan banyak sekular objek yang dimiliki oleh keluarga Imperial.

Choukin (atau chōkin, seni ukiran atau ukiran logam, dianggap bermula pada zaman Nara. [19] [20]

Seni Heian Edit

Pada tahun 794 ibu negara Jepun secara rasmi dipindahkan ke Heian-kyō (Kyoto sekarang), di mana ia kekal hingga tahun 1868. Istilah ini Zaman Heian merujuk pada tahun-tahun antara 794 dan 1185, ketika shogun Kamakura ditubuhkan pada akhir Perang Genpei. Tempoh ini kemudian dibahagikan kepada Heian awal dan Heian akhir, atau era Fujiwara, tarikh penting adalah 894, tahun kedutaan besar ke China secara rasmi dihentikan.

Seni Heian awal: Sebagai reaksi terhadap peningkatan kekayaan dan kekuatan agama Buddha yang teratur di Nara, imam Kūkai (paling terkenal dengan gelaran sesudahnya Kōbō Daishi, 774-835) melakukan perjalanan ke China untuk belajar Shingon, suatu bentuk Buddhisme Vajrayana, yang diperkenalkannya ke Jepun di 806. Inti pemujaan Shingon adalah mandala, diagram alam semesta rohani, yang kemudian mulai mempengaruhi reka bentuk kuil. Seni bina Buddha Jepun juga mengadopsi stupa, yang pada asalnya merupakan bentuk seni bina India, dalam pagoda ala Cina.

Kuil-kuil yang didirikan untuk sekte baru ini dibangun di pergunungan, jauh dari Mahkamah dan orang awam di ibu kota. Topografi laman web yang tidak teratur memaksa arkitek Jepun memikirkan semula masalah pembinaan kuil, dan dengan demikian memilih elemen reka bentuk yang lebih asli. Atap kulit kayu ganti menggantikan jubin seramik, papan kayu digunakan dan bukannya lantai tanah, dan kawasan pemujaan yang terpisah untuk orang awam ditambahkan di depan tempat perlindungan utama.

Kuil yang paling mencerminkan semangat kuil Heian Shingon awal adalah Murō-ji (awal abad ke-9), yang terletak jauh di tebing pohon cemara di sebuah gunung di tenggara Nara. Gambar kayu (juga awal abad ke-9) Shakyamuni, Buddha "bersejarah", yang diabadikan di sebuah bangunan sekunder di Murō-ji, adalah khas dari patung Heian awal, dengan tubuhnya yang renyah, ditutupi oleh lipatan kain tebal yang diukir di honpa-shiki (bergolek-ombak) gaya, dan ekspresi wajahnya yang tegas, menarik.

Seni Fujiwara: Pada zaman Fujiwara, Buddhisme Tanah Murni, yang memberikan keselamatan mudah melalui kepercayaan pada Amida (Buddha Syurga Barat), menjadi terkenal. Periode ini dinamai keluarga Fujiwara, yang paling kuat di negara ini, yang memerintah sebagai bupati Maharaja, yang sebenarnya menjadi diktator sivil. Pada masa yang sama, bangsawan Kyoto mengembangkan masyarakat yang ditujukan untuk usaha estetika yang elegan. Begitu aman dan indah dunia mereka sehingga mereka tidak dapat menganggap Syurga jauh berbeza. Mereka membuat bentuk baru dewan Buddha, dewan Amida, yang menggabungkan sekular dengan agama, dan menempatkan satu atau lebih gambar Buddha dalam struktur yang menyerupai rumah-rumah bangsawan.

The Hō-ō-dō (Dewan Phoenix, selesai 1053) dari Byōdō-in, sebuah kuil di Uji di sebelah tenggara Kyoto, adalah teladan dewan Fujiwara Amida. Ini terdiri dari struktur persegi panjang utama yang diapit oleh dua koridor sayap berbentuk L dan koridor ekor, terletak di tepi kolam buatan yang besar. Di dalamnya, satu gambar emas Amida (c. 1053) dipasang di platform tinggi. Arca Amida dieksekusi oleh Jōchō, yang menggunakan kanon perkadaran baru dan teknik baru (yosegi), di mana beberapa kepingan kayu diukir seperti cengkerang dan bergabung dari dalam. Di dinding dewan terdapat ukiran relief kecil dari cakerawala, tuan rumah yang dipercayai telah menemani Amida ketika dia turun dari Syurga Barat untuk mengumpulkan jiwa orang percaya pada saat kematian dan mengangkutnya dengan bunga teratai ke Syurga. Raigō lukisan di pintu kayu Hō-ō-dō, yang menggambarkan Keturunan Buddha Amida, adalah contoh awal lukisan gaya Yamato-e, Jepun, dan berisi representasi pemandangan di sekitar Kyoto.

E-maki: Pada abad terakhir zaman Heian, penutupan naratif melintang yang digambarkan, dikenali sebagai e-maki (絵 巻, "gambar tatal") menyala, muncul. Dating dari sekitar 1130, the Genji Monogatari Emaki, yang terkenal bergambar Kisah Genji mewakili penunjuk tangan pertama yamato-e yang masih hidup, dan salah satu titik tinggi lukisan Jepun. Ditulis kira-kira tahun 1000 oleh Murasaki Shikibu, seorang wanita yang sedang menunggu untuk Permaisuri Shōshi, novel ini berkaitan dengan kehidupan dan cinta Genji dan dunia pengadilan Heian setelah kematiannya. Para seniman abad ke-12 e-maki versi merancang sistem konvensyen bergambar yang menyampaikan secara visual kandungan emosi setiap pemandangan. Pada separuh kedua abad ini, gaya penceritaan naratif berterusan yang berbeza dan lebih popular menjadi popular. The Ban Dainagon Ekotoba (akhir abad ke-12), tatal yang berkaitan dengan intrik di mahkamah, menekankan tokoh-tokoh dalam gerakan aktif yang digambarkan dalam sapuan berus yang dilaksanakan dengan cepat dan warna-warna nipis tetapi cerah.

E-maki juga berfungsi sebagai contoh awal dan terhebat dari otoko-e ("gambar lelaki") dan onna-e ("gambar wanita") gaya lukisan. Terdapat banyak perbezaan yang baik dalam kedua-dua gaya tersebut, yang menarik bagi keutamaan estetika jantina. Tetapi mungkin yang paling mudah diperhatikan adalah perbezaan perkara. Onna-e, dilambangkan oleh Toll of Genji handscroll, biasanya berkaitan dengan kehidupan pengadilan, terutama wanita pengadilan, dan dengan tema romantis. Otoko-e sering mencatat peristiwa sejarah, terutamanya pertempuran. The Siege of the Sanjō Palace (1160), yang digambarkan dalam bahagian "Night Attack on the Sanjō Palace" dari hirisan tangan Heiji Monogatari adalah contoh terkenal dari gaya ini.

