Warisan Ketenteraan York, Ian D. Rotherham

Warisan Ketenteraan York, Ian D. Rotherham

Warisan Ketenteraan York, Ian D. Rotherham

Warisan Ketenteraan York, Ian D. Rotherham

Kedudukan York bermaksud bahawa ia sering menjadi pusat konflik ketenteraan di utara England. Itu terletak di Sungai Ouse, dan dapat dengan mudah diakses dari laut, dan di jurang antara Pennines di barat dan North York Moors di timur, di tengah-tengah koridor utara-selatan yang rata-rata laluan utama antara England dan Scotland. Lokasinya bermaksud bahawa ia juga menjadi penting sebagai sasaran ketenteraan sendiri - ia adalah lokasi dua pertempuran penting pada tahun 1066, sementara pertempuran utama Perang Roses dan Perang Saudara Inggeris berlangsung dekat dengan kota .

Perkara penting yang perlu diingat di sini adalah bahawa ini adalah pemeriksaan terhadap peristiwa yang berlaku di dan sekitar York, dan bukan sejarah penglibatan unit tentera yang berpangkalan di York dalam perang laut. Oleh itu, hanya ada sedikit Perang Besar, sementara untuk Perang Dunia Kedua kandungannya terbatas pada melihat pengeboman Jerman, dan perincian mengenai pelbagai lapangan terbang RAF yang dibina di tanah rata di sekitar kota. Penglibatan langsung York dalam urusan ketenteraan secara efektif berhenti dengan Perang Saudara - peristiwa utama Pemberontakan Jacobite sebahagian besarnya melewati bandar, dengan tentera Jacobite utama memilih untuk mengikuti jalan alternatif, barat ke England.

Penglibatan bandar yang lebih luas dalam hal ehwal ketenteraan diperhitungkan dalam bab sembilan, yang melihat kehormatan ketenteraan yang dipegang oleh resimen yang berkaitan dengan kota ketika ia ditulis, dan VC dimenangi oleh York atau lelaki tempatan semasa Perang Besar. Bab Sepuluh, mengenai warisan ketenteraan, melihat berbagai barak dan bangunan ketenteraan lain di kota ini, yang juga memberikan gambaran tentang berapa banyak unit yang berpusat di kawasan ini selama bertahun-tahun.

Hasilnya adalah pengenalan yang menarik untuk peranan York dalam sejarah ketenteraan Inggeris, selagi anda ingat bahawa ia benar-benar menumpukan perhatian pada peristiwa yang berlaku berhampiran dengan bandar, dan bukan aktiviti unit yang dibangkitkan di sekitar bandar.

Bab
1. Pengenalan
2 - Sejarah Awal
3 - Konflik Setempat hingga Penaklukan Norman
4 - Harrying dari Utara
5 - Post-Conquest York & England di Perang
6 - Perang Saudara Inggeris
7 - Pemberontakan Jacobite
8 - Perang Dunia Kedua & Perang Dingin
9 - Perkhidmatan, Kepujian dan Penghargaan
10 - Warisan Ketenteraan
11 - Tembok & Pertahanan Lain

Pengarang: Ian D. Rotherham
Edisi: Paperback
Penerbit: Pen & Pedang Pedang



Anne Lister

Anne Lister (3 April 1791 - 22 September 1840) adalah seorang diaris Inggeris, terkenal dengan penyataan yang mana dia dijuluki "lesbian moden pertama".

Lister berasal dari keluarga pemilik tanah yang agak selesa di Shibden di Calderdale, West Yorkshire, dan melakukan pelbagai urusan lesbian dari sekolahnya dan seterusnya, sering dalam perjalanan jauh ke luar negara. Penampilan berotot dan maskulin, hanya berpakaian hitam, dan berpendidikan tinggi, dia dikenal, umumnya tidak ramah, sebagai 'Gentleman Jack'. Hubungan terpanjangnya adalah dengan Ann Walker, yang dengannya dia secara tidak sengaja menikah di Holy Trinity Church, Goodramgate, York, kini dirayakan sebagai tempat kelahiran perkahwinan lesbian di Britain.

Buku harian Lister banyak mengungkap kehidupan kontemporari di West Yorkshire, termasuk pengembangannya di Shibden Hall yang bersejarah, dan minatnya dalam bidang pertanian, perlombongan, landasan kereta api dan terusan. Banyak catatan ditulis dalam kod yang tidak didekripsi sehingga lama selepas kematiannya. Gambaran grafik mengenai lesbianisme ini sangat terang sehingga dianggap sebagai tipuan, sehingga kesahihannya disahkan dengan tepat.


Legasi Percubaan LSD Rahsia CIA & # 8217s di Amerika

Maklumat baru yang tidak diklasifikasikan melancarkan operasi rahsia pemerintah A.S. untuk menjatuhkan ratusan orang Amerika yang tidak disukai dengan LSD pada tahun 1950-an dan 60-an.

Berkaitan

Sebelum LSD melarikan diri dari makmal dan diinjili oleh hippies, pemerintah A.S. secara diam-diam menguji kesan ubat itu terhadap ratusan orang awam dan anggota tentera Amerika yang tidak curiga. Dalam ciri yang mesti dibaca mengenai bahan yang baru diklasifikasikan pada operasi rahsia Central Intelligence Agency & # 8217s, program MK-ULTRA, yang berlangsung dari tahun 1953 hingga 1964, Mingguan SF sepenuhnya mendedahkan dunia pelik mengenai ujian dadah yang tidak beretika CIA & # 8217s. Kisah yang benar-benar luar biasa-tetapi-benar melibatkan penggunaan pelacur untuk memikat john yang tidak diingini untuk ujian yang tidak didedahkan, ejen narkotik yang memasukkan dadah ke dalam minuman, dan seorang panglima A.S. yang memegang bar San Francisco tidak mengetahui bahawa dia tinggi asid.

Kedengarannya seperti sesuatu dari mimpi paranoid. Dan sememangnya, sebelum dokumentasi dan fakta-fakta lain program itu diumumkan, mereka yang sering membicarakannya dianggap sebagai psikotik. Tetapi sejarah eksperimen manusia rahsia pemerintah A.S. harus diingat, terutama ketika kita mempertimbangkan kekuatan yang kita berikan kepadanya dan cara kita mengatur dadah.

Eksperimen LSD kononnya dilakukan kerana A.S. percaya bahawa komunis Rusia, Korea Utara dan China menggunakan ubat itu untuk mencuci otak orang Amerika yang ditangkap. Akibatnya, CIA tidak ingin ketinggalan dalam membangun dan bertindak balas terhadap teknologi yang berpotensi berguna ini.

