George Sutherland

George Sutherland


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George Sutherland dilahirkan di Stony Stratford, England, pada 25 Mac 1862. Semasa kecil, keluarga itu berhijrah ke Amerika Syarikat. Mereka menetap di Utah dan kemudiannya mendapat pendidikan di Brigham Young Academy dan University of Michigan.

Sutherland dimasukkan ke bar pada tahun 1883 dan berlatih di Provo, Utah. Seorang anggota Parti Republik, Sutherland melayani Dewan Perwakilan (1901-03) dan Senat Amerika Syarikat (1905-17).

Setelah dikalahkan pada tahun 1916 Sutherland menjadi penasihat undang-undang untuk Warren Harding. Tidak lama selepas Harding menjadi presiden, dia melantik Sutherland ke Mahkamah Agung. Sutherland adalah keadilan konservatif dan pada tahun 1923 melarang gaji minimum.

Franklin D. Roosevelt, calon Parti Demokrat, dipilih sebagai presiden pada tahun 1932. Selama beberapa tahun berikutnya Sutherland dan hakim lain yang menjadi penyokong Parti Republik, menentang Pentadbiran Pemulihan Nasional (NRA), Akta Penyesuaian Pertanian ( AAA) dan sepuluh undang-undang Perjanjian Baru yang lain.

Pada 2 Februari 1937, Franklin D. Roosevelt membuat pidato menyerang Mahkamah Agung atas tindakannya terhadap undang-undang New Deal. Dia menunjukkan bahawa tujuh dari sembilan hakim (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Harlan Stone, Owen Roberts, Benjamin Cardozo dan Pierce Butler) telah dilantik oleh presiden Republik. Roosevelt baru saja memenangkan pemilihan semula dengan 10.000.000 suara dan membenci hakikat bahawa hakim dapat memveto undang-undang yang jelas mendapat sokongan majoriti orang ramai.

Roosevelt mencadangkan bahawa usia adalah masalah utama kerana enam hakim berusia lebih dari 70 tahun (Sutherland, Charles Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, James McReynolds, Louis Brandeis dan Pierce Butler). Roosevelt mengumumkan bahwa dia akan meminta Kongres untuk meluluskan rang undang-undang yang memungkinkan presiden memperluas Mahkamah Agung dengan menambahkan satu hakim baru, hingga maksimum enam orang, untuk setiap hakim saat ini yang berusia lebih dari 70 tahun.

Charles Hughes menyedari bahawa RUU Penyusunan Semula Mahkamah Roosevelt akan mengakibatkan Mahkamah Agung berada di bawah kendali Parti Demokrat. Langkah pertamanya adalah mengatur surat yang ditulis olehnya untuk diterbitkan oleh Burton Wheeler, ketua Jawatankuasa Kehakiman. Dalam surat itu Hughes dengan cermat membantah semua tuntutan yang dibuat oleh Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Namun, di belakang tabir Charles Hughes sibuk membuat perjanjian untuk memastikan bahawa rang undang-undang Roosevelt akan dikalahkan dalam Kongres. Pada 29 Mac, Owen Roberts mengumumkan bahawa dia telah berubah pikiran untuk memilih menentang undang-undang gaji minimum. Hughes juga membalikkan pendapatnya mengenai Akta Jaminan Sosial dan Akta Perhubungan Buruh Nasional (NLRA) dan dengan suara 5-4, mereka kini dinyatakan sebagai berperlembagaan.

Kemudian Willis Van Devanter, mungkin hakim paling konservatif, mengumumkan niatnya untuk mengundurkan diri. Dia digantikan oleh Hugo Black, ahli Parti Demokrat dan penyokong kuat Perjanjian Baru. Pada bulan Julai 1937, Kongres mengalahkan Rang Undang-Undang Penyusunan Semula Mahkamah dengan 70-20. Namun, Roosevelt merasa puas mengetahui bahawa dia memiliki Mahkamah Agung yang sekarang cenderung untuk menyekat perundangannya.

George Sutherland mengundurkan diri dari Mahkamah Agung pada tahun 1938 pada usia 76. Dia meninggal di Stockbridge, Massachusetts pada 18 Julai 1942.


SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

George Sutherland berkhidmat sebagai hakim bersekutu Mahkamah Agung A.S. dari tahun 1922 hingga 1938. Seorang ahli hukum konservatif, Sutherland menentang usaha Kongres dan badan perundangan negara untuk mengatur keadaan perniagaan dan kerja. Pada tahun 1930-an, dia adalah anggota blok konservatif yang memerintah bahagian-bahagian utama Presiden franklin d. program perjanjian baru roosevelt.

Sutherland dilahirkan pada 25 Mac 1862, di Buckinghamshire, England. Ketika Sutherland masih kecil, ibu bapanya berhijrah ke Amerika Syarikat, menetap di Provo, Utah. Sutherland lulus dari Universiti Brigham Young pada tahun 1881 dan menghadiri University of Michigan Law School pada tahun 1882 dan 1883. Dia dimasukkan ke bar Michigan pada tahun 1883 tetapi kembali pada tahun yang sama ke Utah, di mana dia menubuhkan praktik undang-undang di Salt Lake City.

Sutherland berminat dalam politik dan bertugas di badan perundangan wilayah. Pada tahun 1896, setelah Utah menjadi sebuah negara, Sutherland terpilih menjadi Senat Utah pertama sebagai anggota parti republik. Pada tahun 1901 dia terpilih ke Dewan Perwakilan A.S., dan pada tahun 1905 dia menjadi senator A.S. dari Utah.

"[Epitaf paling menyedihkan yang dapat diukir dalam ingatan [kerana] kebebasan yang lenyap adalah bahawa ia hilang kerana pemiliknya gagal menghulurkan tangan menyelamatkan sementara masih ada masa."
—George Sutherland

Walaupun reputasi Sutherland sebagai konservatif politik di Kongres, dia mendukung program reformasi Presiden Theodore Roosevelt. Dia juga menyokong undang-undang pampasan pekerja untuk pekerja kereta api dan pindaan kesembilan belas pada Perlembagaan A.S., yang

disediakan untuk hak pilih wanita. Walaupun begitu, dia percaya bahawa hak individu adalah yang utama dan pemerintah tidak boleh mengganggu kebanyakan aktiviti ekonomi.

Setelah dikalahkan dalam pilihan raya Senat 1916, Sutherland terlibat dalam politik Republikan nasional dan berkhidmat sebagai penasihat Presiden warren g. harding, yang terpilih pada tahun 1920. Nama Sutherland disebut-sebut selama beberapa tahun sebagai calon calon Mahkamah Agung yang mungkin, dan pada bulan September 1922 Harding mencalonkan Sutherland ke Mahkamah.

Sutherland bergabung dengan Mahkamah Agung yang dikuasai oleh kaum konservatif. Seperti majoriti konservatif, Sutherland mempercayai doktrin proses wajar substantif, yang berpendapat bahawa proses yang wajar Klausa Pindaan Kelima dan Keempat Belas terhadap Perlembagaan AS dapat diminta untuk mengenakan batasan pada substansi peraturan pemerintah dan kegiatan lain yang oleh pemerintah mempengaruhi "kehidupan, kebebasan, dan harta benda." Sejak tahun 1880-an Mahkamah Agung telah melakukan proses yang wajar untuk menghancurkan berbagai undang-undang negara bagian dan persekutuan yang mengatur kondisi kerja, upah, dan kegiatan bisnis.

Sutherland juga berpegang pada konsep kebebasan kontrak, yang menyatakan bahwa pemerintah tidak boleh mengganggu hak individu untuk berkontrak dengan majikan mereka mengenai upah, jam, dan keadaan kerja. Sutherland menulis pendapat majoriti dalam Adkins v. Hospital Kanak-kanak, 261 A.S. 525, 43 S. Ct. 394, 67 L. Ed. 785 (1923), di mana Mahkamah menetapkan undang-undang gaji minimum persekutuan untuk pekerja wanita di District of Columbia. Sutherland menyimpulkan bahawa majikan dan pekerja mempunyai hak perlembagaan untuk merundingkan apa sahaja syarat yang mereka kehendaki mengenai upah. Sutherland menolak idea bahawa Kongres mempunyai kewenangan untuk memperbaiki jurang sosial dan ekonomi yang merugikan masyarakat secara umum.

Dengan kejatuhan pasaran saham pada tahun 1929 dan Kemelesetan Besar pada tahun 1930-an, majoriti konservatif di Mahkamah berada di bawah pengawasan politik dan awam yang ketat. Pemilihan Franklin D. Roosevelt pada tahun 1932 menandakan perubahan falsafah mengenai peranan pemerintah persekutuan. Perjanjian Baru Roosevelt dibuat berdasarkan perancangan ekonomi nasional dan penubuhan agensi pentadbiran untuk mengatur perniagaan dan tenaga kerja. Ini adalah anatema bagi Sutherland dan saudara-saudaranya yang konservatif.