Seni Kamakura Edit

Pada tahun 1180, perang meletus antara dua klan pahlawan yang paling kuat: Taira dan Minamoto lima tahun kemudian Minamoto muncul sebagai pemenang dan menubuhkan kerusi pemerintahan de facto di perkampungan pantai Kamakura, di mana ia kekal hingga tahun 1333. Dengan peralihan kuasa dari golongan bangsawan ke kelas pejuang, seni harus memuaskan penonton baru: lelaki yang menumpukan pada kemahiran peperangan, para imam berkomitmen untuk menyediakan Buddhisme untuk orang biasa yang buta huruf, dan konservatif, bangsawan dan beberapa anggota imamat yang menyesali penurunan kuasa mahkamah. Oleh itu, realisme, tren mempopulerkan, dan kebangkitan klasik mencirikan seni pada zaman Kamakura. Pada zaman Kamakura, Kyoto dan Nara tetap menjadi pusat pengeluaran seni dan budaya tinggi.

Arca: Sekolah pemahat Kei, khususnya Unkei, mencipta gaya arca yang baru dan lebih realistik. Dua gambar penjaga Niō (1203) di Great South Gate Tōdai-ji di Nara menggambarkan gaya supra-realistik dinamik Unkei. Gambar-gambar, setinggi 8 m (sekitar 26 kaki), diukir dari beberapa blok dalam jangka waktu sekitar tiga bulan, suatu prestasi yang menunjukkan sistem studio seniman yang dikembangkan yang bekerja di bawah arahan seorang pemahat utama. Arca kayu polikrom Unkei (1208, Kōfuku-ji, Nara) dari dua orang bijaksana India, Muchaku dan Seshin, pengasas legenda mazhab Hossō, adalah antara karya realistik paling berjaya pada masa itu seperti yang diberikan oleh Unkei, mereka sangat individual dan gambar yang boleh dipercayai. Salah satu karya yang paling terkenal pada zaman ini adalah Amitabha Triad (siap pada tahun 1195), di Jōdo-ji di Ono, yang diciptakan oleh Kaikei, pengganti Unkei.

Kaligrafi dan lukisan: The Kegon Engi Emaki, ilustrasi sejarah penubuhan mazhab Kegon, adalah contoh yang sangat baik dari trend mempopularkan lukisan Kamakura. Mazhab Kegon, salah satu yang paling penting dalam zaman Nara, jatuh pada masa-masa sukar semasa kenaikan mazhab Tanah Murni. Selepas Perang Genpei (1180–1185), Imam Myōe dari Kozan-ji berusaha untuk menghidupkan kembali mazhab tersebut dan juga untuk memberikan perlindungan kepada wanita-wanita yang janda akibat perang. Para isteri samurai tidak dianjurkan untuk belajar lebih dari sekadar sistem suku kata untuk mentranskripsikan suara dan idea (lihat kana), dan kebanyakan tidak mampu membaca teks yang menggunakan ideografi Cina (kanji).

Oleh itu, Kegon Engi Emaki menggabungkan petikan teks, ditulis dengan suku kata maksimum yang mudah dibaca, dan ilustrasi yang mempunyai dialog antara watak yang ditulis di sebelah pembesar suara, teknik yang setanding dengan jalur komik kontemporari. Petak dari e-maki, kehidupan dua imam Korea yang mengasaskan mazhab Kegon, dengan cepat dan dipenuhi dengan prestasi hebat seperti perjalanan ke istana Raja Ocean, dan kisah ibu yang pedih. [ penjelasan diperlukan ]

Karya yang lebih konservatif adalah versi buku harian Murasaki Shikibu yang digambarkan. E-maki versi novelnya terus dihasilkan, tetapi golongan bangsawan, selaras dengan minat baru dalam realisme namun nostalgia selama beberapa hari lalu kekayaan dan kuasa, menghidupkan kembali dan menggambarkan buku harian itu untuk merebut kembali kemegahan zaman pengarang. Salah satu petikan yang paling indah menggambarkan episod di mana Murasaki Shikibu dipenjarakan dengan senang hati di kamarnya oleh dua orang istana muda, sementara, di luar, cahaya bulan bersinar di tebing sungai berlumpur di taman empayar.

Seni Muromachi Sunting

Selama periode Muromachi (1338-1573), juga disebut periode Ashikaga, perubahan mendalam terjadi dalam budaya Jepun. Klan Ashikaga menguasai shogun dan memindahkan markasnya kembali ke Kyoto, ke daerah Muromachi di kota itu. Dengan kembalinya pemerintahan ke ibu kota, tren mempopulerkan zaman Kamakura berakhir, dan ekspresi budaya mengambil watak yang lebih aristokrat, elitis. Zen Buddhisme, mazhab Ch'an yang secara tradisional dianggap telah didirikan di China pada abad ke-6, diperkenalkan untuk kali kedua ke Jepun dan berakar umbi.

Lukisan: Kerana usaha sekular dan misi perdagangan ke China yang dianjurkan oleh kuil Zen, banyak lukisan dan objek seni Cina diimport ke Jepun dan sangat mempengaruhi seniman Jepun yang bekerja untuk kuil Zen dan shogun. Bukan sahaja import ini mengubah subjek lukisan, tetapi juga mengubah penggunaan warna warna terang Yamato-e yang dihasilkan kepada monokrom lukisan dengan cara Cina, di mana lukisan pada umumnya hanya mempunyai warna hitam dan putih atau nada yang berbeza satu warna.

Ciri khas lukisan Muromachi awal adalah gambaran oleh pelukis paderi Kao (aktif awal abad ke-15) rahib legenda Kensu (Hsien-tzu dalam bahasa Cina) ketika dia mencapai pencerahan. Lukisan jenis ini dilaksanakan dengan sapuan kuas cepat dan perincian minimum. Menangkap Ikan Lele dengan Labu (awal abad ke-15, Taizō-in, Myōshin-ji, Kyoto), oleh pendeta-pelukis Josetsu (aktif tahun 1400), menandakan titik perubahan dalam lukisan Muromachi. Dieksekusi pada asalnya untuk layar berdiri rendah, telah diganti sebagai tatal gantung dengan prasasti oleh tokoh kontemporari di atas, salah satunya merujuk kepada lukisan itu sebagai "gaya baru". Di latar depan seorang lelaki digambarkan di tebing sungai memegang labu kecil dan melihat ikan keli slithery besar. Kabut memenuhi jalan tengah, dan latar belakang gunung kelihatan jauh di kejauhan. Secara umum diandaikan bahawa "gaya baru" lukisan, yang dilaksanakan sekitar tahun 1413, merujuk pada rasa ruang yang lebih Cina dalam bidang gambar.