Oleh itu, sangat luar biasa, ia memutuskan untuk memasukkan asid secara diam-diam kepada orang Amerika - di pantai, di bar bandar, di restoran. Selama satu dekad, CIA melakukan ujian yang tidak terkawal di mana mereka membius orang tanpa sedar, kemudian mengikuti dan memerhatikan mereka tanpa campur tangan. Dalam beberapa kes, agensi tersebut menggunakan ubat tersebut untuk melakukan soal siasat, tetapi prosedur ini dilakukan secara tidak konsisten sehingga terbukti tidak berguna dalam memberikan data yang berguna.

Kurangnya kawalan etika lebih mengerikan. Ini caranya SF Mingguan & # 8217s Troy Hooper menerangkan apa yang berlaku kepada salah seorang mangsa terakhir operasi MK-ULTRA yang masih hidup:

Sudah lebih dari 50 tahun, tetapi Wayne Ritchie mengatakan bahawa dia masih ingat bagaimana rasanya diberi asid.

Dia minum bourbon dan soda dengan pegawai persekutuan yang lain di pesta percutian pada tahun 1957 di Bangunan Pejabat Pos A.S. di jalan Seventh and Mission. Mereka membuat lelucon dan bertukar cerita ketika, tiba-tiba, bilik itu mula berputar. Lampu merah dan hijau di pokok Krismas di sudut berputar dengan liar. Suhu badan Ritchie & # 8217s meningkat. Pandangannya terpaku pada warna-warna pusing di sekelilingnya.

Wakil marshal A.S. meminta maaf dan pergi ke tingkat atas pejabatnya, di mana dia duduk dan minum segelas air. Dia perlu menyusun diri. Tetapi sebaliknya dia tidak terpaku.

Ritchie menjadi begitu paranoid dan tertekan sehingga dia memutuskan satu-satunya cara untuk mengekalkannya mereka dari membuat dia menyerang dahulu:

& # 8220Saya memutuskan jika mereka mahu menyingkirkan saya, saya & # 8217 akan menolong mereka. Saya akan keluar dan mengambil senjata saya dari pejabat saya dan memegang bar, & # 8221 Ritchie ingat. & # 8220Saya fikir, & # 8216Saya dapat wang yang cukup untuk mendapatkan tiket penerbangan kepada teman wanita saya ke New York, dan saya & # 8217 akan menyerahkan diri. & # 8217 Tetapi saya tidak berjaya. & # 8221

Dari tengkoraknya dengan halusinasi dan alkohol, Ritchie meluncur ke Shady Grove di Fillmore District, dan memesan satu bourbon dan soda terakhir. Setelah menelan titisan akhir, dia mengarahkan revolvernya ke bartender dan meminta wang.

Nasib baik, seorang pelayan dan pelindung dapat menundukkannya dan Ritchie ditangkap sebelum ada yang terluka. Lebih bernasib baik, kerana dia adalah pegawai penguatkuasa yang pernah berkhidmat dalam tentera dan tidak mempunyai rekod sebelumnya, dia hanya dijatuhi hukuman percubaan dan denda $ 500. Tetapi dia terpaksa mengundurkan diri dari Perkhidmatan Marshals.

Beberapa dekad kemudian, pada tahun 1999, ketika Ritchie menemui ajaib seorang ahli kimia Amerika, Sidney Gottlieb, yang terlibat dalam eksperimen asid CIA & # 8217, dia menyatukan dua dan dua. Artikel itu menyebutkan seorang pegawai narkotik yang pernah dia kenal dan perhatikan penglibatan pegawai tersebut dalam eksperimen LSD, kemudian Ritchie memukul bahawa dia mungkin diam-diam diberi dos pada hari dia menjadi gila.

Agensi itu nampaknya mengalami kegilaannya sendiri. Cawangan program San Francisco (hub lain adalah di New York City) dijuluki Operation Midnight Climax dan ia melibatkan ejen yang menggunakan pelacur untuk memikat john ke dalam pad rahsia yang dihiasi dengan gambar wanita yang diikat dan gambar-gambar suci lain oleh artis Perancis Toulouse-Lautrec. Para john diberi koktel berlemak dan, dari belakang cermin dua arah, seorang agen Biro Narkotik, yang berganda sebagai operasi CIA, bersama-sama dengan pelayannya akan membakar martini dan menonton seks yang dibius.

Pada masa agensi itu akhirnya menghentikan program ini pada tahun 1964, ratusan orang secara tidak sedar telah melakukan perjalanan asid di kedua pantai. Pada tahun berikutnya, Merry Pranksters Ken Kesey mula mengadakan sambutan "ujian asid" pertama, disertai oleh Grateful Dead.

Retorik rasmi mengenai LSD dari agensi antidadah kerajaan adalah sangat berbahaya. LSD dengan cepat dibuat haram dan penyelidikan mengenai potensinya kerana rawatan alkohol dan gangguan lain dihentikan. Tuntutan liar tentangnya merosakkan kromosom dan menyebabkan kecacatan kelahiran diumumkan.

Tetapi, tentu saja, CIA berpendapat bahawa ubat itu cukup selamat untuk diedarkan secara rawak kepada orang Amerika yang tidak disengajakan tanpa memberi maklumat tentang pengalaman mereka atau memberikan apa-apa langkah untuk memastikan mereka selamat - sesuatu yang kini diketahui oleh penyelidik adalah mustahak untuk mengelakkan insiden seperti rompakan bar Ritchie.

Aspek yang terkenal dalam sejarah LSD & # 8217s adalah perbezaan cara penggunaan ubat tunggal dan dirasakan oleh kumpulan yang berbeza. Sama seperti satu segmen penduduk Amerika mulai bereksperimen dengan ubat yang mereka yakini dapat menghasilkan kedamaian dan kebangkitan rohani, pemerintah mereka menggunakan ubat yang sama untuk mencoba "mencuci otak" orang agar patuh. Hippies terutamanya mendapati kesatuan dan kegembiraan paranoia dan ketakutan CIA.

Kedua-duanya secara tidak sengaja telah menemukan apa yang akan disebut oleh guru asam Timothy Leary sebagai "set" dan "setting". Set adalah mindset seseorang: mood, latar belakang, fisiologi dan segala sesuatu yang unik bagi mereka semasa mereka mengambil ubat. Menetapkan adalah persekitaran fizikal dan budaya.

Set dan tetapan adalah asas kepada kesan semua ubat. Mereka menjelaskan mengapa anda boleh minum jumlah minuman yang sama dalam satu keadaan dan gembira, misalnya, sementara corak minum yang sama boleh menimbulkan kemarahan dan serangan yang lain. Tetapi sementara ubat-ubatan seperti alkohol, kokain dan heroin umumnya cenderung menghasilkan kesan yang agak konsisten dalam pelbagai tetapan, psikedelik seperti LSD jauh lebih sensitif terhadap konteks. Dosis tanpa pengetahuan anda dalam keadaan yang menakutkan sangat berbeza dengan menjatuhkan asid dengan sengaja di tempat yang tenang dan mesra.

