Roe II DD-418 - Sejarah

Roe II DD-418 - Sejarah


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Roe II DD-418

Roe II (DD-418: dp. 1.620; 1. 348 '; b. 36'1 "; dr. 11'5" (mean); s. 35 k.; Cpl. 192; a. 4 5 ", 8 21 "tt .; cl Sims) Roe kedua (DD-418) ditetapkan 23 April 1938 oleh Charleston Navy Yard, Charleston, SC, Dilancarkan 21 Jun 1939, ditaja oleh Puan Eleanor Roe Hilton, dan ditugaskan 5 Januari 1940 , Letnan Comdr. R. M. Seruggs dalam komando. Setelah jatuh, Roe melakukan latihan di sepanjang timur timur dan di Pasifik. Pada musim bunga tahun 1941, dia kembali ke pantai timur dan, selama musim panas tetap berada di kawasan dasar laut pertengahan Atlantik. Pada musim gugur, dia bergerak ke utara, ke Argentia, untuk mengawal konvoi pedagang antara Newfoundland dan Ieeland. Semasa bertugas ketika Amerika Syarikat memasuki Perang Dunia II, Roe menuju selatan pada Januari 1942, meronda pendekatan ke Bermuda dan Norfolk, dan di pertengahan Februari memasuki pelabuhan New York, di mana dia meneruskan perjalanan konvoi Atlantik Utara. Tiba di Ieeland 3 Mac, dia tinggal hingga tengah hari— di pelabuhan dan melakukan rondaan di pulau itu dan di Selat Denmark. Menjelang akhir bulan Roe kembali ke New York. Pada bulan April, dia mengantar kapal ke Panama, kemudian menghabiskan bulan Mei di perairan New England. Pada bulan Jun, dia menyelesaikan satu lagi larian Atlantik Utara, kali ini ke Britania Raya dan pada bulan Julai dia memeriksa kapal-kapal yang lebih besar dalam operasi latihan pesisir dan Caribbean. Pada pertengahan Ogos, kapal pemusnah itu kembali menunjuk busurnya ke selatan. Hingga Oktober dia beroperasi antara Trinidad dan pelabuhan di Brazil, kemudian kembali ke Norfolk untuk mempersiapkan Operasi "Torch," pendaratan di Afrika Utara. Ditugaskan ke Northern Attack Group, Roe menyaring pengangkutan ke Mehedia, dan kemudian memberikan sokongan tembakan untuk pasukan ketika mereka berusaha untuk mengambil Port Lysutey, Sungai Sebou dan ladang Sale. Dia tiba di luar kawasan serangan pada malam 7-8 November, di hadapan kumpulan utama, dan, dengan radar SGnya, berusaha mencari kapal selam suar, Shad. Tidak berjaya, dia memperbaiki kedudukannya sendiri berbanding dengan jeti dan pantai di kawasan pendaratan, dan kembali ke kekuatan utama untuk membimbingnya ke kawasan pengangkutan. Semasa pendaratan awal pagi, dia bertindak sebagai pemusnah kawalan di pantai Biru dan Kuning, kemudian beralih ke tugas sokongan tembakan. Tidak lama selepas matahari terbit, dia membantu Savannah (CL-42) untuk sementara membungkam api bermusuhan dari Kasba, sebuah kubu lama yang terletak di atas elf yang memerintah mulut Sebou. Melalui hari itu dan hingga ke-15, Roe tetap berada di kawasan itu untuk memberikan tembakan menyokong dan menyaring kapal yang lebih besar. Dia kemudian menoleh ke arah barat, tiba di Hampton Roads pada 26hb. Semasa musim sejuk dan musim bunga berikutnya, 1943, Roe sekali lagi melakukan kerja pengawalan dengan larian kapal tangki ke pelabuhan minyak Teluk dan Caribbean dan membekalkan semula dan konvoi pengukuhan ke Casablanca. Pada 10 Jun, dia berangkat dari New York ke Mediterranean dan serangan keduanya — Operasi "Husky," pencerobohan di Sicily. Tiba di Oran menjelang akhir bulan, dia terus menuju ke Bizerte, dari mana dia mengembara ke utara dengan "Joss "memaksa Lieata pada 8 Julai. Pada tanggal 9, dia mengambil posisinya di kawasan penyokong api di pantai Red, berhampiran Torre de Gaffe. Pada awal 10, dia dan Swanson (DD-443) bergerak menuju Porto Empedoele, sebuah pangkalan kapal motortorpedo Itali yang dijaga oleh sebuah lombong ranjau 24 km sebelah barat Licata, untuk menyiasat pip kecil yang telah didaftarkan di layar radar mereka. Ketika kedua kapal pemusnah itu bersiap untuk melepaskan tembakan di kapal "musuh", Roe berpusing untuk menghindari ladang ranjau dan, pada masa yang