Dari tahun 1933 hingga 1937, Mahkamah memutuskan beberapa langkah Perjanjian Baru. Sutherland, bersama dengan hakim james c. mcreynolds, willis van devanter, dan pierce butler, menjadi teras penentangan terhadap usaha persekutuan untuk merevitalisasi ekonomi dan mewujudkan jaring keselamatan sosial. Empat Penunggang Kuda yang disebut-sebut membantu mogok sebagai tindakan pemulihan perindustrian nasional pada tahun 1933 pada tahun 2013 Schechter Poultry Corporation lwn Amerika Syarikat, 295 A.S. 495, 55 S. Ct. 837, 79 L. Ed. 1570 (1935), dan Akta Penyesuaian Pertanian tahun 1933 di Amerika Syarikat lwn Butler, 297 A.S. 1, 56 S. Ct. 312, 80 L. Ed. 477 (1936).

Roosevelt bertindak balas dengan mengusulkan rancangan pengadilan yang akan menambahkan keadilan tambahan kepada Mahkamah untuk setiap anggota yang berusia lebih dari tujuh puluh tahun. Rancangan ini menyasarkan Empat Penunggang Kuda dan, jika dilaksanakan, akan membatalkan suara mereka. Walaupun rancangan Roosevelt ditolak oleh Kongres, perdebatan nasional mengenai peranan pemerintah persekutuan dan sikap timbal balik Mahkamah Agung menyebabkan anggota Mahkamah yang lebih moderat mengubah kedudukan mereka dan memilih menyokong cadangan New Deal. Dengan arus berubah, Sutherland bersara pada tahun 1938.

Walaupun pandangannya konservatif mengenai pemerintah dan perniagaan, Sutherland mempertahankan hak kebebasan dan juga hak harta. Dalam powell lwn alabama, 287 A.S. 45, 53 S. Ct. 55, 77 L. Ed. 158 (1932), Sutherland membatalkan keyakinan "budak lelaki Scottsboro," sekumpulan pemuda Afrika Amerika yang dijatuhkan hukuman mati kerana didakwa melakukan serangan seksual terhadap dua wanita kulit putih. Sutherland memutuskan bahawa pindaan keenam menjamin penasihat undang-undang yang mencukupi dalam proses jenayah negeri.

Sutherland meninggal pada 18 Julai 1942, di Stock-bridge, Massachusetts.


George Sutherland - Sejarah

oleh DANIEL J. J. SUTHERLAND

Berakar pada tradisi dan diselimuti kerudung masa, sejarah Clan Sutherland penuh dengan teka-teki. Dipercayai bahawa pohon silsilah Klan mungkin berasal dari Flanders dan juga Scotland dengan masyarakat puaknya Picts dan Celts. Sebilangan besar sejarah, terutama pada masa awal hilang, tetapi dari sumber-sumber tertulis yang masih hidup silsilah Klan ditelusuri dari Moray pada abad ke-12 hingga pola penempatan dan pengembangan baru, pertama di Sutherland dan Caithness, kemudian di Scotland dan di tempat lain.

Di pohon Clan the Earls of Sutherland, Lairds of Forse dan Lairds of Duffus dan Skelbo bersama-sama mewakili batang dan cabang utama. Karangan ini bertujuan untuk memberi keturunan ketiga keluarga ini: untuk menunjukkan beberapa cabang yang lebih muda dan meletakkan sejarah Klan dalam keadaan geografisnya untuk tempoh sebelum perubahan besar abad ke-19. Ketua, ketua dan klan, 'clanna' atau anak-anak dari satu nenek moyang bersama, bertahan dalam catatan masa itu, jangka masa tujuh abad dengan lebih dari dua puluh generasi. Dalam sejarah Highland mereka mengambil bahagian dalam urusan Klan dan tanah mereka, jauh sebelum perubahan besar yang terjadi setelah konflik Culloden, Bastille dan Waterloo dan yang memadamkan cara hidup kuno di Highlands. Sebilangan besar Klan terlibat dalam peristiwa bersejarah sejauh Bannockburn dan Halidon Hill memberikan perkhidmatan senjata ke Negara-negara Rendah dan Rusia dan penanaman koloni baru dari Nova Scotia ke Hindia Barat. Ia tidak bertujuan memasukkan aspek sejarah ini. Mereka menjadi sebahagian dari latar belakang silsilah Klan. Maklumat untuk karangan ini diambil dari sumber bercetak yang diberi nombor () dan disenaraikan di bawah. Banyak yang dipetik dalam sumber-sumber ini adalah karya yang sangat menarik dari abad ke-17. Ini adalah 'Sejarah silsilah Earldom of Sutherland dari asalnya hingga tahun 1630. dengan kesinambungan hingga tahun 1651 ', ditulis oleh Sir Robert Gordon dari Gordonstoun, putera Alexander, Earl of Sutherland yang kesebelas, dan oleh Gilbert Gordon dari Sailagh, dicetak pada tahun 1813. Sumber-sumber ini sangat menarik minat para pelajar sejarah Clan Sutherland .

1. KELUARGA SUTHERLAND, AWAL SUTHERLAND

Silsilah Klan dan dinasti Earldom bermula dengan Freskin. Asalnya tidak dapat dipastikan. Keturunannya digambarkan sebagai 'Sutherland', kemudian 'Sutherland'. Anak sulung berjaya sebagai ketua keluarga, dan akhirnya sebagai ketua klan dan earl (Norse lama: ketua kepala Earl, bangsawan). Seawal abad ke-15, mungkin jauh lebih awal, keluarga itu tinggal di Dunrobin Castle, yang dipercayai merupakan salah satu rumah tertua di Britain yang selalu dihuni oleh satu keluarga. Nama itu berasal dari Gaelic Dun Robin, bukit atau kubu Robin.

1. Freskin, nenek moyang pertama Earls of Sutherland, yang mungkin berasal dari Flemish, berasal dari Raja Daud I (1124-1153) Strabrock di Lothian Barat dan Duffus di Moray. Freskin dinamakan dalam piagam kepada puteranya William oleh Raja William the Lion (1165-1214) antara tahun 1166 dan 1171.

2. William, anak lelaki Freskin,. menyaksikan piagam pada tahun 1160 mempunyai piagam tanah ayahnya antara tahun 1166 dan 1171 dan mungkin William Fresekyn, & quot; Sheriff of Invernaryn & quot; bernama pada tahun 1204. William mempunyai tiga orang anak lelaki:

b. William, anak lelaki William putra Freskin, yang dinamakan dengan saudaranya Hugh sebagai saksi setelah tahun 1195, adalah Lord of Petty, Bracholy, Boharm dan Arteldol, dan dipercayai sebagai nenek moyang Morays of Bothwell.

c. Andrew, yang dinamakan sebelum tahun 1203 sebagai putera William anak Freskin, dan sebagai Parsons of Duffus, kemudian sebagai saudara kepada Hugh Freskin dan William, mungkin telah hidup pada tahun 1221.

3. Hugh, putra William putera Freskin, yang juga bernama Hugh Freskin dan Hugh de Moravia di tangga mulai 1195 dan seterusnya, adalah pewaris Duffus dan Strabrock. Uskup Moray memberinya, Tuan Duffus, sebuah kapel gratis di Istana Duffus antara tahun 1203 dan 1214. Menjelang tahun 1211 dia juga memiliki Skelbo dan tanah lain di Sutherland. Dia memberikan Skelbo, Invershin dan Fernebucklyn kepada Gilbert de Moravia, Archdeacon of Moray. Skelbo diberikan untuk layanan satu pemain bola dan layanan kepada raja. Hugh Freskin meninggal sebelum tahun 1222 dan dikebumikan di gereja Duffus dengan meninggalkan tiga putera:

b. Walter, anak lelaki Hugh Freskin mengahwini Euphemia, anak perempuan Ferquhard, Earl of Ross. Dia meninggal dunia c. 1263 dan dikebumikan di Duffus.

c. Andrew, anak Hugh de Moravia, yang dinamakan antara 1203 dan 1214 sebagai Parson of Duffus dan pada tahun 1222 sebagai Uskup Moray, mungkin telah memulai pembangunan Elgin Cathedral. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1242.

4. William, putera dan pewaris Hugh Freskin dan Lord of Sutherland, mengesahkan piagam Skelbo ayahnya dan tanah-tanah lain yang diberikan kepada Archdeacon Gilbert, antara tahun 1211 dan 1222. Dia dinamakan pada tahun 1232 sebagai William dari Sutherland dan mungkin pada tahun 1235 atau kemudian dibuat Earl of Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon menyatakan bahawa dia menolong Gilbert, Uskup Caithness di bangunan Katedral Dornoch. Earl, dikatakan, meninggal pada tahun 1248 dan dikebumikan di Katedral. Dia mempunyai seorang anak lelaki William.