Ketika kita melihat undang-undang ubat kita, MK-ULTRA yang tidak masuk akal muncul dengan lega. Di sini kita mempunyai sebuah institusi yang kononnya melindungi orang Amerika dari bahaya dadah yang sebenarnya memabukkan penduduknya. Ini adalah "penyelidikan" yang dilakukan terhadap manusia tanpa mempedulikan kehidupan atau kesejahteraan mereka. Dan di tengah-tengahnya adalah zat yang dikatakan ribuan - termasuk Steve Jobs dari Apple - membawa makna dan inspirasi mendalam bagi kehidupan mereka.

Apa yang malang adalah bahawa daripada mengadakan perbincangan secara demokratik mengenai peranan LSD dan ubat-ubatan serupa yang sesuai untuk persetujuan orang dewasa - dan menjalankan penyelidikan yang sah mengenai kegunaannya yang berpotensi bermanfaat - kita malah terjebak dalam budaya larangan lutut yang menghasilkan berulang, tidak terkawal dan percubaan manusia yang kadang-kadang mematikan.

Peningkatan ubat sintetik baru-baru ini, termasuk garam mandi yang disebut dan ganja palsu, hanyalah bukti terbaru penolakan berterusan kita bahawa manusia selalu dan selalu akan berusaha mengubah pemikiran mereka secara kimia. Persoalan sebenarnya adalah, seberapa selamat atau tidak selamat kita ingin membuat set dan tetapan di mana mereka melakukannya?


Apa Krisis Penyanderaan Iran?

Menjelang tahun 1970-an, banyak orang Iran sudah muak dengan pemerintahan Shah & # 2020. Sebagai protes, mereka beralih kepada Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, seorang ulama radikal yang gerakan Islamis revolusionernya seolah-olah menjanjikan penembusan dari masa lalu dan perubahan ke arah autonomi yang lebih besar bagi rakyat Iran. Pada bulan Julai 1979, para revolusioner memaksa Shah untuk membubarkan pemerintahannya dan melarikan diri ke Mesir. Ayatollah memasang pemerintahan militan Islam di tempatnya.

Amerika Syarikat, yang takut menimbulkan permusuhan di Timur Tengah, tidak membela sekutu lamanya. (Untuk satu perkara, Presiden Carter, yang menyedari tentang catatan buruk Shah di jabatan itu, enggan membelanya.) Namun, pada bulan Oktober 1979, Presiden Carter bersetuju untuk membenarkan pemimpin yang diasingkan itu memasuki AS untuk rawatan ganas yang maju limfoma. Keputusannya adalah kemanusiaan, namun tidak politik, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh orang Amerika kemudian, seperti membuang & # x201Ca membakar cawangan ke dalam baldi minyak tanah. & # X201D Sentimen anti-Amerika di Iran meletup.

Pada 4 November 1979, tepat setelah Shah tiba di New York, sekumpulan pelajar pro-Ayatollah menghancurkan pintu gerbang dan menembusi tembok kedutaan Amerika di Teheran. Setelah masuk, mereka menyita 66 tebusan, kebanyakan diplomat dan pegawai kedutaan. Setelah jangka masa yang singkat, 13 dari tebusan ini dibebaskan. (Sebahagian besar, 13 ini adalah wanita, Afrika-Amerika dan warganegara selain AS & # x2013 orang yang, Khomeini berpendapat, telah mengalami & # x201Penindasan terhadap masyarakat Amerika. & # X201D) Beberapa waktu kemudian, seorang tebusan ke-14 mengalami masalah kesihatan dan juga dihantar pulang. Menjelang musim panas 1980, 52 tebusan tinggal di perkarangan kedutaan.

Manuver diplomatik tidak mempunyai kesan yang jelas terhadap sikap anti-Amerika Ayatollah dan juga sekatan ekonomi seperti penyitaan aset Iran di Amerika Syarikat. Sementara itu, sementara para sandera tidak pernah cedera parah, mereka menjalani berbagai perlakuan merendahkan dan menakutkan. Mereka ditutup mata dan diarak di depan kamera TV dan mengejek orang ramai. Mereka tidak diizinkan untuk bercakap atau membaca, dan mereka jarang diizinkan untuk menukar pakaian. Sepanjang krisis terdapat ketidakpastian yang menakutkan mengenai nasib mereka: Para sandera tidak pernah tahu sama ada mereka akan diseksa, dibunuh atau dibebaskan.


3. Perubahan pendapat umum

Pada mulanya, simpati orang ramai terhadap gerakan Black Lives Matter meningkat. Tetapi seperti kebanyakan subjek politik berprofil tinggi di A.S. abad ke-21, pendapat tidak lama lagi terpolarisasi.

Hari ini, pengundi Republik kurang bersimpati dengan Black Lives Matter berbanding tahun lalu, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh saintis politik Jennifer Chudy dan Hakeem Jefferson. Sokongan di kalangan Demokrat tetap lebih tinggi daripada sebelum kematian Floyd tetapi lebih rendah daripada segera selepas itu.

Terdapat beberapa bidang perjanjian yang luas. Sebilangan besar orang Amerika mengatakan bahawa mereka mempunyai kepercayaan yang tinggi terhadap penguatkuasaan undang-undang - bahkan lebih daripada yang dilakukan pada bulan Jun yang lalu, kata Alex Samuels FiveThirtyEight. Sebilangan besar juga tidak setuju dengan seruan untuk “membatalkan” atau menghapuskan jabatan polis. Tetapi kebanyakan perubahan pada kepolisian, seperti melarang chokehold.


Perang Korea

Pada bulan Jun 1950, pasukan Komunis dari Korea Utara menyerang Republik Korea Selatan yang berpihak barat, melancarkan Perang Korea. Douglas MacArthur dilantik sebagai ketua pasukan gabungan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu yang diketuai Amerika. Pada musim gugur itu, pasukannya mengusir Korea Utara dan akhirnya menghalau mereka kembali ke sempadan China. MacArthur bertemu dengan Presiden Truman, yang bimbang bahawa pemerintah komunis Republik Rakyat China mungkin melihat pencerobohan itu sebagai tindakan bermusuhan dan campur tangan dalam konflik. Jeneral itu meyakinkannya bahawa kemungkinan campur tangan China sedikit. Kemudian, pada bulan November dan Disember 1950, pasukan tentera China yang besar melintasi Korea Utara dan menyerang diri mereka ke arah barisan Amerika, mendorong pasukan A.S. kembali ke Korea Selatan. MacArthur meminta izin untuk mengebom komunis China dan menggunakan pasukan Nasionalis China dari Taiwan untuk menentang Republik Rakyat China. Truman dengan tegas menolak permintaan ini, dan perselisihan umum berlaku di antara kedua lelaki itu.