sama, jatuh di sebelah timur Swanson. Kepantasannya, bagaimanapun, melebihi Swanson dan, tepat sebelum pukul 0300, Roe memukul Swanson pada sudut tepat di sisi pelabuhan memotong sebahagian busurnya sendiri dan menyebabkan bilik kebakaran Swanson banjir. Kedua-dua kapal mati di perairan. Nasib baik pada jam 0500 kedua-duanya bergerak. Ketika siang meningkat, Luftwaffe berusaha menyelesaikan kapal yang rosak. Pemusnah mempertahankan diri dan dalam proses menembak satu Ju. 88 dengan 13 pusingan jarak dekat api 5-inci yang disatukan influene untuk membuktikan nilai sekering baru dalam pertempuran anti-pesawat. Setelah menampal sementara di Oran, Roe kembali ke New York untuk pembaikan tetap. Pada pertengahan September, dia melanjutkan tugas konvoi transatlantik dan menyelesaikan dua larian ke Afrika Utara sebelum akhir tahun ini. Dengan tahun baru, 1944, Roe dipindahkan ke Pasifik. Berangkat dari New York 26 Januari, dia melintasi Terusan Panama dan melintasi Pasifik untuk melapor ke CTF 76 di Cape Sudest 12 Mac. Dari sana, dan pelabuhan dan pelabuhan New Guinea lainnya, dia mengawal kapal-kapal Angkatan Ke-7 Phib yang mengangkut pasukan Sekutu ke pantai dan melalui pulau-pulau jiran, dan memberikan bantuan tembakan di daerah sasaran. Dari 16 hingga 21 Mac, dia menyokong operasi di Manus. Pada awal April, dia mengangkut anggota Angkatan Darat dari Manus ke Rambutyo, kemudian bersiap untuk pendaratan di Teluk Humboldt, yang disokongnya pada 22 April. Pada pertengahan Mei, dia membantu serangan di daerah Toem-Wadke; kemudian, pada akhir bulan, menayangkan LST ke Biak. Tugas sokongan kebakaran dan pengawal bala bantuan dan bekalan ke Biak berlanjutan hingga bulan Jun. Pada tanggal 29, dia memberikan sokongan untuk semua pasukan Tentera Darat yang bertempur di timur laut Sungai Driniumor. Kemudian, pada bulan Julai, kapal pemusnah itu berpindah ke Noemfoor untuk melakukan pengeboman awal dan memberikan tembakan sokongan pasca darat. Setelah lega pada pertengahan bulan, Roe meninggalkan Admiralties dan menuju ke Majuro, di mana dia bergabung dengan Armada ke-5. Selama 6 minggu berikutnya, dia bertugas sebagai kapal penyelamat pesawat di daerah-daerah di luar Maloelap, Wotje, Mili, dan Jaluit. Tugas rondaan, piket, dan pengawalan kemudian membuatnya tetap diam di antara dan di antara Marshall dan Marianas, terutama yang terakhir, hingga awal Disember ketika dia bergabung dengan TG 94.9 untuk pengeboman Iwo Jima. Menyelesaikan tugas pada 8, pasukan itu kembali ke Saipan , dari mana Roe melakukan dua misi mencari dan menyelamat dan satu lari rahmat, membawa seorang doktor ke konvoi yang menuju Saipan, sebelum melakukan serangan selanjutnya terhadap Iwo Jima pada 24 dan 27. Pada tanggal 24, Roe tenggelam sebuah kapal pukat kecil dan, dengan Case (DD-370), dikirim ke dasar kapal lain — dipercayai kapal pemusnah yang ditukar untuk perkhidmatan pengangkutan cepat. Pada 27hb, dia menghancurkan beberapa kapal kecil dan bangunan yang rosak serta pemasangan kapal anti kapal terbang di dalam dan berhampiran lembangan perahu barat pulau itu. Serangan lain di Kepulauan Voleano dan Bonin pada minggu pertama pada Januari 1945, diikuti oleh ketersediaan di Ulithi dan penyambungan semula rondaan dan kerja pengiring dari Guam. Pada akhir April, dia kembali ke wilayah Voleano-Bonin untuk operasi radet dan pencarian dan penyelamatan semasa serangan udara terhadap pulau-pulau asal Jepun. Pada akhir Mei, dia kembali beroperasi di Marianas dan pada bulan Jun dia menerima pesanan ke pantai barat. Roe tiba di Teluk San Francisco pada 29 Julai, dan sedang menjalani perbaikan halaman ketika perang berakhir, 14 Ogos. Kemudian ditetapkan untuk tidak aktif, Roe dinyahaktifkan 30 Oktober 1945 dan dikeluarkan dari senarai Navy pada 16 November. Dia dijual pada bulan Ogos 1947. Roe (DD-418) memperoleh enam bintang pertempuran semasa Perang Dunia II.