Artis paling terkenal pada zaman Muromachi adalah pelukis imam Shūbun dan Sesshū. Shūbun, seorang bhikkhu di kuil Kyoto Shōkoku-ji, diciptakan dalam lukisan itu Membaca di Hutan Buluh (1446) pemandangan yang realistik dengan kemelesetan yang mendalam ke angkasa. Sesshū, tidak seperti kebanyakan seniman pada masa itu, dapat melakukan perjalanan ke China dan belajar lukisan Cina di sumbernya. Landskap Empat Musim (Sansui Chokan c. 1486) adalah salah satu karya Sesshu yang paling berjaya, yang menggambarkan pemandangan berterusan sepanjang empat musim.

Seni Azuchi-Momoyama Edit

Pada masa Azuchi – Momoyama (1573–1603), penggantian pemimpin tentera, seperti Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, dan Tokugawa Ieyasu, berusaha membawa keamanan dan kestabilan politik ke Jepun setelah era perang hampir 100 tahun. Oda, seorang ketua kecil, memperoleh kuasa yang cukup untuk mengambil alih pemerintahan secara de facto pada tahun 1568 dan, lima tahun kemudian, untuk mengusir shōgun Ashikaga terakhir. Hideyoshi mengambil alih perintah setelah kematian Oda, tetapi rencananya untuk mewujudkan peraturan keturunan digagalkan oleh Ieyasu, yang menubuhkan shogun Tokugawa pada tahun 1603.

Lukisan: Sekolah lukisan yang paling penting pada zaman Momoyama adalah sekolah Kanō, dan inovasi terbesar pada masa itu adalah formula, yang dikembangkan oleh Kanō Eitoku, untuk penciptaan landskap monumental di pintu gelangsar yang merangkumi sebuah bilik. Dekorasi bilik utama yang menghadap ke taman Jukō-in, subtemple Daitoku-ji (kuil Zen di Kyoto), mungkin merupakan contoh terbaik karya Eitoku. Besar-besaran ume pokok dan pinus kembar digambarkan pada sepasang skrin gelongsor di sudut bertentangan menyerong, batangnya mengulangi menegak tiang sudut dan cawangannya memanjang ke kiri dan kanan, menyatukan panel bersebelahan. Skrin Eitoku, Singa Cina, juga di Kyoto, memperlihatkan gaya lukisan yang berani dan berwarna cerah yang disukai oleh samurai.

Hasegawa Tōhaku, kontemporari Eitoku, mengembangkan gaya hiasan yang agak berbeza dan lebih banyak untuk lukisan skrin berskala besar. Dalam dia Skrin Maple (楓 図), sekarang di kuil Chishaku-in (ja: 智 積 院), Kyoto, dia meletakkan batang pokok di tengahnya dan memanjangkan anggota badan hampir ke tepi komposisi, membuat pipi yang kurang rata berfungsi daripada Eitoku, tetapi lukisan yang cantik. Skrin enam kali lipatnya, Kayu Pinus (松林 図), adalah rendering mahir dalam tinta monokrom dari sebatang pohon yang diselimuti kabut.

Art of the Edo period Edit

Tokugawa shogun memperoleh penguasaan pemerintah yang tidak dipertikaikan pada tahun 1603 dengan komitmen untuk membawa keamanan dan kestabilan ekonomi dan politik ke negara ini dengan besarnya ia berjaya. Shogun itu bertahan hingga tahun 1867, ketika dipaksa untuk menyerah kerana kegagalannya menangani tekanan dari negara-negara Barat untuk membuka negara ini ke perdagangan luar negeri. Salah satu tema yang dominan pada zaman Edo adalah kebijakan menindas para shogun dan percubaan para seniman untuk melarikan diri dari kesulitan ini. Yang terpenting adalah penutupan negara ini kepada orang asing dan perlakuan budaya mereka, dan pengenaan peraturan tingkah laku yang ketat yang mempengaruhi setiap aspek kehidupan, pakaian yang dipakai seseorang, orang yang dinikahinya, dan aktiviti yang dapat atau harus dilakukan oleh seseorang tidak mengejar.

Namun, pada tahun-tahun awal zaman Edo, kesan penuh dari kebijakan Tokugawa belum dirasakan, dan beberapa ungkapan terbaik dalam seni bina dan lukisan dihasilkan: Istana Katsura di Kyoto dan lukisan Tawaraya Sōtatsu, pelopor Sekolah Rinpa.

Percetakan kayu kayu: Cetakan kayu kayu pada mulanya digunakan untuk menterjemahkan tulisan suci Buddha pada abad kelapan di Jepun. Percetakan woodblock terdiri daripada ukiran gambar atau gambar pada sekeping kayu, yang kemudian ditekan pada sehelai kertas. Pada abad kelapan, sekatan kayu dianggap sebagai kaedah yang mudah untuk menghasilkan semula teks bercetak sehingga inovasi selanjutnya memungkinkan warna diterjemahkan di atas kertas atau lebih dikenali sebagai cetakan Nishik-e. Percetakan blok kayu adalah kaedah umum mencetak dari abad kesebelas hingga abad kesembilan belas. Cetakan Nishiki-e menghasilkan barang seperti kalendar yang biasanya dijual kepada anggota masyarakat yang kaya pada zaman Edo. Pada zaman Edo cetakan ini digambarkan peristiwa dan adegan pelakon terkemuka. Ukiyo kemudiannya dikaitkan dengan percetakan blok kayu pada awal Edo. Lukisan Ukiyo ini menggambarkan kehidupan harian anggota masyarakat terkemuka. Ukiyo pertama kali bermula ketika tatal yang dilukis dengan tangan menggambarkan kehidupan sebagai orang biasa.

Senibina: Istana Terpisah Katsura, yang dibangun dengan tiruan istana Genji, berisi sekumpulan bangunan berpasangan yang menggabungkan unsur seni bina Jepun klasik dengan penataan semula yang inovatif. Seluruh kompleks dikelilingi oleh taman yang indah dengan jalan untuk berjalan kaki. Banyak yang kuat daimyō (tuan feudal) membina taman Jepun gaya Circuit di negara wilayah, dan bersaing untuk kecantikan.

Lukisan: Sōtatsu mengembangkan gaya hiasan yang luar biasa dengan mencipta kembali tema dari kesusasteraan klasik, menggunakan tokoh dan motif berwarna cemerlang dari dunia semula jadi yang berlatarbelakangkan daun emas. Salah satu karya terbaiknya ialah sepasang layar Gelombang di Matsushima di Galeri Freer di Washington, D. Satu abad kemudian, Kōrin mengolah semula gaya Sōtatsu dan mencipta karya-karya cantik secara visual yang unik. Mungkin yang terbaik adalah lukisan layar Bunga Plum Merah dan Putih.

Arca: Bhikkhu Buddha Enkū mengukir 120,000 gambar Buddha dengan gaya individu yang kasar.