Pada 11 April 1951, Truman menyingkirkan MacArthur dari perintahnya kerana tidak berkuasa. Dalam ucapannya kepada orang Amerika pada hari itu, presiden menyatakan, & # x201CI percaya bahawa kita mesti berusaha mengehadkan perang ke Korea atas sebab-sebab penting ini: Untuk memastikan bahawa kehidupan berharga orang-orang yang berperang kita tidak sia-sia untuk melihat bahawa keamanan negara kita dan dunia bebas tidak tergugat dan untuk mengelakkan perang dunia ketiga. & # x201D MacArthur telah dipecat, katanya, & # x201Jadi tidak akan ada keraguan atau kebingungan mengenai tujuan dan tujuan sebenar kita dasar. & # x201D

Pemecatan MacArthur & # x2019s menimbulkan keributan singkat di kalangan masyarakat Amerika, tetapi Truman tetap komited untuk menjaga konflik di Korea sebagai & # x201Peringkat tanpa had. & # X201D Akhirnya, rakyat Amerika mula memahami bahawa dasar dan cadangan MacArthur & # x2019s mungkin berlaku menyebabkan perang yang meluas secara besar-besaran di Asia.


Yorkshire & # 039s Viking Coast Britain & # 039s Heritage Coast

Holderness, Pantai Viking Yorkshire, telah lama menjadi salah satu destinasi pelancongan paling popular di utara England. Dari Bempton Cliffs hingga Bridlington Harbour yang menakjubkan, dan Hornsea Mere hingga Kingston-upon-Hull dan Spurn Point, Pantai Viking merangkumi resort tepi laut Victoria dan Edward, dan sapuan liar di Bridlington Bay. Bukti penempatan awal merangkumi laman prasejarah di sekitar Flamborough dan Danes Dyke, dan Rudston Monolith yang luar biasa. Laman Romano-British menggambarkan pelabuhan selamat yang penting, perdagangan pesisir dan hubungan ke Eropah. Orang-orang Saxon menyerbu, kemudian Viking mengungsi, memuncak dengan serangan yang gagal oleh Harald Hardrada. Medieval Holderness adalah pemegangan tanah monastik yang penting, tinggalan priori Bridlington yang pernah megah menjadi bukti kepada zaman itu. Skipsea Castle dan runtuhan lain mewakili pergolakan politik dan konflik nasional. Kemudian, sebagai pemandangan desa yang damai, estet-estet hebat di Sewerby dan Burton Agnes, sebagai contoh, merupakan warisan taman, taman dan rumah yang luar biasa. Dicintai oleh banyak orang, Pantai Viking layak ditemui oleh lebih banyak lagi.


Kandungan

Pada 5 Oktober 1917, Emmett Jay Scott, setiausaha lama kepada Booker T. Washington, dilantik sebagai Pembantu Khas kepada Newton D. Baker, Setiausaha Perang. Scott berkhidmat sebagai penasihat sulit dalam situasi yang melibatkan kesejahteraan sepuluh juta orang Amerika Afrika dan peranan mereka dalam perang. Walaupun banyak orang Amerika Afrika yang berkhidmat dalam Perang Besar percaya diskriminasi kaum akan hilang begitu mereka pulang, itu tidak berlaku. Perkauman selepas Perang Dunia I mungkin paling teruk hingga permulaan Perang Dunia II. [8]

Walaupun banyak orang Amerika Afrika ingin bertempur dalam perang, mereka sering berpaling dari perkhidmatan ketenteraan. Apabila Amerika Syarikat menyedari bahawa mereka tidak mempunyai cukup tentara, ia memutuskan untuk meluluskan Undang-Undang Perkhidmatan Selektif tahun 1917 yang mewajibkan semua lelaki berusia 21 hingga 30 tahun untuk mendaftar draf ini termasuk orang Amerika Afrika juga. Ini akan memberi peluang kepada orang Afrika Amerika bahawa mereka perlu mencuba dan mengubah cara mereka dirasakan oleh rakan-rakan mereka yang berkulit putih. [9]

Rejimen ke-369 dibentuk dari Rejimen ke-15 Pengawal Nasional di New York. Rejimen ke-15 dibentuk setelah Charles S. Whitman dipilih sebagai Gabenor New York. Dia menguatkuasakan undang-undang yang disahkan kerana usaha pasukan Kavaleri ke-10 di Mexico, yang telah berlalu sebagai undang-undang yang belum terwujud hingga 2 Jun 1913. [10] [ halaman diperlukan ]

Ketika A.S. memasuki Perang Dunia I, banyak orang Afrika Amerika percaya bahawa memasuki angkatan bersenjata akan membantu menghilangkan diskriminasi kaum di seluruh Amerika Syarikat. Banyak yang merasa itu adalah "berkat yang diutuskan oleh Tuhan" sehingga mereka dapat membuktikan bahwa mereka pantas mendapat penghormatan dari orang kulit putih mereka melalui layanan di angkatan bersenjata. Melalui usaha Jawatankuasa Pusat Lelaki Negro dan Presiden Wilson, kem latihan khas untuk melatih pegawai kulit hitam untuk rejimen hitam yang dicadangkan telah dibentuk. [11]

Edit Pembentukan

Rejimen Infantri ke-369 dibentuk pada 2 Jun 1913 di Pengawal Nasional Angkatan Darat New York sebagai Rejimen Infantri New York ke-15. Infantri ke-369 dianjurkan pada 29 Jun 1916 di New York City. [12]

Infanteri dipanggil ke perkhidmatan Persekutuan pada 25 Julai 1917 di Camp Whitman, New York. Semasa di Camp Whitman, Infanteri ke-369 mempelajari amalan ketenteraan asas. Asas-asas ini merangkumi kesopanan tentera, cara menangani pegawai dan cara memberi salam. Bersamaan dengan asas-asas ini, mereka juga belajar bagaimana untuk tetap rendah dan tidak terlihat selama serangan, berjaga-jaga dan bagaimana berbaris dalam formasi. Selepas latihan mereka di Camp Whitman, yang ke-369 dipanggil untuk bertugas aktif di New York. Semasa di New York, pasukan ke-369 dipecah menjadi tiga batalion di mana mereka menjaga jalur kereta api, tapak pembinaan dan kem lain di seluruh New York.