Roe II DD-418 - Sejarah

Makalah (1941-1944) termasuk surat-menyurat, Buku Panduan Sekolah penerbangan Angkatan Laut, memorabilia, dan gambar.

Maklumat biografi / sejarah

Gordon W. Hooper adalah perekrut Tentera Laut A.S. dan bekerja terutamanya di Timur Laut Amerika Syarikat semasa Perang Dunia II.

Skop dan susunan

Koleksi ini mengandungi Buku Panduan Sekolah Penerbangan Angkatan Laut A.S. yang terutama berkaitan dengan pengambilan dan latihan pegawai Tentera Laut dan anggota Tentera Laut dalam bidang aeronautik, penerbangan, perkhidmatan terpilih, penyelamatan nyawa, pekerjaan siswazah, dan kumpulan bekalan. Buku panduan ini juga mengandungi maklumat yang berkaitan dengan banyak kapal dan kapal selam Angkatan Laut A.S. termasuk undang-undang penamaan, pentauliahan, penajaan, dan dedikasi mereka mengenai kewangan Angkatan Laut A.S. dan pemindahan pegawai yang sudah bersara dan simpanan.

Bahan-bahan yang berkaitan dengan kapal-kapal tertentu termasuk catatan mengenai tenggelamnya kapal pukat Jepun dan kapal pemusnah oleh kapal pemusnah USS ROE (DD-418) berhampiran Iwo Jima sejarah ulang tahun kelima (1944) kapal pemusnah USS LANG (DD-399) senarai operasi yang LANG mengambil bahagian dalam Perang Dunia II menu Thanksgiving 1944 untuk LANG yang merangkumi senarai pegawai dan kru jemputan dan menu untuk pentauliahan USS SWEARER (1943) dan pelbagai item fotokopi.

Gambar-gambar kapal pemusnah USS J. FRED TALBOTT (DD-156) dan kapal perang USS TEXAS (BB-35) disertakan.

Maklumat pentadbiran
Sejarah Kustodial

9 September 1993, 1 item Buku Panduan Sekolah Penerbangan Angkatan Laut Perang Dunia II.

25 Mei 1994, 13 item sejarah dan menu kapal USS LANG (DD-399), gambar USS TEXAS dan USS TALBOTT, dan miscellany. Hadiah Puan Helen Hooper, Leviltown, NY.


USS Roe DD-418 (1940-1947)

Minta paket PERCUMA dan dapatkan maklumat dan sumber terbaik mengenai mesothelioma yang dihantar kepada anda semalaman.

Semua Kandungan adalah hak cipta 2021 | Tentang kita

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Tanpa mengetahui sejarah ini, Williams berpendapat, sukar untuk memahami mengapa pandangan pro-kehidupan mempunyai kekuatan tetap dalam politik Amerika, walaupun pendapat umum mengenai isu-isu sosial lain, seperti hak LGBT dan penggunaan kawalan kelahiran, terus berubah menjadi lebih mengizinkan. Pengguguran, katanya, mempunyai sejarah yang berbeza. Penentang awalnya menganggap bahawa adalah tugas mereka, dan tugas pemerintah mereka, untuk melindungi yang belum lahir bersama dengan yang miskin dan yang lemah. Mereka percaya kedudukan mereka menawarkan pemberdayaan wanita, bukan penindasan.

Yang paling penting, sejarah ini menunjukkan bagaimana perbahasan pengguguran telah berlaku, kerana tubuh wanita dan masa depan kanak-kanak telah dijadikan alasan membuktikan retorik bagi ahli politik kiri dan kanan. Hari ini, Demokrat pro-nyawa hampir pupus, dan Republikan yang pro-pilihan secara terbuka jarang berjaya ke pentas nasional seperti perlumbaan presiden tahun ini. Lima puluh tahun yang lalu, ini tidak berlaku. Apa yang berlaku dengan pro-lifer Amerika yang progresif?