5. William, anak lelaki William dan Earl of Sutherland kedua. dinamakan dalam rekening pembayaran kepada Raja (Alexander m, 1249-1286) pada tahun 1263 dan 1266, disaksikan pada tahun 1269 piagam oleh Earl of Ross tanah kepada Gereja Moray. Di Scone di Perthshire, ia menghadiri Parlimen 1283-84 yang menerima Infant Margaret dari Norway sebagai Ratu Scotland. Sebagai cucu Raja Alexander III, Pembantu Norway berjaya ke Kindom Scotland pada tahun 1286, tetapi meninggal dalam perjalanan ke Scotland c. 1290. Earl William menyokong tuntutan takhta Raja Robert I ('The Bruce' 1306-1329) dan di Berwick pada tahun 1296 menandatangani tautan penghormatan itu, tetapi kemudian mematuhi Raja Inggeris (Edward I, 'Longshanks,' 1272- 1307) dan meninggal dunia c. 1306-7. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki:

a. William, anak lelaki William dan Earl of Sutherland ketiga. kanak-kanak bawah umur ketika ayahnya meninggal, berjaya pada tahun 1306-7. Wadnya diberikan kepada John, anak lelaki Earl of Ross yang lebih muda. Pada tahun 1308-9 Earl muda menghadiri Parlimen di St Andrews. Sir Robert Gordon menyatakan bahawa Earl bertempur di Bannock-burn (Stirling), pertempuran tahun 1314 yang memberi Bruce pemerintahan Skotlandia. The Earl menandatangani pada tahun 1320 surat para bangsawan kepada Paus John XXII yang dikenali sebagai Deklarasi Arbroath yang menegaskan kemerdekaan penuh Scotland dari Mahkota Inggeris. Dia meninggal sebelum 1331.

6. Kenneth, anak lelaki William dan Earl of Sutherland yang keempat. menggantikan saudaranya William sebelum 1331. Orang-orang Scots, yang berusaha meningkatkan pengepungan Berwick, dengan kerugian besar dikalahkan oleh Inggeris, dan Earl terbunuh, dalam pertempuran di Halidon Hill pada tahun 1333. Sir Robert Gordon menyatakan bahawa Earl Kenneth berkahwin Mary, anak perempuan Donald, Earl of Mar. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki dan satu anak perempuan.

b. Nicholas, ANCESTOR LAIRDS DUFFUS

c. Eastachia berkahwin c. 1330 Gilbert Moray dari Culbin

7. William, anak lelaki Kenneth dan Earl of Sutherland kelima, menggantikan ayahnya pada tahun 1333. Earl dipercayai bertempur di Kilblene dan turut serta dalam pengepungan Istana Cupar, Fife. Dengan Earl of March dia mengambil bahagian dalam serangan ke England. Earl William mengahwini Margaret, saudara perempuan Raja Daud II (1329-71). Pasangan suami isteri memiliki 1345 tanah di Angus, Kincardine dan Aberdeen & quotSutherland dijadikan wilayah. & Quot; Mereka juga pada 1346 memiliki jurang Dunnottar di Angus, dengan izin untuk membangun benteng. Pada tahun 1346-47, setelah kematian Puteri Margaret, Countessnya, Earl mengahwini Joanna Menteith. Nampaknya, Earl dengan 'banyak orang bersenjata' menemani Raja David II ke England dan kedua-duanya ditangkap pada pertempuran Neville's Cross oleh Durham pada tahun 1346, tetapi pada tahun 1351 Earl mempunyai tingkah laku yang selamat untuk bertugas di Newcastle mengenai tebusan Raja. Untuk Raja kembali ke Skotlandia, Earl memberikan anak lelaki dan pewarisnya sebagai tebusan. Pada tahun 1357 kedua Earl dan anaknya menjadi sandera untuk pembayaran wang tebusan Raja. Mereka tinggal di England selama lebih dari sepuluh tahun, kadang-kadang mengunjungi Scotland. Pada tahun 1358-59 mereka mendapat dari Raja baroni dan istana Urquhart oleh Inverness. Earl William meninggal mungkin pada tahun 1370, mungkin dibunuh sebagai pembalasan atas pembunuhannya di Dingwallof Iye Mackay, Ketua Klan, dan Donald anaknya, pada tahun yang sama. Earl William mempunyai tiga anak lelaki, di antaranya yang sulung oleh isteri pertamanya:

a. John, tebusan di England, nampaknya masih sangat muda meninggal di sana di Lincoln wabak pada tahun 1361.

c. Kenneth, ANCESTOR LAIRDS OF FORSE

8. Robert, putera William dan Earl of Sutherland keenam (pada atau sebelum tahun 1389) dinamakan oleh penulis sejarah Froissart sebagai pemimpin orang-orang Skotlandia yang menyerang Barat Inggeris pada tahun 1388. Pada tahun 1400-1 dia memberikan kepada saudaranya Kenneth sebuah piagam Drummoy dan negeri-negeri lain. Piagam ini memberikan rujukan paling awal yang diketahui mengenai Istana Dunrobin. The Earl mengahwini Margaret Stewart, anak perempuan Alexander, Earl dari Buchan dan dikatakan telah meninggal pada tahun 1442. Dia mempunyai tiga anak lelaki:

b. Robert, dinamakan oleh Sir Robert Gordon sebagai anak kepada Earl Robert.

c. Alexander, juga dinamakan oleh Sir Robert.

9. John, anak Robert dan Earl of Sutherland ketujuh, menemani bapa saudaranya Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, ke Flanders c.1408. Penyusun sejarah kontemporari Wyntoun menyatakan bahawa Earl of Mar mengaitkan beberapa permintaannya, di antaranya John of Sutherland & quothis ini baru menjadi ketua pasukan dari negeri, Heretabil Eri dari Negara itu. Pada tahun 1427 Earl John mungkin salah satu tebusan untuk Raja James I yang ditahan di England dari tahun 1406 hingga 1424. The Earl dikurung di Pontefract Castle di Yorkshire dan dari sana dia memberikan pada 1444 piagam Torboll di Sutherland kepada kerabatnya Alexander Selat Duffus. Pada tahun 1448 dia berada di Dunrobin dan pada tahun 1451, bersama isterinya Margaret Baillie, diberi tanah di Parish of Loth di Sutherland. Sir Robert Gordon menyatakan bahawa Earl John meninggal pada tahun 1460 dan dikebumikan di kapel St Andrew's di Golspie di Sutherland. Dia mempunyai empat atau lima anak lelaki, seorang anak lelaki dan seorang anak perempuan:

a. Alexander, anak lelaki John dan Master Sutherland yang bernama pada tahun 1449 meninggal mungkin pada atau sebelum tahun 1456.

c. Nicholas, dinamakan oleh Earl John dalam piagam tahun 1448 sebagai anaknya.

d. Thomas Beg (Little Thomas), dinamakan oleh Sir Robert Gordon sebagai nenek moyang Sutherlands di Strathullie, (seberang Kildonan), sebuah lembah yang luas yang dilintasi oleh sungai Uilligh (sungai Helmsdale) dengan sebidang tanah yang rata dan rendah (srath) , dibatasi oleh tanah tinggi di paroki Kildonan di Sutherland.

e. Robert, mungkin paman Earl yang dinamakan oleh Sir Robert Gordon ketika hadir dalam konflik di Aldycharrish (Strath Oykell) pada tahun 1487.

f. Janet berkahwin pada tahun 1480 Alexander, anak lelaki Sir Alexander Dunbar dari Westfield, saudara lelaki Sir James Dunbar dari Cumnock.

g. Thomas Mor (Big Thomas), digambarkan oleh Sir Robert Gordon sebagai anak semula jadi Earl yang kedua puteranya dibunuh oleh bapa saudara mereka Earl John.

10. John, putra John dan Earl kelapan dari Sutherland, yang dinamakan pada tahun 1455-56, pada tahun 1494 dinyatakan tidak siuman dan ditempatkan di bawah jagaan Sir James Dunbar dari Cumnock, yang pada tahun 1497-98 menemani Earl dan anaknya ke Raja James IV (1488-1513). Sir Robert Gordon menyatakan bahawa Earl mengahwini anak perempuan Alexander MacDonald. Tuan Kepulauan yang hampir lemas ketika menyeberangi sungai Littleferry Unes (muara Fleet antara Dornoch dan Golspie), dia dibunuh oleh perompak. Isteri kedua Earl nampaknya Fingole, anak perempuan William dari Calder, Thane dari Cawdor, janda John Monro dari Fowlis, yang meninggal pada atau sebelum 1491, perceraian antara dia dan Earl sedang dipersiapkan pada tahun 1497-98 dan dia menikah ketiga Catherine, dinamakan sebagai Countess of Sutherland pada tahun 1509-12. Earl dikatakan meninggal pada tahun 1508. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki dan satu anak perempuan:

b. Elizabeth, anak perempuan John dan Countess of Sutherland berkahwin dengan Adam Gordon dari Aboyne pada tahun 1500, tahun yang diberikan oleh Sir Robert Gordon. Pasangannya adalah anak lelaki George, Earl of Huntly. Elizabeth menggantikan saudaranya John dengan & quotnfeftment & quot/1515, menyerahkan jawatan sulung kepada putera sulungnya Alexander. ANCESTOR KELUARGA GORDON, EARLS SUTHERLAND. Countess Elizabeth meninggal dunia di Aboyne Castle, Deeside di Aberdeen pada tahun 1505.

c. Alexander, yang digambarkan oleh Sir Robert Gordon sebagai anak lelaki semula jadi Earl John oleh anak perempuan Ross dari Balnagown, yang dilahirkan pada tahun 1491, menentang penggantian saudaranya, yang berusia lapan belas tahun pada tahun 1509. Hak penggantian Alexander terpelihara jika pewaris saudaranya Elizabeth gagal. Dia juga diberi ganti rugi dengan tanah bernilai empat puluh jerky setiap tahun, tetapi pada tahun 1514, dibantu oleh saudara tirinya Robert Munro sebagai perwakilan, dia menentang adiknya sebagai pewaris abangnya Earl John. Pada tahun 1515, dia merampas dan menahan Dunrobin Castle, di mana dia dipenjarakan di Edinburgh. Pada tahun 1515 dia kembali mengambil posisi Istana, tetapi terpaksa menyerah dan pada tahun 1519-20 dia dibunuh di Kintradwell oleh Brora. Dia berkahwin dengan anak perempuan Iye Roy-Mackay dari Strathnaver dan mempunyai keturunan.