Kemudian pada 8 Oktober 1917, Rejimen melakukan perjalanan ke Camp Wadsworth di Spartanburg, Carolina Selatan, di mana mereka mendapat latihan dalam pertempuran yang sebenarnya. Camp Wadsworth didirikan serupa dengan medan perang Perancis. [1] Semasa di Camp Wadsworth, mereka mengalami perkauman yang ketara dari masyarakat setempat dan dari unit-unit lain. Terdapat satu kejadian di mana dua tentera dari Rejimen ke-15, Leftenan James Reese Europe dan Noble Sissle, ditolak oleh pemilik sebuah kedai hotel ketika mereka berusaha membeli surat khabar. Beberapa askar dari Bahagian ke-27 kulit putih, sebuah organisasi Pengawal Nasional New York, datang untuk menolong rakan-rakan tentera mereka. Leftenan Eropah telah memerintahkan mereka untuk pergi sebelum keganasan meletus. [13] Terdapat banyak kedai lain yang menolak menjual barang kepada anggota Rejimen ke-15, jadi anggota Bahagian ke-27 memberitahu pemilik kedai bahawa jika mereka tidak melayani askar kulit hitam, mereka dapat menutup kedai mereka dan meninggalkan kota. Tentera putih itu kemudian menyatakan "Mereka adalah rakan kita. Dan kita tidak akan membeli dari lelaki yang memperlakukan mereka secara tidak adil." [14]

Rejimen Infantri ke-15 NYARNG ditugaskan pada 1 Disember 1917 kepada Briged Infantri ke-185. Ia diperintahkan oleh Kolonel William Hayward, anggota Union League Club of New York, yang menaja 369 dalam tradisi Infantri Berwarna ke-20 A.S., yang ditaja oleh kelab itu dalam Perang Saudara A.S. Rejimen Infantri ke-15 dihantar dari Pelabuhan Embarkasi New York pada 27 Disember 1917, dan bergabung dengan pasukannya semasa tiba di Perancis. Unit ini diturunkan ke tugas perkhidmatan buruh dan bukannya latihan pertempuran. Briged Infantri ke-185 ditugaskan pada 5 Januari 1918 ke Bahagian 93 [Sementara].

Rejimen Infantri ke-15, NYARNG disusun semula dan dilantik semula pada 1 Mac 1918 sebagai Rejimen Infantri ke-369, tetapi unit ini meneruskan tugas perkhidmatan buruh sementara menunggu keputusan mengenai masa depannya.

Tugasan kepada Tentera Darat Perancis 1918 Edit

Tentera A.S. memutuskan pada 8 April 1918 untuk menyerahkan unit tersebut kepada Tentera Darat Perancis sepanjang penyertaan Amerika dalam perang kerana banyak tentera Amerika berkulit putih menolak untuk melakukan tugas pertempuran dengan Afrika-Amerika. [15] Orang-orang itu dikeluarkan senjata Perancis, [16] topi keledar, tali pinggang, dan kantung, walaupun mereka terus memakai seragam A.S. Semasa di Amerika Syarikat, Rejimen ke-369 mengalami diskriminasi kaum yang sengit, dan anggotanya memandang rendah. Kolonel Perancis J.L.A. Linard [17] dari markas Angkatan Ekspedisi Amerika dipujuk untuk menulis risalah terkenal Maklumat Rahsia Mengenai Pasukan Amerika Hitam, yang "memberi amaran" kepada pihak berkuasa awam Perancis mengenai dugaan sifat rendah diri dan kecenderungan perkauman Amerika Afrika. [18]

Di Perancis, yang ke-369 diperlakukan seolah-olah mereka tidak berbeza dengan unit Perancis yang lain. Sebahagian besarnya, orang Perancis tidak menunjukkan kebencian terhadap mereka dan tidak memisahkan kaum ke-369 secara perkauman. Perancis menerima Rejimen ke-369 yang semuanya hitam dengan tangan terbuka dan menyambut mereka ke negara mereka. [8] Tentera Perancis sejak awal memasukkan banyak unit kolonial dengan anggota bukan kulit putih dari antara lain Maghribi dan Senegal. Juga, kerana mereka menghadapi kekurangan tenaga kerja, mereka kurang mementingkan kaum daripada orang Amerika. [16]

Rejimen Infantri ke-369 dibebaskan 8 Mei 1918 dari penugasan ke Briged Infantri ke-185, dan masuk ke parit sebagai sebahagian daripada Bahagian ke-16 Perancis. Ia berkhidmat secara berterusan sehingga 3 Julai sebelum kembali bertempur dalam Pertempuran Kedua Marne. Kemudian, yang ke-369 ditugaskan semula ke Bahagian 161 Jeneral Lebouc untuk mengambil bahagian dalam serangan balas Sekutu. Dalam satu lawatan, mereka keluar selama lebih dari enam bulan, yang merupakan penempatan terpanjang dari mana-mana unit dalam Perang Dunia I. [19] Pada 19 Ogos, rejimen itu berhenti untuk berehat dan menjalani latihan penggantian.

Semasa berada di luar negara, Hellfighters melihat propaganda musuh ditujukan untuk mereka. Ia mendakwa Jerman tidak melakukan kesalahan terhadap orang kulit hitam, dan mereka harus memerangi AS, yang telah menindas mereka selama bertahun-tahun. Ia mempunyai kebalikan dari kesan yang dimaksudkan. [20]

Pada 25 September 1918, Tentera Darat ke-4 Perancis melakukan serangan bersempena dengan gerakan Amerika di Meuse – Argonne. Yang ke-369 menghasilkan akun yang baik dalam pertempuran sengit, walaupun mereka mengalami kerugian besar. Unit ini menawan kampung penting Séchault. Pada satu ketika, ke-369 maju lebih cepat daripada pasukan Perancis di sayap kanan dan kiri mereka, dan berisiko terputus. Pada saat rejimen mundur untuk penyusunan semula, ia telah maju sejauh 14 kilometer (8.7 mi) melalui perlawanan Jerman yang teruk.

Pada pertengahan Oktober resimen dipindahkan ke sektor yang tenang di Vosges, di mana ia ditempatkan di sana pada 11 November, hari gencatan senjata. Enam hari kemudian, yang ke-369 membuat kemajuan terakhir dan pada 26 November, sampai di tebing sungai Rhine dan menjadi unit Sekutu pertama yang melakukannya. Rejimen tersebut dilepaskan pada 12 Disember 1918 dari penugasan ke Bahagian 161 Perancis. Ia kembali ke Pelabuhan Embarkasi New York dan didemobilisasi pada 28 Februari 1919 di Camp Upton di Yaphank, New York, dan kembali ke Pengawal Nasional Tentera Darat New York.

Kepujian Edit

Satu [21] Pingat Kehormatan dan banyak Palang Perkhidmatan Cemerlang dianugerahkan kepada anggota rejimen.