Ukiyo-e dan nanga (bunjinga): Sekolah seni yang paling terkenal di Barat adalah lukisan ukiyo-e dan cetakan kayu dari demimonde, dunia teater kabuki dan daerah kesenangan. Cetakan Ukiyo-e mula dihasilkan pada akhir abad ke-17 pada tahun 1765 Harunobu menghasilkan cetakan polikrom pertama. Pereka cetakan generasi akan datang, termasuk Torii Kiyonaga dan Utamaro, membuat penggambaran pelayan yang elegan dan kadang-kadang berwawasan.

Pada abad ke-19 tokoh yang dominan adalah Hokusai dan Hiroshige, yang terakhir pencipta cetakan lanskap romantis dan agak sentimental. Sudut dan bentuk yang aneh di mana Hiroshige sering melihat landskap, dan karya Kiyonaga dan Utamaro, dengan penekanan pada bidang datar dan garis lurus yang kuat, memberi kesan mendalam kepada seniman Barat seperti Edgar Degas dan Vincent van Gogh. Melalui karya seni yang diadakan di muzium Barat, pembuat cetakan yang sama ini kemudiannya akan memberikan pengaruh yang kuat terhadap citra dan pendekatan estetik yang digunakan oleh penyair Modernis awal seperti Ezra Pound, Richard Aldington dan H.D. [21]

Sekolah lukisan kontemporari dengan ukiyo-e adalah nanga, atau bunjinga, gaya berdasarkan lukisan yang dilaksanakan oleh pelukis cendekiawan Cina. Sama seperti para seniman ukiyo-e memilih untuk menggambarkan tokoh-tokoh dari kehidupan di luar ketat dari shogun Tokugawa, para seniman bunjin beralih ke budaya Cina. Contoh gaya ini ialah Ike no Taiga, Yosa Buson, Tanomura Chikuden, dan Yamamoto Baiitsu (ja: 山 本 梅 逸).

Traditional, mostly stoneware, styles continued in many parts of Japan, but Japanese ceramics were transformed around the start of the Edo period, by a large influx of Korean potters, captured or persuaded to emigrate in the course of the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s. Many of these were settled on the southern island of Kyushu, and they brought with them experience of versions of the Chinese-style chambered climbing kiln, called noborigama in Japan, which allowed high temperatures with more precise control. By around 1620 they had discovered deposits of kaolinite, and started to make porcelain for the first time in Japan. The early wares (called "Early Imari") were relatively small and imitated the Chinese underglaze blue and white porcelain, which Japan had been importing for some time. [22]

The porcelain industry greatly expanded in the late 1650s, as the collapse of the Chinese industry from civil war led to very large orders from the Chinese traders and the Dutch East India Company, by then the traders only permitted to do business in Japan. The first great period of Japanese export porcelain lasted until about the 1740s, and the great bulk of Japanese porcelain was made for export, mostly to Europe, but also the Islamic world to the west and south of Japan. [23]

Ko-Kutani (old Kutani) five colours Iroe type sake ewer with bird and flower design in overglaze enamel, Edo period, 17th century

With the development of economy and culture, the artistic quality of lacquered furniture has improved. Hon'ami Kōetsu and Ogata Kōrin brought the designs of the Rinpa school of painting into lacquerware. After the middle of the Edo period, inrō for portable medicine containers began to be decorated gorgeously with maki-e and raden, and it became popular among samurai class and wealthy merchants in the chōnin class, and at the end of the Edo period, it changed from practical accessories to art collections. [24] [25] The export of lacquerware continued following the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Marie Antoinette and Maria Theresa are known as collectors of Japanese lacquerware in this period. [2]

Inro dan Netsuke, 18th century

Art of the Prewar period Edit

When the Emperor of Japan regained ruling power in 1868, Japan was once again invaded by new and alien forms of culture. During the Prewar period, The introduction of Western cultural values led to a dichotomy in Japanese art, as well as in nearly every other aspect of culture, between traditional values and attempts to duplicate and assimilate a variety of clashing new ideas. This split remained evident in the late 20th century, although much synthesis had by then already occurred, and created an international cultural atmosphere and stimulated contemporary Japanese arts toward ever more innovative forms.

The government took an active interest in the art export market, promoting Japanese arts at a succession of world's fairs, beginning with the 1873 Vienna World's Fair. [26] [27] As well as heavily funding the fairs, the government took an active role organising how Japan's culture was presented to the world. It created a semi-public company — the Kiritsu Kosho Kaisha (First Industrial Manufacturing Company) — to promote and commercialize exports of art [28] and established the Hakurankai Jimukyoku (Exhibition Bureau) to maintain quality standards. [27] For the 1876 Centennial International Exhibition in Philadelphia, the Japanese government created a Centennial Office and sent a special envoy to secure space for the 30,000 items that would be displayed. [29] The Imperial Household also took an active interest in arts and crafts, commissioning works ("presentation wares") as gifts for foreign dignitaries. [30] In 1890, the Teishitsu Gigeiin (Artist to the Imperial Household) system was created to recognise distinguished artists seventy were appointed from 1890 to 1944. [31] Among these were the painter and lacquer artist Shibata Zeshin, ceramicist Makuzu Kōzan, painter Hashimoto Gahō, and cloisonné enamel artist Namikawa Yasuyuki. [31]

As Western imports became popular, demand for Japanese art declined within Japan itself. [32] In Europe and America, the new availability of Japanese art led to a fascination for Japanese culture a craze known in Europe as Japonisme. [33] Imperial patronage, government sponsorship, promotion to new audiences, and Western technology combined to foster an era of Japanese artistic innovation. In the decorative arts, Japanese artists reached new levels of technical sophistication. [28]

Today, Masayuki Murata owns more than 10,000 Meiji art works and is one of the most enthusiastic collectors. From that time, most of the excellent works of Meiji Art were bought by foreign collectors and only a few of them remained in Japan, but because he bought back many works from foreign countries and opened the Kiyomizu Sannenzaka Museum, [34] the study and reevaluation of Meiji Art rapidly advanced in Japan after the 21st century. [35] Nasser Khalili is also one of the world's most dedicated collectors of Meiji art, and his collection encompasses many categories of Meiji art. The Japanese Imperial Family also owns excellent works of Meiji Art, some of which were donated to the state and are now stored in the Museum of the Imperial Collections.

Architecture and Garden Edit

By the early 20th century, European art forms were well introduced and their marriage produced notable buildings like the Tokyo Train Station and the National Diet Building that still exist today. Tokyo Station, a building of Giyōfū architecture, full of bricks and pseudo-European style. This style of building was built in urban areas.

Many artistic new Japanese gardens were built by Jihei Ogawa.

Painting Edit

The first response of the Japanese to Western art forms was open-hearted acceptance, and in 1876 the Technological Art School(ja:工部美術学校) was opened, employing Italian instructors to teach Western methods. The second response was a pendulum swing in the opposite direction spearheaded by Okakura Kakuzō and the American Ernest Fenollosa, who encouraged Japanese artists to retain traditional themes and techniques while creating works more in keeping with contemporary taste. This was a strategy that eventually served to extend the influence of Japanese art as far as Calcutta, London, and Boston in the years leading up to World War I. [36] Out of these two poles of artistic theory—derived from Europe and from East Asia respectively—developed yōga ("Western-style painting") and Nihonga ("Japanese painting"), categories that have maintained currency.