11. John, anak lelaki John dan Earl kesembilan dari Sutherland, pada usia dini diambil bersama ayahnya di hadapan Raja James IV pada tahun 1493 dan berjaya pada tahun 1508 sebagai wad Mahkota, Earldom ditadbir oleh Andrew Stewart, Uskup of Caithness. Di Perth pada tahun 1514, Earl dinyatakan tidak mampu secara hukum. Dalam pertanyaan penggantinya, Earl menyatakan bahawa Elizabeth adiknya dan Adam Gordon suaminya dan anak-anak mereka adalah pewaris terdekatnya. Kematiannya sebulan kemudian pada tahun 1514 menandakan berakhirnya dinasti pertama Earls of Sutherland.

IV. KELUARGA SUTHERLAND, LAIRDS DUFFUS DAN SKELBO (1)

Keluarga itu berasal dari Freskin melalui Kenneth, Earl of Sutherland keempat dan Mary, anak perempuan Earl of Mar, Countessnya. Mereka tinggal di Duffus oleh Elgin di Moray dan Skelbo oleh Dornoch di Sutherland, dua istana zaman kuno yang dihormati, keduanya kini runtuh.

1. Nicholas, anak Kenneth, Earl of Sutherland yang keempat, pada 1360 Torboll di Sutherland dari saudaranya William, Earl of Sutherland kelima, untuk melayani seorang ksatria. Isterinya, Mary, anak perempuan Reginald le Cheyne dan Mary, Lady of Duffus, membawanya menjadi sebahagian Duffus di Moray dan mendarat di Caithness Pada tahun 1370 Nicholas terlibat dalam pembunuhan di Dingwall (Ross-shire) Iye Mackay, Ketua Klan, dan Donald, anaknya. Pada tahun 1408 ia dinobatkan sebagai Lord of the Castle of Duffus. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki:

a. John, anak dan pewaris Nicholas, meratifikasi pemberian tanah oleh ayahnya kepada saudaranya Henry m 1408. Dari tahun 1424 hingga 1427 John adalah salah seorang tebusan untuk Raja James I (1406-24 tawanan di England, r. 1424-37 ).

b. Henry (seperti 2). 2. Henry, anak lelaki Nicholas, mempunyai Torboll dari Robert, Earl of Sutherland keenam. Dia meninggal sebelum tahun 1434. Margaret Mureff (Moray) dinamakan sebagai pasangan Henry dari Sutherland pada tahun 1438. Semasa kematiannya, dia mempunyai tanah dengan rumah-rumah di sebelah timur Wick di Caithness 'di atas pasir' yang dipegang Tuhan dan 'Haly Kirk' dan St Fergus penaung Wick. Henry mempunyai seorang anak lelaki (3 tahun).

3. Alexander menggantikan ayahnya Henry di Torboll dan memiliki Duffus pada atau sebelum 1434, ketika dia memberikan dua puluh satu lembu lembu di Lothian Barat kepada Robert Crichton dari Sanquhar. Dia menjual tanahnya di Forfar. Pada tahun 1444, dia mendapat pengesahan mengenai tanahnya di Torboll dari John, Earl of Sutherland yang ketujuh dan mungkin telah mengunjungi Earl yang ketika itu menjadi sandera di Pontefract Castle. Dalam tulisan Mahkota tahun 1541 ia diberi nama Sir Alexander Sutherland dari Duffus. Dia mengahwini Muriel, anak perempuan John Chisholm dari Chisholm pada tahun 1433-34 dan memiliki Quarrelwood dan tanah lain berhampiran Elgin di Moray. Dia nampaknya telah meninggal sebelum tahun 1484 dan mempunyai dua anak lelaki dan tiga anak perempuan:

b. Angus mempunyai Torboll dan berkahwin dengan Christina. Mereka mempunyai masalah.

c. Isabella, yang hidup pada tahun 1502, berkahwin dengan Alexander Dunbar dari Westfield.

d. Dorothea, yang dikatakan sebagai puteri Alexander Sutherland dari Duffus, dinamakan sebagai motif penyumbang kematian dalam pertempuran Alli Charrais Alexander Ross pasangannya pada tahun 1486 (Catatan: Sir Robert Gordon menyebutkan pertempuran seperti di Aldycharrish pada tahun 1487, DJJS).

e. Muriel dikatakan sebagai anak perempuan lain dari Alexander yang berkahwin dengan Alexander Seton dari Meldrum dan Andrew Fraser dari Stanywood, dengan siapa dia mempunyai piagam Mahkota Stanywood pada tahun 1501.

4. William bernama 'Berydall' (Berriedale di Caithness) pada tahun 1451 dan sebagai anak lelaki dan pewaris Alexander Sutherland dan Muriel isterinya. Dia meninggal sejurus tahun 1474. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki dan seorang anak perempuan:

a. Alexander, mungkin dia yang merupakan bagian dari Strabrock pada tahun 1475, meninggal sebelum tahun 1479 sebagai cucu dari 'Ald Alexander of Sutherland' dan meninggalkan seorang puteri Christina yang dinamakan pada tahun 1494 sebagai anak perempuan Alexander Sutherland dari Strabrock dan berjaya ke Duffus dan mendarat di Caithness. Dia berkahwin c. 1489 William Oliphant dan kemudian Sir Thomas Lundin dari Pratis. Perselisihan antara Chnstina dan pamannya William Sutherland diselesaikan dengan banding kepada Paus, c. 1507.

c. Isabel berkahwin pada tahun 1474 Hew Rose, yang lebih muda dari Kilravock.

5. William, yang dianggap kedua setelah William, bernama pada tahun 1484 memiliki Quarrelwood dan Duffus, dan pada tahun 1507, piagam Mahkota Duffus. Dia menuntut kesahihan Christina keponakannya. Dia meninggal pada atau sebelum tahun 1514, mungkin dalam pertempuran Flodden (Berwiek), kekalahan orang Skotlandia di bawah Raja James IV (1488-1513) pada tahun 1513. William nampaknya menikahi Janet Innes 'Lady Greeship 'dan mempunyai seorang anak lelaki (seperti 6).

6. William, anak lelaki William, mempunyai Duffus. mungkin juga mempunyai Quarrelwood pada atau sebelum 1513-14. dan pada tahun 1519-26 mendapat tanah milik ayahnya Birchmond (Brichtmony di Nairn). pada tahun 1524 Ring James V (1513-42) memberinya Kinsteary (Nairn). Pada tahun 1525 dia mempunyai Torboll dan Pronsy. Kerja-kerja tanah Pronsy Castle di paroki Dornoch adalah peninggalan kubu kuno. Tanah-tanah ini sebelumnya dipegang oleh Hugh Sutherland, putra Angus (sebagai 3b), dari Elizabeth, Countess of Sutherland dan Adam Gordon sebagai tuan. Dia mengahwini Janet anak perempuan Alexander Innes of Innes dan meninggal pada tahun 1529. Dia mempunyai dua anak lelaki dan satu anak perempuan:

b. Alexander adalah Rektor Duffus pada tahun 1512, Kapel untuk kapel Duffus Castle pada tahun 1524, dan Dean (ketua bab untuk katedral) Caithness. (Gilbert Moray, Uskup Caithness dan santo pelindung Dornoch yang mendirikan katedral Dornoch di keuskupan Caithness termasuk Earldom of Sutherland, DJJS>. Alexander mengasaskan peringatan (perayaan massa untuk mengenang seseorang di hari kematiannya) untuk ibu bapanya, saudaranya William dan lain-lain.Pada tahun 1549, dia menjadi kurator untuk cucunya Alexander Sutherland dari Duffus dan masih hidup pada tahun 1551.

c. Elizabeth berkahwin dengan John, Earl of Caithness ketiga.

7. William berjaya pada tahun 1527-29 sebagai putera sulung ayahnya William Sutherland dari Duffus dan Quarrelwood di Elgin dan Nairn tanah Brichtmony, Kinstearie dan Auldearn. Pada tahun 1529, dia membeli dari John Kynnard dari Ilk tanah-tanah tertentu termasuk Skelbo di wilayah penguasa Earl of Sutherland, membayar 2300 merk Scots dan memberikan ikatan manrent (orang-orang yang seorang tuan boleh panggil dalam perang) sebagai penyewa dan pengikut Earl. Pada tahun 1530 Raja James V memberinya hak tertentu di Stratnaver yang sebelumnya dipegang oleh Hugh Mackay dari Farr. Seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Sir Robert Gordon, William Sutherland dari Duffus adalah dengan menghasut Uskup Caithness yang dibunuh oleh Clan Gunn di Thurso pada tahun 1530. Dia mempunyai seorang anak lelaki (sebagai 8).