Mungkin lelaki yang paling terkenal pada tahun 369 adalah Pvt. Henry Johnson, bekas porter stesen kereta api Albany, New York, yang mendapat julukan "Black Death" untuk tindakannya dalam pertempuran di Perancis. Pada bulan Mei 1918 Johnson dan Pvt. Needham Roberts melawan rondaan Jerman 24 orang, walaupun kedua-duanya cedera parah. Johnson mengarahkan Roberts untuk memberi amaran kepada unit Perancis mengenai rondaan yang mendekat, tetapi Roberts kembali kepadanya setelah Jerman melepaskan tembakan ke atas kedudukan mereka. Mereka bertempur bersama sehingga sebuah bom tangan Jerman melumpuhkan Roberts, dan pada ketika itu Johnson menjadikannya misinya untuk memegang barisan dan melindungi sesama askarnya. Setelah menghabiskan senjata mereka, Johnson bertempur dengan bom tangan, kemudian bucu senapangnya, dan akhirnya dengan pisau bolo. Laporan menunjukkan Johnson membunuh sekurang-kurangnya empat askar Jerman dan mungkin mencederakan 30 yang lain sementara sekurang-kurangnya 21 cedera. [22] Biasanya, prestasi hitam dan keberanian tidak disedari, walaupun lebih dari 100 lelaki dari tahun 369 dipersembahkan dengan hiasan Amerika dan / atau Perancis. Antara penghormatan itu [23] Johnson adalah orang Amerika pertama yang menerima Croix de Guerre. [6]

Pada 13 Disember 1918, satu bulan selepas hari gencatan senjata, pemerintah Perancis menganugerahkan Croix de Guerre kepada 170 individu anggota ke-369, dan kutipan unit diberikan kepada keseluruhan rejimen. Itu dipasang pada warna unit oleh Jenderal Lebouc. [24]

Salah satu unit pertama di angkatan bersenjata Amerika Syarikat yang mempunyai perwira hitam di samping orang-orang kulit hitam yang lengkap, yang ke-369 dapat memiliki catatan pertempuran yang baik, Croix de Guerre, dan beberapa kutipan unit, bersama dengan banyak hiasan individu untuk keberanian dari pemerintah Perancis. Namun demikian, sistem penggantian yang buruk - ditambah dengan tidak ada jeda dari talian - mengambil tol, meninggalkan unit itu benar-benar kelelahan oleh gencatan senjata pada bulan November. [4] Rejimen Infantri ke-369 adalah unit New York pertama yang kembali ke Amerika Syarikat, dan merupakan unit pertama yang bergerak menuju Fifth Avenue dari Washington Square Park Arch ke gudang senjata mereka di Harlem. Unit mereka diletakkan dalam senarai tetap dengan unit veteran lain.

Dalam menyusun kembali kisah ke-369, Arthur W. Little, yang pernah menjadi komandan batalion, menulis dalam sejarah rejimen Dari Harlem ke Rhine, adalah rasmi bahawa pakaian itu terbakar selama 191 hari, tidak pernah kehilangan kaki dari tanah atau seorang lelaki ditawan pada dua kali lelaki ditangkap, tetapi berjaya dipulihkan. Hanya sekali ia gagal mencapai objektifnya dan itu disebabkan oleh sokongan artileri Perancis. [25]

Menjelang akhir kempen Infantri ke-369 dalam Perang Dunia, saya telah hadir dalam kempen Champagne - Marne, Meuse - Argonne, Champagne 1918, Alsace 1918 di mana mereka mengalami 1,500 korban, yang paling tinggi dari mana-mana rejimen A.S. [26] Di samping itu, unit ini terganggu oleh masalah disiplin akut yang disebabkan oleh kematian yang tidak seimbang di antara anggota unit yang paling lama berkhidmat dan kegagalan yang berkaitan untuk mengasimilasi tentera baru. [4] [27] Yang ke-369 juga bertempur dalam pertempuran terkenal seperti Belleau Wood dan Chateau-Thierry. [28]

Rejimen ke-369 "Hellfighters Band" diandalkan tidak hanya dalam pertempuran tetapi juga untuk semangat. Jadi pada akhir lawatan mereka, mereka menjadi salah satu kumpulan ketenteraan yang paling terkenal di seluruh Eropah. [29] Mereka mengikuti ke-369 di luar negeri dan dipandang tinggi dan terkenal kerana dapat segera meningkatkan semangat. Semasa berada di luar negeri, Rejimen ke-369 terdiri daripada kurang dari 1% tentera yang dikerahkan tetapi bertanggungjawab untuk lebih dari 20% wilayah dari semua tanah yang diberikan kepada Amerika Syarikat. [10] [ halaman diperlukan ] Semasa perang, kumpulan regimental ke-369 (di bawah arahan James Reese Europe) menjadi terkenal di seluruh Eropah. Ia memperkenalkan muzik yang tidak diketahui sehingga disebut jazz kepada penonton Britain, Perancis dan Eropah yang lain. [30]

Pada akhir perang, yang ke-369 kembali ke New York City, dan pada 17 Februari 1919, mengarak kota. [31] Hari ini menjadi percutian tidak rasmi bagi semua Harlem. Ramai kanak-kanak sekolah hitam diberhentikan dari sekolah sehingga mereka dapat menghadiri perbarisan. [32] Dengan penambahan banyak orang dewasa, terdapat beribu-ribu orang yang berbaris di jalan-jalan untuk melihat Rejimen ke-369: perbarisan bermula di Fifth Avenue di 61st Street, meneruskan jalan setapak melewati barisan pejalan kaki putih, membelok ke barat di 110th Street, dan kemudian menoleh ke Lenox Avenue, dan berjalan ke Harlem, di mana orang-orang New York hitam berkemas di tepi jalan untuk melihatnya. Perbarisan itu menjadi penanda perkhidmatan Afrika Amerika kepada negara, yang sering menjadi rujukan bagi mereka yang berkempen untuk hak-hak sivil. There were multiple parades that took place throughout the nation, many of these parades included all black regiments, including the 370th from Illinois. Then in the 1920s and 1930s, the 369th was a regular presence on Harlem's streets, each year marching through the neighborhood from their armory to catch a train to their annual summer camp, and then back through the neighborhood on their return two weeks later. [33]

Tap dancer and actor Bill Robinson was claimed to have been also the drum major for the regimental band during the homecoming parade on Fifth Avenue upon the 369th's return from overseas. [34] [ sumber yang lebih baik diperlukan ] This has however been questioned as this is not mentioned in either his biography by Jim Haskins or the biography of James Europe. [35]

After the war, the regiment was spread out throughout New York and still maintained some military exercises. In 1924, they were reorganized as the 369th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft) Regiment. They were then deployed to Hawaii [36] and parts of the West Coast. [37]

  • HHB from HHB 369th Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Battalion from 1st Battalion 369th Infantry
  • 2nd Battalion from 2nd Battalion 369th infantry

Inducted into federal service 13 January 1941 at New York City

Regiment was broken up 12 December 1943 as Follows-

  • HHB as 369th Antiaircraft Artillery Group (Colored) (disbanded November 1944)
  • 1st battalion as 369th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (semi mobile) (Colored) (See 369th Sustainment Brigade (United States)).
  • 2nd Battalion as 870th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion (Colored). (see 970th Field Artillery Battalion.)