Enamels Edit

During the Meiji era, Japanese cloisonné enamel reached a technical peak, producing items more advanced than any that had existed before. [37] The period from 1890 to 1910 was known as the "Golden age" of Japanese enamels. [38] Artists experimented with pastes and with the firing process to produce ever larger blocks of enamel, with less need for cloisons (enclosing metal strips). [37] Thus enamels became a more pictorial medium, with designs similar to, or copied from, traditional paintings. [39] Enamels with a design unique to Japan, in which flowers, birds and insects were used as themes, became popular. In particular, the works of Namikawa Yasuyuki and Namikawa Sōsuke were exhibited at world's fairs and won many awards. [40] [41] [42] [43] Along with the two Namikawa, the Ando Cloisonné Company has produced many high-quality cloisonne. Japanese enamels were regarded as unequalled thanks to the new achievements in design and colouring. [44]

Lacquerware Edit

The Meiji era saw a renewed interest in lacquer as artists developed new designs and experimented with new textures and finishes. [45] Maki-e (decorating the lacquer in gold or silver dust) was the most common technique for quality lacquerware in this period. [46] Shibata Zeshin was a lacquerer who gained a high reputation for his works from the Bakumatsu to the Meiji period. Lacquerware called Shibayama dan Somada, created in the Edo period, became popular for its showy style, inlaid with gold, silver, shellfish, ivory, and colorful metal and glass, and reached its peak during this period. [47] Lacquer from Japanese workshops was recognised as technically superior to what could be produced anywhere else in the world. [48]

Metalwork Edit

At the start of the Meiji era, Japanese metalwork was almost totally unknown outside the country, unlike lacquer and porcelain which had previously been exported. [49] Metalwork was connected to Buddhist practice, for example in the use of bronze for temple bells and incense cauldrons, so there were fewer opportunities for metalworkers once Buddhism was displaced as the state religion. [49] International exhibitions brought Japanese cast bronze to a new foreign audience, attracting strong praise. [49] The past history of samurai weaponry equipped Japanese metalworkers to create metallic finishes in a wide range of colours. By combining and finishing copper, silver and gold in different proportions, they created specialised alloys including shakudō and shibuichi. With this variety of alloys and finishes, an artist could give the impression of full-colour decoration. [50]

Ivory carving Edit

In the Meiji period, Japanese clothes began to be westernized and the number of people who wore kimono decreased, so the craftsmen who made netsuke dan kiseru with ivory and wood lost their demand. Therefore, they tried to create a new field, ivory sculptures for interior decoration, and many elaborate works were exported to foreign countries or purchased by the Imperial Family. In particular, the works of Ishikawa Komei and Asahi Gyokuzan won praise in Japan. [51]

Porcelain and Earthenware Edit

Technical and artistic innovations of the Meiji era turned porcelain into one of the most internationally successful Japanese decorative art forms. [52] Satsuma ware was a name originally given to pottery from Satsuma province, elaborately decorated with gilt and enamel. These wares were highly praised in the West. Seen in the West as distinctively Japanese, this style actually owed a lot to imported pigments and Western influences, and had been created with export in mind. [53] Workshops in many cities raced to produce this style to satisfy demand from Europe and America, often producing quickly and cheaply. So the term "Satsuma ware" came to be associated not with a place of origin but with lower-quality ware created purely for export. [54] Despite this, artists such as Yabu Meizan and Makuzu Kōzan maintained the highest artistic standards while also successfully exporting. [55] From 1876 to 1913, Kōzan won prizes at 51 exhibitions, including the World's fair and the National Industrial Exhibition. [56]

Textiles Edit

The 1902 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica wrote, "In no branch of applied art does the decorative genius of Japan show more attractive results than that of textile fabrics, and in none has there been more conspicuous progress during recent years." [57] Very large, colourful pictorial works were being produced in Kyoto. Embroidery had become an art form in its own right, adopting a range of pictorial techniques such as chiaroscuro and aerial perspective. [57]

Art of the Postwar period Edit

Immediately following Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945, large numbers of Japanese artists fell under the influence of, or even joined, the Japan Communist Party, which had just been legalized by the U.S.-led military occupation of Japan after many years of suppression by the prewar and wartime Japanese police. [58] This had to do with the success of the Communist Party had in peddling the notion in the early postwar years that the party had been the only group in Japan to have resisted wartime militarism. [59] In addition, the Japanese word for "vanguard" (前衛, zen'ei), as in "vanguard of the communist revolution," happens to be the same word used for "avant-garde" as in the artistic avant-garde. [60] The Japan Communist Party soon came to dominate the major art societies and exhibitions in Japan, and thus the predominant form of art in the immediate aftermath of the war was socialist realism that depicted the suffering of the poor and the nobility of the working class, in line with Communist Party doctrine that all art should serve the purpose of advancing the cause of revolution. [59] In 1952, the Communist Party even ordered artists such as Hiroshi Katsuragawa and other members of the newly formed Avant-Garde Art Association (前衛美術会, Zen'ei Bijutsukai) out into the mountains to produce socialist realist art in support of "mountain guerrilla squads" that were attempting to foment a violent revolution in Japan. [61]

The 1950s: Struggling to break free of socialist realism Edit

Over the course of the 1950s, many Japanese artists became increasingly disillusioned with the rigid and limited definition of "art" enforced by the Communist Party. [62] However, due to the ongoing preeminence of Communist Party members and supporters in the senior ranks of artistic societies and exhibition juries, artists found it extremely difficult to even show their art unless they conformed to the Party's guidelines. [63] Some artists shied away from formal public exhibitions. Others sought recognition, financial support, and opportunities to show their art overseas, such as the Gutai group of conceptual artists, founded in 1954. Still other artists made use of the few unjuried, "independent" exhibitions in Japan, such as the Yomiuri Independent Exhibition sponsored by the Yomiuri Shinbun, which anyone could enter. [64]

A final straw came with the massive 1960 Anpo Protests against the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty (known as "Anpo" in Japanese"), due to the extremely passive role played by the supposedly "vanguard" Communist Party. When the protests failed to stop the treaty, a round of recriminations led to further disillusionment with the Communist Party and socialist realist art, causing many more artists to break away from the Party's influence. [65]