8. William, putera William Sutherland dari Duffus, mencabar Uskup untuk menjawab kematian ayahnya. Ketika Uskup mengabaikan cabarannya. anak muda muda itu Saiz para pegawai Uskup, di mana dia dan pamannya, Dekan Caithness, dipenjarakan dan oleh Majlis Privy dipaksa untuk berdamai dengan Uskup. Pada tahun 1535 William mewarisi Terboll tanah lain, dan pada tahun 1540 memberikan Kinsteary dan Brichtmony kepada John Campbell dari Calder. Pada tahun 1542, seorang juri menyatakannya sebagai pewaris sah atas keterlanjuran ayahnya di tanah dan sewa di Inverness-shire. Juga pada tahun 1542 dia menyelesaikan perselisihan ganas dengan Donald Mackay dari Farr mengenai tanah yang diberikan kepada ayahnya pada tahun 1530, Earl Moray bertindak sebagai penimbang tara. William meninggal pada tahun 1543. Isterinya Elizabeth berkahwin dengan James Murray dari Culbardie. Dia mempunyai empat anak lelaki:

b. William dari Evelix (paroki Dornoch), seorang saksi pada tahun 1562, mengambil bahagian dalam pengambilan Istana Berriedale (Caithness) pada tahun 1566 dan dalam serangan di Dornoch tahun 1570. di mana dia dikatakan telah menyebarkan abu Uskup Gilbert Moray ('Saint Gilbert') dan meninggal tidak lama kemudian. (Istana kini menjadi runtuhan yang jauh berkurang).

c. Nicholas, juga seorang saksi pada tahun 1562, yang disebutkan pada tahun 1562 dan 1566, berada di Berriedale pada tahun 1566.

d. Walter (mungkin salah) dinamakan sebagai saudara kepada Alexander pada tahun 1562).

9. Alexander menggantikan ayahnya William Sutherland dari Duffus sebelum tahun 1544. Masih di bawah umur pada tahun 1554, dia merasa lemah dengan pengeluaran dari Earl of Sutherland sebagai penguasa di tanah dan istana Skelbo, juga di Invershin dan negeri-negeri lain. Dia mempunyai sasine Duffus pada tahun 1555. Pada 1562 Earl of Sutherland membuat Skelbo. Invershin, Pronsy, Torboll dan semua tanah lain di Sutherland yang akan dipegang oleh Alexander Sutherland dari Duffus untuk 'wad dan bantuan' dan perkhidmatan lain ke dalam Barony of Skelbo. Pada tahun 1560, dia menghadiri Parlimen yang mengesahkan Pengakuan Iman yang pertama. Pada tahun 1563 Earl telah kehilangan Earldom dan Alexander memegang Skelbo dari Mahkota. Pada tahun 1559 sarang Duffus dan Earl of Caithness membuat perjanjian untuk perkahwinan anak sulung masing-masing. Dia terlibat dalam perselisihan Earl dan mungkin setuju untuk disita oleh saudara-saudaranya dari Berriedale Castle dari Lord Oliphant. Alexander juga mengambil bahagian dengan orang-orang Earl dalam menyerang Dornoch pada tahun 1567 dan 1570. Dia berkahwin (kontrak bertarikh 1552-53) Janet, anak perempuan James Grant dari Freuchie. Dia berkahwin dengan James Dempster dari Auchterless (kontrak 1577). Alexander mempunyai tiga anak lelaki dan seorang anak perempuan:

a. Alexander, dilahirkan c. 1554 dinamakan dalam kontrak perkahwinannya yang dimaksudkan dengan Elizabeth Sinclair.

c. James, dilahirkan pada tahun 1561. ditempatkan 'dalam asuhan dengan Angus Hectorsone' kepada siapa ayah James, Alexander memberikan 'fyve meris (kawin) dengan ane stallione' dan oleh siapa ia ditambahkan 'empat meris' untuk kepentingan anak. Pada tahun 1590 James lebih berhati-hati untuk ibunya Janet Grant. Pada perkahwinannya dengan Violet, anak perempuan Thomas Fraser dari Strichen, dia mempunyai Kinsteary di Moray dari saudaranya William Sutherland. James adalah nenek moyang di Sutherlands of Kinstearie.

d. Elizabeth married (contract of 1590) Archibald Douglas of Pittendreich.

10. William, son and heir to Alexander Sutherland of Duffus, was infeft in Duffus and Greschip in 1579. He also had Quarrelwood and other lands. Although he had been appointed to keep order in the North, he is said to have reset (harbour) 'broken men' (outlaws) on his lands in 1587. In 1588 Duffus, Quarrelwood, Greschip and other lands were made into the barony of Duffus. In 1606 the laird of Duffus and the burgh of Dornoch agreed the boundaries between the lands of Skelbo and Pronsy and the burgh, a subject of prolonged disputers He married first in 1579. Margaret, daughter of George Sinclair, Earl of Caithness and secondly, before 1604, Margaret. daughter of William Macintosh of Dunachton. He died in 1616 and had three sons and two daughters:

b. James bought Kinminitie in Banff from James Grant of Freuehie and Blanch in the parish of Rogart in Sutherland together with other lands from John Murray of Aberscors in 1624. He was tutor to his nephew Alexander Sutherland of Duffus. He married Margaret, daughter of Sir John Seaton of Mionylangain, Longford. He died in 1679-80 and was ancestor to the Sutherlands of Kinminitie

c. John, ancestor to the Sutherlands of Clyne. (parish of Clyne, Sutherland).

d. Margaret married (contract of 1610) Colonel Robert Monro of Fowlis. Dia mati muda.

e. Janet married George Ogilvy, first Lord Banff.

11. William, son and heir to his father William Sutherland of Duffus inherited the barony of Skelbo in 1616. He was involved in several disputes with Sir Robert Gordon, with the Earl of Sutherland in or before 1617 over tithes and with John Gordon of Embo, a feud breaking out in 1625. In 1612 he married Jean or Janet, daughter of John Grant of Freuchie. He died in 1626 and had three sons and one daughter:

b. William, heir to his brother John in the lands of Kinminitie and other lands in Banff, infeft in 1662: named in the testament of his brother Lord Duffus in 1674 had Inverhassie in 1694.

c. John, named in 1649 as brother to the laird of Duffus and Commissioner of Supply for Elgin. He married (contract of 1656) Isabella, daughter of David Ross of Bainagown who married secondly (contract of 1659) James Innes Lichnet. John died in or before 1658.

d. Anne married Patrick Grant. As lieutenant-colonel took part in the battle of Worcester in England in 1651. She was still alive in 1663.

12. Alexander succeeded his father William when five years old In 1627 she was named heir to Duffus. His uncle, James Sutherland of Kinminitie, became his tutor. In 1641 Alexandar accompanied the Earl of Sutherland on his visit to England attending that same year the Parliament at Edinburgh and the arrival of King Charles I (1625-49). He was knighted before 1643 and served as a Commissioner for Sutherland in 1646. In 1647 he petitioned and received from Parliament, for loss in adhering to the Covenant, 3000 merks Scots of which one third for his uncle James Sutherland. He travelled in France and Holland returning from the continent with King Charles II (1649-85) to Scotland in 1650. He was fined for his opposition to Cromwell and the taking of Perth with 600 men. Alexander married first Jean, daughter of Colin Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth secondly Jean, daughter of Sir Robert Innes of Innes thirdly Margaret, daughter of James Stewart, Ear] of Moray and fourthly Margaret, daughter of William, Lord Forbes. Lord Duffus died in 1674. He had three sons and three daughters:

c. Robin, named in his father's letter of 1666.

d. Marie, (named as Robin her brother).

e. Margaret, named in her father's will.

f. Henrietta, named in her father's will, married George, Earl of Linlithgow.

13. James, second Lord Duffus, succeeded his father Alexander in 1674. He attended the Scots Parliament in 1678, 1681 and 1685, and became a Privy Councillor in 1686. Much indebted he sold or mortgaged his estate to his son James. In 1688, apparently in exasperation, Duffus drew his sword and killed William Ross of Kindeace, who had been pressing him for payment. Duffus fled to England but later appears to have been pardoned. In 1639 he supported the Prince of Orange and in 1690 took oath of allegiance to him as King William III (1689-1702). In 1695 his privilege of fairs and markets at Duffus was enacted in the Scots Parliament and in 1701 he supported the Darien Company, the dream of a Scots merchant colony in Central America (1698-1700), perhaps the worst economic disaster in Scottish history. He married (contract of 1674) Margaret daughter of Kenneth Mackenzie, Earl of Seaforth. He died in 1705 and had five sons and seven daughters:

b. James, advocate, in 1704 acquired his father's estate with a loan from Archibald Dunbar of Thunderton. Unable to pay, he parted with the estate to his creditor. After he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dunbar of Hempriggs. Assuming the surname Dunbar, he was made a baronet. He died before 1739 and had issue.

c. William of Roscommon married (contract of 1702) Helen, daughter of William Duff of Dipple. As a Jacobite he left Scotland after the rebellion of 1716.

f. Elizabeth had dancing lessons in Edinburgh in 1704 and married (contract of 1709) Sir John Gordon of Embo.

i. Mary married James Sinclair of Mey.

j. Katharine married John Cuthbert, town clerk of Inverness.

k. Isabel was buried at Greyfriars, Edinburgh, in 1694.