On 15 May 1942, the 369th Infantry Regiment was re-established as an element of the 93rd Infantry Division (Colored) in the Army of the United States as a result, this iteration of the 369th Infantry does not have any lineal connection with the 15th New York established before World War I and that is still active in the present day. [38] It was deployed overseas and participated in labor and security operations in the Southwest Pacific Area. The 369th, along with the rest of the 93rd Infantry Division, occupied Morotai in Dutch New Guinea from April to June 1945, seeing limited combat. The division redeployed to Zamboanga in the Philippines on 1 July 1945, where it conducted "mop up" patrols until the Japanese surrendered on 15 August. The 369th left the Philippines with the division on 17 January 1946, returning to the United States on 1 February. The unit was deactivated two days later.

In 1933, the 369th Regiment Armory was created to honor the 369th regiment for their service. This armory stands at 142nd and Fifth Avenue, in the heart of Harlem. This armory was constructed starting in the 1920s and was completed in the 1930s. [39] The 369th Regiment Armory was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1994 [40] and was designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1985. [41]

The infantry's polished post-World War I reputation was not completely safe from external criticism, which ultimately surfaced as a result of ongoing racial tension in the United States. In 1940, the Chicago Defender reported that the United States Department of War arranged for the 369th regiment to be renamed the "Colored Infantry." The department announced that there were too many infantry units in the national guard and the 369th regiment would be among those slated to go, the first alleged step toward abolishing the famed unit. Supporters of the regiment swiftly objected to the introduction of racial identity in the title of a unit in the United States army, effectively preserving the regiment's reputation. [42] However, eventually, all African American US Army units were renamed as "Colored," and the 369th served in World War II as the 369th Coast Artillery Regiment (Antiaircraft) (Colored), with its successor being the 369th Infantry Regiment (Colored). [43]

In 2003, the New York State Department of Transportation renamed the Harlem River Drive as the "Harlem Hellfighters Drive." [44] On 29 September 2006 a twelve-foot high monument was unveiled to honor the 369th Regiment. This statue is a replica of a monument that stands in France. The monument is made of black granite and contains the 369th crest and rattlesnake insignia. [45]

Descending units of the 369th Infantry Regiment have continued to serve since World War I. The 369th Infantry Regiment continued to serve up until World War II where they would be reorganized into the 369th Anti-aircraft Artillery Regiment. The newly formed regiment would serve in Hawaii and throughout much of the West Coast. Another 369th Infantry Regiment was raised in 1942 as part of the 93rd Infantry Division (Colored), but is not listed as a New York National Guard unit. [43] At some time postwar, the 369th was re-formed into the present-day 369th Sustainment Brigade. [46] [47]

A silver color metal and enamel device 1 + 1 ⁄ 4 inches (3.2 cm) in height overall consisting of a blue shield charged with a silver rattlesnake coiled and ready to strike.

The rattlesnake is a symbol used on some colonial flags and is associated with the thirteen original colonies. The silver rattlesnake on the blue shield was the distinctive regimental insignia of the 369th Infantry Regiment, ancestor of the unit, and alludes to the service of the organization during World War I.

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 369th Infantry Regiment on 17 April 1923. It was redesignated for the 369th Coast Artillery Regiment on 3 December 1940. It was redesignated for the 369th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion on 7 January 1944. It was redesignated for the 569th Field Artillery Battalion on 14 August 1956. The insignia was redesignated for the 369th Artillery Regiment on 4 April 1962. It was amended to correct the wording of the description on 2 September 1964. It was redesignated for the 569th Transportation Battalion and amended to add a motto on 13 March 1969. The insignia was redesignated for the 369th Transportation Battalion and amended to delete the motto on 14 January 1975. It was redesignated for the 369th Support Battalion and amended to revise the description and symbolism on 2 November 1994. The insignia was redesignated for the 369th Sustainment Brigade and amended to revise the description and symbolism on 20 July 2007.

The 369th Veterans' Association is a group created to honor those who served in the 369th infantry. [52] This veterans group has three distinct goals. According to the Legal Information Institute of the Cornell Law Institute these include,"promoting the principles of friendship and goodwill among its members engaging in social and civic activities that tend to enhance the welfare of its members and inculcate the true principles of good citizenship in its members and memorializing, individually and collectively, the patriotic services of its members in the 369th antiaircraft artillery group and other units in the Armed Forces of the United States." [53]

Fictionalized accounts featuring the Harlem Hellfighters include the 2014 graphic novel The Harlem Hellfighters written by Max Brooks and illustrated by Caanan White. It depicts a fictionalized account of the 369th's tour in Europe during World War I. [5] [54] [55] As of March 2014 [update] a film adaptation of the aforementioned novel is in the works under Sony Pictures and Overbrook Entertainment. [56]

The unit was also included as part of the single-player campaign's prologue "Storm of Steel" in the video game Battlefield 1, set during the first World War. Additionally, the collector's edition of the game included a statue of an African-American soldier from the unit. [57] Most of the earned "PTFO" weapon skins have references to the Harlem Hellfighters on them as well as the special Hellfighter pistol and shotgun being largely gold.


Kandungan

Early life, Cuba: 1853–70 Edit

José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula Street, to Spanish parents, a Valencian father, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a native of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, Maria del Carmen, Maria del Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard. [7]

In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family. [8] In April the same year, after hearing the news of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Martí and other young students expressed their pain—through group mourning—for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in the United States. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza where Mendive financed his studies. [7]

Martí signed up at the Escuela Profesional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la Muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum. [9]

When the Ten Years' War broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Libre newspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation. [10] His sonnet "10 de Octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper. [9]

In March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at an early age likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba. [11]

On October 21, 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of a "reproving" letter, which Martí and Fermín had written to a friend when the friend joined the Spanish army. [12] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government, and his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but these efforts failed. Eventually, Martí fell ill his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to exile him to Spain. [9] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain. [13]

Spain: 1871–74 Edit

In January 1871, Martí embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cádiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. #10. Arriving at the capitol he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cádiz's newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article "Castillo" in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla's La Cuestión Cubana and New York's La República. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid. [14] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba.