The 1960s: An explosion of new genres Edit

With the dominance of socialist realism fading, the 1960s witnessed an explosion of new art forms in Japan, as the arts expanded in new directions that might best be termed "postmodern." [66] Artist collectives such as Neo-Dada Organizers, Zero Dimension, and Hi-Red Center explored concepts such as "non-art" and "anti-art," and conducted a variety of audacious "events," "happenings," and other forms of performance art designed to erode the boundaries between art and daily life. The Mono-ha group similarly pushed the boundaries dividing art, space, landscape, and the environment. Other artists, such as graphic designer Tadanori Yokoo, drew inspiration from 1960s counterculture and the explosion of new forms of adult-oriented manga comics. In the performing arts, Tatsumi Hijikata pioneered a new form of postmodern dance called Butoh, and playwrights such as Jūrō Kara and Satō Makoto created the Angura style of radical "underground" theater. [67] And in photography, photographers such as Daidō Moriyama pioneered an extremely influential new school of postwar photography that emphasized spontaneity over carefully staged composition and celebrated the characteristics "are, bure, bokeh" (literally "rough, blurred, out-of-focus"). [68] [69]

The proliferation of new types of art was supported by the tremendous growth of Japan's economy in the 1960s, remembered as the "Japanese economic miracle." Over the course of the 1960s, the Japanese economy grew by over 10% per year. Rising wealth created a new class of consumers who could afford to spend money on art and support different types of art and artists. For the first time in Japan's modern history, it became viable for significant numbers of artists to make a living purely through selling their art. The 1960s construction boom in Japan, which leveled the old wood-and-paper traditional Japanese architecture and replaced it with sparkling mega-cities of glass and steel, helped inspire brand new schools of Japanese architecture, such as the Metabolism (architecture) movement led by Kenzō Tange, that boldly broke free from conventional models and proved influential around the world.

At the same time, however, the art world remained dominated by cliques that promoted the works of certain (usually male) artists over others. As it became much easier for Japanese to travel overseas in the 1960s, some female artists such as Yayoi Kusama and Yoko Ono found better reception overseas, and decamped for artistic centers such as London, Paris, and New York, as did many male artists as well.

The triumph of the new forms of Japanese art was cemented at the 1970 Osaka World's Fair, where dozens of avant-garde and conceptual artists were hired to design pavilions and artistic experiences for fair-goers. [70] Japanese avant-garde art had gone global, and had become something even the conservative government was proud to display to the world.

The 1970s and 1980s: Riding the economic bubble Edit

The 1970s and 1980s saw Japanese art continue in many of the directions begun in the 1950s and 1960s, but often with much bigger budgets and more expensive materials. As Japan's economy kept rapidly expanding, and eventually grew into one of the largest economic bubbles in history. With Japanese currency becoming incredibly strong in the wake of the 1985 Plaza Accord, Japanese individuals and institutions became major players in the international art market. Extraordinarily wealthy Japanese mega-corporations began constructing their own private art museums and acquiring collections of modern and contemporary art, and Japanese artists greatly benefited from these expenditures as well.

In particular, artistic production continued to trend away from traditional painting and sculpture in the direction of graphic design, pop art, wearable art, performance art, conceptual art, and installation art. Various types of "hybrid" art increasingly came into vogue. As technology advanced, artists increasingly incorporated electronics, video, computers, synthesized music and sounds, and video games into their art. The aesthetics of manga and anime, which so many younger artists had grown up immersed in, exerted an increasing if sometimes quite subtle influence. Above all, artists eschewed anything redolent of "high art" or "fine art" in favor of the personal, the eclectic, the fantastic or phantasmagoric, and the playful. In edition, female artists such as Mika Yoshizawa became more and more accepted and supported by the art world in Japan.

Contemporary art in Japan Edit

Japanese contemporary art takes as many forms and expresses as many different ideas as worldwide contemporary art in general. It ranges from advertisements, anime, video games, and architecture as already mentioned, to sculpture, painting, and drawing in all their myriad forms. Japanese artists have made especially notable contributions to global contemporary art in the fields of architecture, video games, graphic design, fashion, and perhaps above all, animation. While anime at first were derived primarily from manga stories, [ rujukan diperlukan ] diverse anime abounds today, and many artists and studios have risen to great fame as artists Hayao Miyazaki and the artists and animators of Studio Ghibli are generally regarded to be among the best the anime world has to offer.

At the same time, many Japanese artists continue to use traditional Japanese artistic techniques and materials inherited from premodern times, such as traditional forms of Japanese paper and ceramics and painting with black and color ink on paper or silk. Some of these artworks depict traditional subject matters in traditional styles, while others explore new and different motifs and styles, or create hybrids of traditional and contemporary art forms, while using traditional media or materials. Still others eschew native media and styles, embracing Western oil paints or any number of other forms.

In sculpture, the same holds true some artists stick to the traditional modes, some doing it with a modern flair, and some choose Western or brand new modes, styles, and media. Yo Akiyama is just one of many modern Japanese sculptors. He works primarily in clay pottery and ceramics, creating works that are very simple and straightforward, looking like they were created out of the earth itself. Another sculptor, using iron and other modern materials, built a large modern art sculpture in the Israeli port city of Haifa, called Hanabi (Fireworks). Nahoko Kojima is a contemporary Kirie artist who has pioneered the technique of Paper Cut Sculpture which hangs in 3D.

Takashi Murakami is arguably one of the most well-known Japanese modern artists in the Western world. Murakami and the other artists in his studio create pieces in a style, inspired by anime, which he has dubbed "superflat". His pieces take a multitude of forms, from painting to sculpture, some truly massive in size. But most if not all show very clearly this anime influence, utilizing bright colors and simplified details.

Yayoi Kusama, Yoshitomo Nara, Hiroshi Sugimoto, Chiharu Shiota, Daidō Moriyama, Mariko Mori, Aya Takano, and Tabaimo are considered significant artists in the field of contemporary Japanese art. [71] The Group 1965, an artists' collective, counts contemporary artist Makoto Aida among its members. [72]

Many traditional forms of Japanese music, dance, and theater have survived in the contemporary world, enjoying some popularity through reidentification with Japanese cultural values. Traditional music and dance, which trace their origins to ancient religious use—Buddhist, Shintō, and folk—have been preserved in the dramatic performances of Noh, Kabuki, and bunraku theater. Ancient court music and dance forms deriving from continental sources were preserved through Imperial household musicians and temple and shrine troupes. Some of the oldest musical instruments in the world have been in continuous use in Japan from the Jōmon period, as shown by finds of stone and clay flutes and zithers having between two and four strings, to which Yayoi period metal bells and gongs were added to create early musical ensembles. By the early historical period (6th to 7th centuries), there were a variety of large and small drums, gongs, chimes, flutes, and stringed instruments, such as the imported mandolin-like biwa and the flat six-stringed zither, which evolved into the thirteen-stringed koto. These instruments formed the orchestras for the 7th-century continentally derived ceremonial court music (gagaku), which, together with the accompanying bugaku (a type of court dance), are the most ancient of such forms still performed at the Imperial court, ancient temples, and shrines. Buddhism introduced the rhythmic chants, still used, that underpin Shigin, and that were joined with native ideas to underlay the development of vocal music, such as in Noh.