1. Esther married John Ross. They were infeft in Easter Balvraid, parish of Dornoch, Sutherland, in 1711.

14. Kenneth, third Lord Duffus, succeeded his father James in 1705. As a captain in the Queen's Navy (Queen Anne.1702-14), he, in 1711 with his frigate of forty-six guns, engaged eight French privateers, and wounded by five bullets was captured. Although he voted for the Union of the English and Scottish Parliaments (1707), he joined the Jacobites in 1715, leading that year more than four hundred of the rebels into Tain and there proclaimed the Chevalier St. George, 'The Old Pretender' as King James VIII. The Lairds of Culloden and Kilravock refusing to surrender, the rebels marched South to join the Earl of Mar at Perth. After the Jacobite defeat of 171S the estate of Duffus was forfeited and Lord Duffus, by way of Caithness, escaped to Sweden. Preparing to return to Britain he was seized in Hamburg and imprisoned in the Tower of London but freed without trial in 1717. Later he entered the Russian Navy. He married (contract dated 1708) Charlotta Chnstina, daughter of Eric Sioblade, Governor of Gottenberg in Sweden. He died in or before 1734 and had one son and two daughters:

b. Charlotta named in 1778 as one ef her mother's executors.

c. Anna married Baron and Count Marshall Gustaff Adolf Palbitzki of Sweden. She also was named in 1778 as one of her mother's executors.

15. Eric, baptized in 1710, succeeded his father Kenneth as titular Lord Duffus. In 1734 he petitioned King George II (1727-60) but his claim to the Lordship of Duffus was reflected by the House of Lords. It is said that Eric was an ensign in Colonel Disney's regiment in 1731. Residing at Ackergill Castle by Wick in Caithness and on a friendly footing with the Earl of Sutherland, he supported King George in the Jacobite rising of 1745-46. He married his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Dunbar of Hempriggs. He died probably at Skelbo, perhaps at Skibo, in 1763 and had two sons and three daughters:

a. James born in 1747, named as heir to his father in 1770 was captain in the 26th Regiment when he eloped with Mary, daughter of James Hayt Earl of Erroll, wife of General John Scott of Balcomie, who divorced her in 1771. The title of Lord Duffus was restored to James by Act of Parliament in 1826. He died unmarried at Marylebone in 1827. His death marked the end of the Sutherlands of Duffus.

c. Elizabeth married first Captain Alexander Sinclair, son of Sir William Sinclair of Keiss secondly Charies Sinclair of Olrig and thirdly, in 1772, the Reverend James Rudd, rector in Yorkshire.

e. Anne, third daughter born 1750, married at Embo in 1766 George Mackay of Skibo, advocate in 1737, 'captain in one of London's independent companies' in 1745. (1)

(Words marked- may require explanation)

Archdeacon: chief of the attendants upon a bishop.

Chalder: 16 bolls or 64 firlots of corn (1 boll: 6 imperial bushels 1 bushel: 2218.19 cubic inches). Charter: document or evidence for certain privileges or rights granted, originally by the sovereign to a subject.

Crag of Dunnottar: Gaelic, creag, rock (of difficult access): locality with ruins of ancient stronghold on the coast of Angus.

Esquire: old French, esquier, shield bearer in chivalry, a young man of gentle birth.

Fier: the owner of the fee-simple of a property (as opposed to a life-renter). Fee-simple: an estate in land belonging to the owner and his heirs for ever in absolute possession.

Forfeited: from forfeit, to lose in consequence of a breach of law.

Homage roll: (in feudal law) record or list of acknowledgement of allegiance by tenants or vassals declaring themselves men of the king or the lord of whom they hold and bind themselves in service.

Ilk: same, identical of that ilk, of the same place, territorial designation or name.

Infeftment: from enfeoffment, the action of putting a tenant legally in possession of a holding, or to surrender a holding.

Lord apperand: lord from old English hlaford, (hlaf, loaf and weard, ward or keepers master, ruler. Apperand: heir apparent, manifest heir, successor.

Master: heir apparent to a Scottish peerage (noble title).

Moravia: Latin for Moray or Morayshlre.

Merk: money of the value of a mark weight of pure silver or, in history, 2/3 of the L Sterling. In Scotland, a coin worth 13 shillings and four pence Snots: 13 l/2 pence English (1480) .

Oxgang: the eighth part of the ploughland, 10 to 18 or more acres. Ploughland: the unit of assessment of land after the Norman Conquest (1066) based upon the area capable of being tilled by one plough team of eight oxen in the year.

Parson: holder of a parochial benefice in full possession of its rights and dues, (clergyman).

Petty, Bracholy, Boharm and Arkldol:

Privy Council: the counsellors of the sovereign.

Regality: sovereign rule, territorial jurisdiction of a royal nature granted by the king area subject to a lord of regality.

Sasine: the act of giving possession of feudal property.

Sheriff: the representative of the sovereign, responsible for certain administrative functions and the execution of the law in a shire.

Teinds: from teind. tenth part or tithe of yearly produce from land, payable for the support of the clergy by the laity.

Thane: person ranking with the son of an earl, holding lands of the king.

Toune: from Gaelic, dun, fortified place, hence enclosed ground. 'In Scotland a single house may be called a town' (Sir Walter Scott in 'Waverley').

Vassal: In the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance. (See homage).

Ward and Relief: Ward, the control and use of the lands of a deceased tenant by knight service and the guardianship of the infant heir which belonged to the superior until the heir attained majority. Relief: a payment made by the heir of a feudal tenant on taking up possession of the vacant estate.

Writer to the Signet: a clerk in the Secretary of State's office who prepared writs to pass the royal signet later a law- agent practicing before the Court of Session and preparing Crown writs, charters, etc. Signet: a Small seal.

1. Paul, Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon King of Arms, 'The Scots Peerage founded on Wood's edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, containing an historical and genealogical account of the nobility of that Kingdom', Vol. VIII, Edinburgh, 1904-14.

2. Fraser, Sir William, 'The Sutherland Book', 3 Vols., Edinburgh, 1894.

3. Henderson, John, 'Caithness Family History', Edinburgh, 1884.

4. Grant, F. J. 'Register of Marriage, Edinburgh 1751-1800'. Edinburgh, 1922.

5. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and other sources.


George Sutherland, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, U.S. Senator and Congressman, and Women’s Rights Advocate

George Sutherland, the only Supreme Court Justice to come from Utah, supported women’s rights, particularly the right of women to vote and to engage as full members in American society. Sutherland was born in Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England, March 25, 1862, to Frances Slater and Alexander George Sutherland. The extended Sutherland family joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and George and his parents traveled to Utah by ship, train, and wagon when he was only eighteen months old. Once in Utah, they settled in Springville, where George described his childhood as very simple and very hard. Because of his father’s problems with alcoholism, his parents left the church, and George was never baptized as a church member.

George quit school at age 12 and worked full-time to save money to attend Brigham Young Academy (BYA), a precursor to Brigham Young University. At age 16 he started at BYA, attended for two years, and then attended University of Michigan Law School for one year.

George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

Returning to Utah, George married Rosamond Lee in 1883. They eventually became parents to three children. He practiced law with his father in Provo for three years, and then formed his own firm with Samuel Thurman in Salt Lake City. He entered politics, and in 1895 served on a commission drafting the Utah Constitution that provided for women’s suffrage, a cause which George would champion throughout his career.

In 1896, when Utah was admitted as a state to the Union, George, a Republican, was elected to the Senate in the first state legislature. In 1900, he was elected to Utah’s only U.S. Congressional seat, and in 1905, the Utah State Legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate, the method at the time for selecting U.S. senators.

Over the next decade, George became a leading figure in the national suffrage movement. Both he and his wife gave speeches and held meetings supporting the right to vote. The Sutherlands became friends with Alice Paul, the leader of the more radical Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, later the National Women’s Party, and helped her with events staged to garner support for the movement. In August 1915, women held a meeting in Salt Lake City to welcome Paul and her automobile train traveling from the Women’s Voter Convention in San Francisco to Washington, D.C. that gathered more than 500,00 signatures in support of a women’s suffrage amendment. At the meeting, Annie Wells Cannon, daughter of leading Utah suffragist Emmeline B. Wells, thanked George for his support, and he gave a few supporting remarks. When the train arrived in Washington, D.C. several months later, George and Wyoming Congressman Franklin Wheeler Mendell greeted it. On December 6, Representative Mendell introduced the Susan B. Anthony Amendment into the U.S. House, and the next day George introduced it into the U.S. Senate.

Senator George Sutherland, Winifred Mallon, Reverend Olympia Brown, Alva Belmont at the Utah State Capitol welcoming the suffrage envoys from the San Francisco Exposition that were carrying petitions to Washington D.C. in October 1915. Courtesy of the National Women’s Party.

On December 13, Paul sponsored a mass meeting that took place at the Belasco Theatre in Washington D.C. with George as a main speaker. He based his arguments on the practical experience of the twelve states, including Utah, that had already granted the vote to women:

To my mind the right of women to vote is as obvious as my own right. . . When we have proven the case for universal manhood suffrage we have made clear the case for womanhood suffrage as well. Women on average are as intelligent as men, as patriotic as men, as anxious for good government as men, and to deprive them of the right to participate in the government is to make an arbitrary division . . . .