Martí's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence. [15] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Martí and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his stay in Madrid, Martí frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle. [14]

On November 27, 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana. [14] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His sentence of six years of jail was pardoned, and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter Dia 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students' execution. [16]

In 1873, Martí's "A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre" was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí's balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected body of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its independence. [17] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba. [16]

In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí. [16]

In June 1874, Martí graduated with a degree in Civil Law and Canon Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico. [18] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continuously for Cuba's independence. [19]

México and Guatemala: 1875–78 Edit

In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the time. One floor above him lived Manuel Antonio Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who became one of Martí's best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Hugo's Mes Fils (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication.

In these writings, he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-Cuban-independence arguments in La Colonia Española, a newspaper for Spanish citizens living in Mexico. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán, during his frequent visits to her Cuban father's house to meet with the Gorostiza group. [20]

On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements opposed to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government, led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz, proclaimed the Plan de Tuxtepec, which instigated a bloody civil war. Martí and Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaborating with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labor Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a series of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico. [20]

In 1877, using his second name and second surname [21] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to arrange to move his family away to Mexico City from Havana. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (Fourth Avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. While there, he was commissioned by the government to write the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Drama)). He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios, about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El Progreso published his article "Los códigos Nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French, English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional [22] ), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the Academia de Niñas de Centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados y Saborío, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married. [23]

In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he resigned signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. He met Afro-Cuban revolutionary Juan Gualberto Gómez, who would be his lifelong partner in the independence struggle and a stalwart defender of his legacy during this same journey. He married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street at this time. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thereafter he immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucionario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 22, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born. [24]

United States and Venezuela: 1880–90 Edit

In 1881, after a brief stay in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela and founded in Caracas the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal incurred the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to return to New York. [25] There, Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, composed of Cuban exiles advocating independence. Here Martí openly supported Cuba's struggle for liberation, and worked as a journalist for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for several Central American journals, [19] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City. [26] The article "El ajusticiamiento de Guiteau," an account of President Garfield's murderer's trial, was published in La Opinion Liberal in 1881, and later selected for inclusion in The Library of America's anthology of American True Crime writing. In addition, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party". [27] He also served as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it". [19]

Tension existed within the Cuban revolutionary committee between Martí and his military compatriots. Martí feared a military dictatorship would be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Dominican-born General Máximo Gómez of having these intentions. [28] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed time and careful planning. Ultimately, Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in 1884. Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right. [19]

United States, Central America and the West Indies: 1891–94 Edit

On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived in New York. After a short time, during which Carmen Zayas Bazán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on August 27. Martí would never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí. [29] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boarding house in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos.

On November 26 he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte, an organization founded by Cuban immigrants in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida, to a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos", which was reprinted in Spanish language newspapers and periodicals across the United States. The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in another Tampa gathering in honor of the medical students killed in Cuba in 1871. In November artist Herman Norman painted a portrait of José Martí. [30]

On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso (Key West), the Cuban community where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. During Martí's Key West years, his secretary was Dolores Castellanos (1870-1948), a Cuban-American woman born in Key West, who also served as president of the Protectoras de la Patria: Club Político de Cubanas, a Cuban women's political club in support of Martí's cause, and for whom Martí wrote a poem titled "A Dolores Castellanos." On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York.

From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa. [31]

In 1893, Martí traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with a growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New York City. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica. [31]

In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published "A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the president of the Mexican Republic, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution. [32]


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Gallipoli Campaign

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Gallipoli Campaign, juga dipanggil Dardanelles Campaign, (February 1915–January 1916), in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey, intended to force the 38-mile- (61-km-) long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople. Plans for such a venture were considered by the British authorities between 1904 and 1911, but military and naval opinion was against it. When war between the Allies and Turkey began early in November 1914, the matter was reexamined and classed as a hazardous, but possible, operation.

On January 2, 1915, in response to an appeal by Grand Duke Nicholas, commanding the Russian armies, the British government agreed to stage a demonstration against Turkey to relieve pressure on the Russians on the Caucasus front. The Dardanelles was selected as the place, a combined naval and military operation being strongly supported by Winston Churchill, who was then the first lord of the Admiralty. On January 28 the Dardanelles committee decided on an attempt to force the straits by naval action alone, using mostly obsolete warships too old for fleet action. On February 16 that decision was modified, as it was agreed that the shores of the Dardanelles would have to be held if the fleet passed through. For that purpose a large military force under Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton was assembled in Egypt, the French authorities also providing a small contingent.

The naval bombardment began on February 19 but was halted by bad weather and not resumed until February 25. Demolition parties of marines landed almost unopposed, but bad weather again intervened. On March 18 the bombardment was continued. However, after three battleships had been sunk and three others damaged, the navy abandoned its attack, concluding that the fleet could not succeed without military help.

Troop transports assembled off the island of Lemnos, and landings began on the Gallipoli Peninsula at two places early on April 25, 1915, at Cape Helles (29th British and Royal Naval divisions) and at ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) beaches. A French brigade landed on the Anatolian coast opposite, at Kum Kale, but was later withdrawn. Small beachheads were secured with difficulty, the troops at ANZAC being held up by Turkish reinforcements under the redoubtable Mustafa Kemal, who later became famous as Atatürk. Large British and Dominion reinforcements followed, yet little progress was made. On August 6 another landing on the west coast, at Suvla Bay, took place after some initial progress the assault was halted.

In May 1915 the first sea lord, Adm. Lord Fisher, had resigned because of differences of opinion over the operation. By September 1915 it was clear that without further large reinforcements there was no hope of decisive results, and the authorities at home decided to recall Hamilton to replace him by Lieut. Gen. Sir Charles Monro. The latter recommended the withdrawal of the military forces and abandonment of the enterprise, advice that was confirmed in November by the secretary of state for war, Lord Kitchener, when he visited the peninsula. That difficult operation was carried out by stages and was successfully completed early on January 9, 1916.

Altogether, the equivalent of some 16 British, Australian, New Zealand, Indian, and French divisions took part in the campaign. British Commonwealth casualties, apart from heavy losses among old naval ships, were 213,980. The campaign was a success only insofar as it attracted large Turkish forces away from the Russians. The plan failed to produce decisive results because of poor military leadership in some cases, faulty tactics including complete lack of surprise, the inexperience of the troops, inadequate equipment, and an acute shortage of shells.

The campaign had serious political and diplomatic repercussions. It gave the impression throughout the world that the Allies were militarily inept. Before the evacuation had been decided, H.H. Asquith’s Liberal administration was superseded by his coalition government. Churchill, the chief protagonist of the venture, resigned from the government and went to command an infantry battalion in France. In the end, the campaign hastened Asquith’s resignation and his replacement as prime minister by David Lloyd George, in December 1916.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Michael Ray, Editor.


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