Japanese art is characterized by unique polarities. In the ceramics of the prehistoric periods, for example, exuberance was followed by disciplined and refined artistry. Another instance is provided by two 16th-century structures that are poles apart: the Katsura Detached Palace is an exercise in simplicity, with an emphasis on natural materials, rough and untrimmed, and an affinity for beauty achieved by accident Nikkō Tōshō-gū is a rigidly symmetrical structure replete with brightly colored relief carvings covering every visible surface. Japanese art, valued not only for its simplicity but also for its colorful exuberance, has considerably influenced 19th-century Western painting and 20th-century Western architecture.

Japan's aesthetic conceptions, deriving from diverse cultural traditions, have been formative in the production of unique art forms. Over the centuries, a wide range of artistic motifs developed and were refined, becoming imbued with symbolic significance. Like a pearl, they acquired many layers of meaning and a high luster. Japanese aesthetics provide a key to understanding artistic works perceivably different from those coming from Western traditions.

Within the East Asian artistic tradition, China has been the acknowledged teacher and Japan the devoted student. Nevertheless, several Japanese arts developed their own style, which can be differentiated from various Chinese arts. The monumental, symmetrically balanced, rational approach of Chinese art forms became miniaturized, irregular, and subtly suggestive in Japanese hands. Miniature rock gardens, diminutive plants (bonsai), dan ikebana (flower arrangements), in which the selected few represented a garden, were the favorite pursuits of refined aristocrats for a millennium, and they have remained a part of contemporary cultural life.

The diagonal, reflecting a natural flow, rather than the fixed triangle, became the favored structural device, whether in painting, architectural or garden design, dance steps, or musical notations. Odd numbers replace even numbers in the regularity of a Chinese master pattern, and a pull to one side allows a motif to turn the corner of a three-dimensional object, thus giving continuity and motion that is lacking in a static frontal design. Japanese painters used the devices of the cutoff, close-up, and fade-out by the 12th century in yamato-e, or Japanese-style, scroll painting, perhaps one reason why modern filmmaking has been such a natural and successful art form in Japan. Suggestion is used rather than direct statement oblique poetic hints and allusive and inconclusive melodies and thoughts have proved frustrating to the Westerner trying to penetrate the meanings of literature, music, painting, and even everyday language.

The Japanese began defining such aesthetic ideas in a number of evocative phrases by at least the 10th or 11th century. The courtly refinements of the aristocratic Heian period evolved into the elegant simplicity seen as the essence of good taste in the understated art that is called shibui. Two terms originating from Zen Buddhist meditative practices describe degrees of tranquility: one, the repose found in humble melancholy (wabi), the other, the serenity accompanying the enjoyment of subdued beauty (sabi). Zen thought also contributed a penchant for combining the unexpected or startling, used to jolt one's consciousness toward the goal of enlightenment. In art, this approach was expressed in combinations of such unlikely materials as lead inlaid in lacquer and in clashing poetic imagery. Unexpectedly humorous and sometimes grotesque images and motifs also stem from the Zen kōan (conundrum). Although the arts have been mainly secular since the Edo period, traditional aesthetics and training methods, stemming generally from religious sources, continue to underlie artistic productions.

Modern concepts Edit

Today, Japan has developed a more modern cultural aesthetic often associated with Shojo manga known as "kawaii," which can otherwise be described as "cute". Typically represented through cartoons and animation, kawaii has had a powerful cultural impact and is also a powerful agent for Japanese advertisement and consumption. [73] The concept of "cuteness" that is currently displayed in kawaii has traditionally been revered in Japanese culture spanning back to the Edo period of art in the 15th century. [74]

Kawaii fashion found in Tokyo, Japan

Osaka Kawaii à Japan Expo 2014.

Traditional aesthetics Edit

Traditional Japanese Aesthetics are forms of beauty in Japanese culture that derive from the earliest centuries. At least over two-hundred years ago. Some of these early aesthetics make up the Japanese Aesthetic as a whole: Syncretic Buddhist Art, Wabi-Sabi, Miyabi, Shibui, and Jo-ha-Kyu.

Syncretic Buddhist art Edit

Wabi-Sabi Edit

This aesthetic in Japanese culture is known for many things such as beauty in all things, even those that are imperfect. Modesty and unconventional things are what are seen as the wabi-sabi aesthetic. Wabi and sabi both make up the aesthetic of beauty in incompleteness together. When separated, both serve as differing terms. Wabi stands for fresh, simple work, denoting all complication and having a very rustic feel to all it relates too. Being made from nature and made from man itself in a tandem. If made by accident, it brings about a certain uniqueness to the work. Sabi is beauty and how it originates from age. The cycle of life plays a great role in sabi, adding to the aesthetic that sense of beauty in works that receive mending damage from aging over time. When bringing wabi and sabi together, it creates the aesthetic that every simple piece developed does not require a complicated design. Nor does it require absolute completeness for beauty to be found in it, and with age comes more delicate beauty.

Wabi-sabi has always been related to tea ceremonies in Japanese culture. It is said that these ceremonies are profound wabi-sabi events. Wabi-sabi is also related to activities such as architecture, fashion, and philosophy. All of these portions of wabi-sabi all share belief in the same theme: all imperfections such as incomplete work holds undeniable beauty. However, not everyone, of course, favors the idea behind wabi-sabi. While this is true, there are many who wish to keep the belief alive despite what others believe. Overall, wabi-sabi seems to be a very mindful approach to everyday life. A calm way to see things, and a way to live without coming off as judgmental. When understanding wabi-sabi, there are terms that strongly relate to the aesthetic as well.

Fukinsei: asymmetry, irregularity. Kanso: simplicity. Koko: basic, weathered. Shizen: without pretense, natural. Yugen: subtly profound grace, not obvious. Datsuzoku: unbounded by convention, free. Seijaku: tranquility, silence.

Each of these terms are used to break down the complete understanding of wabi-sabi. It more so relates to the philosophy aspect of the entire aesthetic and how to view one's surroundings. These can allude to several things including the ideas in humans, the themes behind certain aspects of life, or nature itself. Each term leads back to the point that wabi-sabi is an aesthetic that is about appreciating the small things that are imperfect and or incomplete.

Miyabi Edit

In the ongoing history of Japan, miyabi can stand for many things. However, it seems to be centered around the concept of elegance, beauty, refinement, and courtliness. For this, it is one of the older aesthetics among most of the Japanese aesthetics in the culture. That would explain why it is not as popular as the rest which may be newer compared to miyabi. It is a term that is also used to express aristocratic culture. Miyabi eliminates all forms of rudeness and crudity from the culture. This brings about the proper picture and form of aristocratic culture. Miyabi brings about these changes. Miyabi ensures that refinement of love, literature, feeling, and art is celebrated within the Japanese culture. Refinement is welcomed.