Flyer advertising Senator George Sutherland of Utah as a speaker for a mass meeting of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage in Belasco, Massachusetts. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

He closed by affirming that “women’s fundamental nature” would not change once they were given the right to vote indeed, “it [voting] will deepen her sense of responsibility, give her a more intelligent appreciation of her country’s needs and broaden her opportunity to ‘do her bit’ for the common good.”

The amendment failed in 1916. George, too, suffered defeat after two terms in Congress, a defeat he felt came about because of his support for the amendment. He returned to legal practice and became President of the American Bar Association in 1918. He served as a campaign and later presidential advisor to Warren G. Harding. After the 19th Amendment was ratified in 1920, Alice Paul moved on to crafting the Equal Rights Amendment and consulted with George. Both agreed that the law should treat women and men equally no matter their alleged differences.

Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland. Courtesy of Utah State Historical Society.

President Harding appointed George an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court in 1922, and he served until 1938. An opponent of Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation, the conservative George became known as one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. His most important opinion was the majority opinion rendered in the case of Powell v Alabama, which helped lead to the constitutional right to counsel in all criminal cases and a recognition of the illegality of systematically excluding African Americans from juries.

George died July 18, 1942, while on vacation in Stockbridge, Massachusetts.

Ann Engar is a professor/lecturer in the Honors College and LEAP Program at the University of Utah, specializing in intellectual history, pedagogy, and law. She has authored numerous short biographies, including for the online NASW project, and serves on the Holladay Historical Commission.


SejarahLink.org

Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s and in 1989 prepared this account for The Pacific Northwesterner. It describes Sutherland’s trip West, his years as a cowboy, and his service as a volunteer in the Nez Perce War. This essay was originally published in the Spring 1989 issue of The Pacific Northwesterner (Vol. 33, No. 1), pp. 8-14, and is here reprinted with permission.

A Young Man Goes West

George Washington Sutherland's grand adventure began in 1872 when, as an 18-year-old, he felt the urge to see the wide-open spaces of the American West. He had read letters from William Purington to his father, Captain George Purington, of Bowdoinham, Maine, that described in glowing terms the fertile grasslands of Washington Territory and the opportunities available to anyone daring to leave home and start again in a new land. At the time, George had been working as a farmhand for Purington, who had been a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War. When the captain mentioned that he and his family would soon be leaving to join William at his cattle ranch, George asked if he could go with them.

Unfortunately, George had a serious problem. He had only $15 to his name. Somehow, George convinced the captain to lend him $140, and his father chipped in $25 making a total of $180. The Puringtons were leaving on Friday, so three days before that, George asked his mother for permission to go. After much hesitation, she reluctantly agreed. In the meantime, Captain Purington had gone to Boston and purchased George's train ticket to San Francisco for $122. George was on his way on August 20, 1872, with $58 that had to last him until he reached the Purington ranch somewhere in the southeast part of Washington Territory.

This is the story that George Sutherland related to me as he sat on his bed at Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane in 1941, when he was 87 years old. He later told me of many other events that happened to him during his long and active life, but exciting as they were, all were but an anticlimax to his trip west.

West by Rail

The Puringtons had first-class tickets and George was traveling second class, so George didn't see them again during the entire trip. For the first time in his life, he was alone without friends or family. The train did not have a diner, so for the entire nine-day trip, George ate from a large basket of food his mother had packed for him. At night, he slept on his stiff uncomfortable seat in the unheated car, covered by a pair of blankets that his mother had insisted he take with him.

He crossed the Mississippi at St. Louis over the Eads steel bridge, an engineering marvel for its time. At Council Bluffs, Iowa, he walked across the bridge over the Missouri River to Omaha, where he boarded a Union Pacific train. He stopped over in Cheyenne, Wyoming, for a day and a half. Wyoming was the first state in the nation to grant women the right to vote and he noted that many women in the town were voting. He continued his trip through Rawlins, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah, passing bands of antelope as the train chugged along the plains. Once a herd of buffalo thundered down the tracks, almost destroying them. Finally the train crossed the deserts of northern Nevada and reached Sacramento. He arrived in San Francisco on August 29 to be met at the station by a confidence man who tried to swindle him out of his meager funds. George ignored him and hurried to the steamboat office where he bought a third-class passage to Portland, Oregon, for $20.

About 4 p.m. the next day, he left on what he called "the old tub, the Oroflame, a sidewheeler." He continued, "No one would travel on such a boat today. When we got outside the Golden Gate, the boat began to pitch and wallow for four days until we got to Astoria."

At that time, Astoria consisted of a cluster of huts on pilings. The boat tied up there for half-a-day while cargo and mail from the East were unloaded. He finally reached Portland by evening and learned that another boat would be leaving for Wallula the next morning. He hurriedly spent $12 of his rapidly depleting money for a ticket. He couldn't afford to buy meals or a berth, as they cost extra.

His boat left early the next morning and by 10 a.m. had reached the cascades of the Columbia River, where cargo had to be unloaded and carried by cars on a narrow gauge railroad six miles upriver to another steamer, which continued the trip to The Dalles. Following an overnight stay, freight and passengers were again transported by narrow-gauge railroad to another steamer eight miles upriver, which went as far as Umatilla, where it stopped for the night. At that time, Umatilla was a lively town of about 3,000 people. All supplies for eastern Oregon and southern Idaho came through there until the Oregon Steam Navigation Company constructed a rail line to its docks on the Columbia at Wallula. Supplies then went from there to Walla Walla, which became the main distribution point.

The Real West

The day he arrived at Umatilla was windy, and sand was piling up in the streets in drifts three or four-feet deep, according to George. After a night in town, he boarded another steamer, which took him to Wallula where he arrived penniless and hungry. He had spent the last of his money for a berth. He made a deal with a teamster to haul his rifle and baggage to Walla Walla while he walked, arriving there about 6 p.m. after a hot, dusty hike. He went to the St. Louis Hotel and told the proprietor that he wanted a meal and a place to sleep, but had no money. The proprietor said, "Young man, the world is yours. Help yourself." George took him at his word, had a good meal and a good night's sleep.

George recalled, "Every other door was a saloon. There were many teamsters. I watched some of them packing mules, as many as 75 to a train (for the trip to the mines), and the mule trains were strung out for miles. There were many large corrals mainly for the mules."

Walla walla was the supply center for the region. "The mules were hitched in teams of six, eight or 10 to large freight wagons. Horsedrawn stage coaches were coming and going through town. Men worked hard and played hard, and saloons had plenty of patrons. Card games were going on all of the time."

In his wanderings around town, George located a teamster who had heard about the Purington ranch and was passing by it. He agreed to transport George's belongings and guide George there if George was willing to walk all of the way. George borrowed $2.50 from his new-found friend, paid his hotel and food bill with it, and left that afternoon on the last leg of his journey. This would be a jaunt of 80 miles to the area around Penewawa on the north side of the Snake River approximately 25 miles due west of present-day Pullman, Washington.

The man's team consisted of a small mule hitched to an unkempt, scrawny cayuse pony, barely able to pull an unloaded wagon let alone a loaded one. George felt so sorry for the animals that he left his trunk behind, taking only his blankets, his rifle, a pistol, and a saddle bag. He had brought the guns as protection from the "Indians and badmen" that he understood "infested" the West at that time.

The first day's travel brought them to what George called Whetstone Hollow, which offered good grazing for the team. The road was merely an Indian trail showing traces of heavy use. In places, the ruts were two-feet deep, while in other places, the trail could barely be discerned. Drivers often deviated from the track, going where they felt they could make the best time.

The second day, George observed that the hills were dry and parched, although they were covered with nutritious bunch grass. By noon, they reached the Tucannon River where a man named Platter ran a crude rest station. After climbing out of the Tucannon Valley, they started down toward the Snake River on a narrow hilly road, the wagon nearly tipping over several times. Finally the river came into view, glistening in the distance, and Brown's Ferry became visible. While they were hastening down the Snake River breaks, a post rider charged past them, carrying the mail from Kelton, Utah, to points north via Walla Walla, Colfax, Spokan Bridge, Rathdrum, Idaho, and by boat across Lake Pend Oreille to Missoula, Montana.

Two other Snake River crossings existed at that time: Lyon's Ferry near the mouth of the Palouse River and the ferry at Lewiston where the Snake joins the Clearwater River. Dusty sign-boards advertised these ferries declaring that plenty of wood, water, and grass was present along the road.

George described Brown's rest stop as a square box shanty and a shed in which a man could rest himself and his horse. This was the first habitation George encountered since leaving the Tucannon River. After crossing the river, George helped pull the wagon up the hill where the team found good grass and water, as the signs had promised.

By noon of September 17, George arrived at Gooseberry Springs in Whitman County and his teamster friend told him that after they reached Alki Flat, he could easily find the Purington ranch by heading south toward the Snake River. George thanked him, gave him his pistol as a pawn for his $2. 50 debt, and they parted.

Riding the Range

With a feeling of loneliness, the youth started across the rolling hills. No other human being was in sight. It seemed as if there was always a hill ahead of him, but finally, he came to a ravine that led down to the Snake River, where he quenched his thirst. He realized that he had turned south too soon and was lost, but after walking several more miles, he saw a small shack ahead of him. The sun was setting and his pack was heavy, so the hut was a welcome sight. He knocked on the door and a surprised William Purington answered with a warm welcome for the weary traveler.