Shibui Edit

Shibui is coming to understand an object or an art piece for what it is. Locating simple and subtle beauty in certain things is a goal when it comes to designing or reviewing certain designs. In many ways, shibui is very similar to wabi-sabi but is not wabi-sabi. Shibui appreciates items and objects for simply being. There is no complication or irrational thinking when it comes down to shibui. Akin to certain aesthetics in the Japanese culture, there are a couple of terms in relation to Shibui: shibumi is the taste of shibui Shibusa is the state of shibui.

Both these terms relate to subtle, unobtrusive beauty. There are several items and objects that can be considered a part of the shibui aesthetic, not just art or fashion. It can also be people, animals, songs, movies, several different types of media can be seen as shibui. For example, a pair of shoes, a camera, a moped bike, and several different pieces of art or objects used for everyday activity can be seen as shibui. Direct and simple is the way of shibui. Nothing over the top or too flashy.

Jo-ha-kyu Edit

This is an aesthetic that originated from the Noh Theatre and even appeared in the 14th century. It is used in different art forms in Japan even still today. It is a movement that has been applied in several different arts with jo, ha, and kyu standing for individual things to make up its definition: jo, 'beginning' ha, 'break', 'crack' kyu: 'rapid', 'over'

Essentially, what this aesthetic means is that when it comes down to pieces that deal with movement, things should start slowly with proper build-up. Almost akin to how a story is told. Then once it reaches its climax, it speeds up. When it reaches its end, then that is when things begin to rapidly speed up until all of a sudden it has reached an ending.

Traditionally, the artist was a vehicle for expression and was personally reticent, in keeping with the role of an artisan or entertainer of low social status. The calligrapher, a member of the Confucian literati class, or samurai class in Japan, had a higher status, while artists of great genius were often recognized in the Kamakura period by receiving a name from a feudal lord and thus rising socially. The performing arts, however, were generally held in less esteem, and the purported immorality of actresses of the early Kabuki theater caused the Tokugawa government to bar women from the stage female roles in Kabuki and Noh thereafter were played by men.

After the World War II, artists typically gathered in arts associations, some of which were long-established professional societies while others reflected the latest arts movement. The Japan Artists League, for example, was responsible for the largest number of major exhibitions, including the prestigious annual Nitten (Japan Art Exhibition). The PEN Club of Japan (PEN stands for prose, essay, and narrative), a branch of an international writers' organization, was the largest of some thirty major authors' associations. Actors, dancers, musicians, and other performing artists boasted their own societies, including the Kabuki Society, organized in 1987 to maintain this art's traditional high standards, which were thought to be endangered by modern innovation. By the 1980s, however, avant-garde painters and sculptors had eschewed all groups and were "unattached" artists.

Art schools Edit

There are a number of specialized universities for the arts in Japan, led by the national universities. The most important is the Tokyo Arts University, one of the most difficult of all national universities to enter. Another seminal center is Tama Art University, which produced many of Japan's late 20th-century innovative young artists. Traditional training in the arts, derived from Chinese traditional methods, remains experts teach from their homes or head schools working within a master-pupil relationship. A pupil does not experiment with a personal style until achieving the highest level of training, or graduating from an arts school, or becoming head of a school. Many young artists have criticized this system as stifling creativity and individuality. A new generation of the avant-garde has broken with this tradition, often receiving its training in the West. In the traditional arts, however, the master-pupil system preserves the secrets and skills of the past. Some master-pupil lineages can be traced to the Kamakura period, from which they continue to use a great master's style or theme. Japanese artists consider technical virtuosity as the sine qua non of their professions, a fact recognized by the rest of the world as one of the hallmarks of Japanese art.

The national government has actively supported the arts through the Agency for Cultural Affairs, set up in 1968 as a special body of the Ministry of Education. The agency's budget for FY 1989 rose to ¥37.8 billion after five years of budget cuts, but still represented much less than 1 percent of the general budget. The agency's Cultural Affairs Division disseminated information about the arts within Japan and internationally, and the Cultural Properties Protection Division (文化財保護部, now 文化財部) protected the nation's cultural heritage. The Cultural Affairs Division is concerned with such areas as art and culture promotion, arts copyrights, and improvements in the national language. It also supports both national and local arts and cultural festivals, and it funds traveling cultural events in music, theater, dance, art exhibitions, and filmmaking. Special prizes are offered to encourage young artists and established practitioners, and some grants are given each year to enable them to train abroad. The agency funds national museums of modern art in Kyoto and Tokyo and The National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, which exhibit both Japanese and international shows. The agency also supports the Japan Art Academy, which honors eminent persons of arts and letters, appointing them to membership and offering ¥3.5 million in prize money. Awards are made in the presence of the Emperor, who personally bestows the highest accolade, the Order of Culture. Tokyo University of the Arts also taking active roles on several art events in previous years. Their other campuses are also involving varied courses.

Private sponsorship and foundations Edit

Arts patronage and promotion by the government are broadened to include a new cooperative effort with corporate Japan to provide funding beyond the tight budget of the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Many other public and private institutions participate, especially in the burgeoning field of awarding arts prizes. A growing number of large corporations join major newspapers in sponsoring exhibitions and performances and in giving yearly prizes. The most important of the many literary awards given are the venerable Naoki Prize and the Akutagawa Prize, the latter being the equivalent of the Pulitzer Prize in the United States.

In 1989 an effort to promote cross-cultural exchange led to the establishment of a Japanese "Nobel Prize" for the arts, the Premium Imperiale, by the Japan Art Association. This prize of US$100,000 was funded largely by the mass media conglomerate Fujisankei Communications Group and was awarded on a worldwide selection basis.

A number of foundations promoting the arts arose in the 1980s, including the Cultural Properties Foundation set up to preserve historic sites overseas, especially along the Silk Road in Inner Asia and at Dunhuang in China. Another international arrangement was made in 1988 with the United States Smithsonian Institution for cooperative exchange of high-technology studies of Asian artifacts. The government plays a major role by funding the Japan Foundation, which provides both institutional and individual grants, effects scholarly exchanges, awards annual prizes, supported publications and exhibitions, and sends traditional Japanese arts groups to perform abroad. The Arts Festival held for two months each fall for all the performing arts is sponsored by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Major cities also provides substantial support for the arts a growing number of cities in the 1980s had built large centers for the performing arts and, stimulated by government funding, were offering prizes such as the Lafcadio Hearn Prize initiated by the city of Matsue. A number of new municipal museums were also providing about one-third more facilities in the 1980s than were previously available. In the late 1980s, Tokyo added more than twenty new cultural halls, notably, the large Bunkamura built by Tokyu Group and the reconstruction of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre. All these efforts reflect a rising popular enthusiasm for the arts. Japanese art buyers swept the Western art markets in the late 1980s, paying record highs for impressionist paintings and US$51.7 million alone for one blue period Picasso.


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