A man named Holbrook was staying with Purington at the time, and these two men were George's first acquaintances in Whitman County. He rested a few days and after getting a horse, went out with the other hired hands to learn how to be a cowpuncher. The next phase of his life had begun.

"My wages were $25 a month and board, and I wasn't worth that much as I was a green Easterner. I did become quite a cowboy eventually," George said. It was not long before George became fully trained in riding and rounding up cattle. Soon he was able to go on long trips in search of strays.

"There were thousands of cattle down there, and we had a huge range to cover. My employer ran a herd of from 500 to 1,000 head. Our range extended from Lewiston to the Palouse, 90 miles east and west, and from the Snake River to Spokane Falls." There were no fences. Cattle from various ranches mingled freely as they grazed, and were separated by brand at roundup time.

"Spokane Falls was a poor feeding ground, so we did not give it much attention. I think that the first time I was there, there were only two houses in the place. Colfax was the same."

In a conversation several years later, George described the rangeland in the Snake River country:

"Along the banks of the river, large portions of the hills at the north had slid down the canyons (in the past) due to cloudbursts and the continuous flow of small streams, and had formed bars . which were very fertile. A number of Indians had claimed this land, but then the settlers started coming in, some of whom took squatter's rights on it. This, of course, caused trouble right away. The first place to become involved was four miles above the place that I was working -- Penewawa.

"There were two brothers named Smith who were cattlemen, who were the first to settle on this land and they thought that the Indians were not entitled to such good land and should be back on a reservation, so they took it for themselves. This land is in cultivation today [1945] with fine orchards of peaches, pears and cherries, and is worth many thousands of dollars.

"There were two other bars on the river that received freight from Portland from a steamer that called once a week. One was at Almota, where Henry Spalding, son of the missionary, ran a store and a hotel. The other was at Wawawai. Senator La Follette of Wisconsin and the Holt brothers had a large orchard there and shipped quantities of fruit all over the country. There was trouble here between the Indians and settlers and one Indian was killed by the man I was working for. The trouble was finally settled by Chief [Spokane] Garry, who was a noted Indian at that time.

"During those days, the Indians became rather insulting and would come into cabins if there was no man around and (ask the womenfolk) for something to eat, tobacco, or matches. Of course, the settlers were frightened by them at first, but later became somewhat used to them. The women would stand no nonsense and always kept a rifle or pistol handy. I was afraid of them at first, (but) after awhile picked up enough of their jargon to talk with them and was able to understand [them].

"At the Purington ranch, we planted peach, pear and apple trees. In the Spring of 1873 we planted all kinds of seeds and also sweet potatoes, tobacco, peanuts and cotton. They all grew well. The wind blew a gale at times so we set out a wind break of locust trees.

"The winter of 1874-5 was the worst I ever spent. Cattle died by the thousands, for the snow was deep and the springs were frozen so badly that it was impossible for the cattle to drink. It was frightfully cold. When Winter broke, dead cattle were everywhere. Great pieces of ice came down the Snake River. Some of the flows were 40 feet high."

George tired of the monotony of ranch life and left for the big city in 1875. He went to Portland where he started on a succession of jobs that took him from Walla Walla to Moscow, Idaho, and Newport, Washington. Employment was readily available for anyone willing to work and George tried everything from being a waiter, a barber, a sewing machine salesman, and a druggist. He even took a turn at practicing medicine.

Nez Perce War

In 1877, he was in Colfax when word arrived of the Nez Perce uprising. George provided me with a written account of his experience:

"On June 15, word came that a group of the Nez Perce Indians under the leadership of Chief Joseph had begun hostilities against the white settlers in western Idaho Territory by killing in cold blood several of the settlers. On Sunday, the 17th day of June, I, as well as many others, were at a camp meeting at what was known as Chase's Mill, about 18 miles east of Colfax, when a man by the name of Joe Evans came into camp about 11 o'clock with his horse covered with sweat, and said: 'The Indians are coming down Union Flat, killing and burning everything in sight.' (Actually, no fighting occurred in Union Flat.)

"The meeting broke up without waiting for the benediction, and everyone started for home or for Colfax. When I arrived back in Colfax, I found the streets barricaded and great excitement. An old man by the name of D. S. Bowman was upon the stoop of the only store in town, and he was saying, 'Gentlemen, I have lived in Indian country all of my life, and I can say to all of you people that we should organize a company of volunteers. Then you will be recognized by the government.' We organized a company on the spot. We appointed officers (and) all signed the roster and were sworn in. Then we were all told to go out and get all the firearms we had or could borrow. When we returned, all we could muster was 22 rifles, shotguns, and pistols. My duty, with two others, was to stand guard at the south end of town on the hills where it was supposed that the Indians would come through.

"The next morning, I was ordered to reconnoiter and report. I went first to Three Forks, where Pullman is now situated, but there was no one within five miles. From there I went to Palouse City. There were very few families there, but the men from town and country were building a stockade. I stopped over there to help where I could. The next day, I went on to Moscow. Only a few people were there, but they were building a stockade with a big cellar inside for the women and children. It was built on a sloping side hill, and we could see the Indians passing along the foothills [on] the trail between Spokane and Lewiston. I stayed there for two days and had a chance to send a report to Colfax. Then I went to Lewiston, arriving there the same evening that General Howard arrived by boat from Portland with company of Georgia troops. They had no experience in fighting Indians, but a company was ordered out to go up Craig's Mountain to Grangeville and Mount Idaho and White Bird Canyon. They were sent down in regular formation and the Indians were up on the sides of the canyon, and as I was told by one of the company, they had no chance at all .

"After Joseph and his band eluded General Howard and fled over the Lolo Pass into Montana with the intention of reaching sanctuary in Canada, Sutherland and the members of his company of volunteers were ordered to watch for any stragglers who might circle back. We went to Mount Idaho, Grangeville, White Bird and many other places where we thought we might run into Indians, but we did not see any from that time on. The company was mustered out in August or September of the same year, 1877."

George's account concludes, "All the records [of the company's activities] . were destroyed in the big fire, so we have no record of our company's doings. After our enlistment, we had to furnish all of our equipment, horse, saddle, blankets and eat where we could. After 60 years, I think I am entitled to a badge of some kind as five of my company were receiving pensions (and I was not). I have saved Uncle Sam quite a sum of money by not applying for one. I did not need the money and I did not think that I was doing anything but my duty. We had to protect our homes under any circumstances."

George continued traveling over the Northwest investing in various business enterprises including mining, all with mediocre success. He eventually settled in Newport, Washington. There, he was a member of the City Council, served several terms as Mayor, was County Commissioner of Stevens and Pend Oreille Counties and president of a bank. He died in 1949 after a long and active life in which he realized his ambition of being a pioneer in the American West.

This essay is part of HistoryLink's People's History collection. People's Histories include personal memoirs and reminiscences, letters and other historical documents, interviews and oral histories, reprints from historical and current publications, original essays, commentary and interpretation, and expressions of personal opinion, many of which have been submitted by our visitors. They have not been verified by HistoryLink.org and do not necessarily represent its views.

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Spokane historian Jerome Peltier interviewed pioneer George Washington Sutherland (1854-1949) in the 1940s.


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Arkes, Hadley. The Return of George Sutherland: Restoring a Jurisprudence of Natural Rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Mason, Alpheus Thomas. "The Conservative World of Mr. Justice Sutherland, 1883-1910." American Political Science Review 32 (June 1938): 443-77.

Paschal, Joel Francis. Mr. Justice Sutherland, a Man Against the State. 1951. Reprint. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969.

Sutherland, George. Constitutional Power and World Affairs. 1919. Reprint. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1970.


SUTHERLAND Genealogy

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SUTHERLAND, GEORGE

In 1883 Sutherland had completed one term at the University of Michigan Law School and qualified for the Michigan bar. That summer he returned to Utah and married Rosamund Lee. They had three children--Emma (born 1884), Philip (born 1886), and Edith (born 1888)--whom he supported by practicing law in Utah. In 1894 he helped to organize the Utah State Bar Association.

In 1896 Sutherland, a Republican, joined the first Utah House of Representatives. In 1899 he was admitted to the bar of the United States Supreme Court, and from 1900 to 1903 he served as Utah's only Representative in the U.S. House. He then served in the U.S. Senate from 1905 to 1916. During this period, he supported much progressive legislation, including a Utah law for an eight-hour day in the mining and smelting industries, as well as national statues such as the Pure Food and Drug Act.

Defeated for the Senate nomination in 1916, Sutherland went into private law practice, served as president of the American Bar Association, and became an advisor to Republican presidential hopeful Warren G. Harding in the campaign of 1920. Harding's election and the sudden resignation of a Supreme Court justice in 1922 paved the way for Sutherland's appointment to the bench.

Sutherland's Supreme Court record belied his earlier progressive stance. He penned such majority opinions as the landmark Adkins v. Children's Hospital, which outlawed a minimum wage for women. In the thirties, he opposed most of the New Deal legislation, and became the intellectual leader of the "Four Horsemen"--the four conservative justices consistently voting against President Franklin D. Roosevelt's programs. He retired from the Court in January 1938 and died on 18 July 1942. He retained the respect of his peers throughout his career and is rated by many historians as "near great" for his Supreme Court performance.

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