Sekiranya penyokong pertama penggabungan pengguguran di Amerika adalah doktor, penentang mereka yang paling lantang adalah rakan sekerja Katolik mereka. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19, hampir semua negeri telah melarang pengguguran, kecuali dalam kes di mana nyawa ibu terancam. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Williams, "Surat kabar di negara ini menganggap bahawa pengguguran adalah aktiviti berbahaya dan tidak bermoral, dan mereka yang melakukan pengguguran adalah penjenayah." Tetapi pada tahun 1930-an, beberapa doktor mula meminta larangan pengguguran yang kurang keras - kebanyakannya "orang Yahudi liberal atau sekular yang percaya bahawa percubaan Katolik menggunakan undang-undang awam untuk menegakkan standard moraliti Gereja sendiri yang melanggar kebebasan peribadi orang," menurut Williams. Pada tahun 1937, Persekutuan Persekutuan Doktor Katolik Nasional mengeluarkan kenyataan yang mengecam penyokong pengguguran ini, yang, menurut mereka, akan "menjadikan pengamal perubatan itu sebagai penggali bangsa." Walaupun beberapa orang Protestan terlibat dalam upaya awal untuk melarang pengguguran jangka waktu awal, pada tahun-tahun awal ini, perlawanan dipimpin oleh umat Katolik.

Beberapa hospital menafsirkan undang-undang pengguguran secara longgar, bergantung pada psikiatri untuk mengesahkan bahawa seorang wanita mungkin berisiko bunuh diri jika dia terpaksa membawa kehamilannya. Tetapi bahkan beberapa doktor yang melakukan prosedur ini dan menganjurkan liberalisasi undang-undang pengguguran — seperti Alan Guttmacher, pakar sakit puan New York yang mengetuai Planned Parenthood pada tahun 1960-an dan merupakan nama salah satu organisasi advokasi pilihan yang paling terkenal hari ini —Menghindarkan sokongan penuh dari prosedur ini, dengan harapan kawalan kelahiran dapat menghilangkan keperluannya. "Saya tidak suka membunuh," kata Guttmacher, tetapi dia percaya pengguguran dibenarkan sekiranya ia menyelamatkan nyawa seorang ibu.

Sementara itu, segelintir mahkamah mengambil bahagian dalam perbahasan yang berbeza: adakah pengguguran adalah pelanggaran hak asasi manusia. Dari tahun 1939 hingga 1958, lima mahkamah tertinggi negara dan Mahkamah Daerah A.S. di D.C. menjatuhkan keputusan yang mengiktiraf keperibadian janin. Keputusan ini diselaraskan dengan keyakinan umat Katolik yang konservatif secara teologi, yang percaya bahawa kehidupan bermula sejak konsepsi, dan kumpulan ini mungkin mempengaruhi keputusannya. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Guttmacher pada tahun 1963, "Gereja Katolik digerakkan dengan baik dan membentuk sebilangan besar populasi yang mengubah undang-undang mana-mana negeri di Timur Laut AS adalah kemustahilan maya sekurang-kurangnya selama beberapa dekad berikutnya."

Tetapi walaupun umat Katolik ini mungkin konservatif secara teologis, kebanyakan dari mereka bukanlah yang dianggap orang Amerika sebagai politik konservatif, sama ada pada pertengahan abad atau standard kontemporari. "Ada beberapa konservatif politik yang berpartisipasi dalam gerakan awal, tetapi untuk sebagian besar, retorika umum gerakan cenderung didasarkan pada liberalisme seperti yang dilihat melalui lensa Katolik pertengahan abad ke-20," kata Williams. "Ini Kesepakatan Baru, liberalisme Masyarakat Hebat."

Bagi kebanyakan orang Katolik Amerika pertengahan abad, menentang pengguguran mengikuti logik yang sama dengan menyokong program sosial untuk orang miskin dan mewujudkan upah hidup bagi pekerja. Ajaran sosial Katolik, digariskan dalam dokumen seperti ensiklik abad ke-19 Rerum novarum, berpendapat bahawa semua kehidupan harus dipelihara, dari pembuahan hingga kematian, dan bahawa negara mempunyai kewajiban untuk menyokong perjuangan ini. "Mereka mempercayai insurans kesihatan pra-kelahiran yang diperluas, dan insurans yang juga akan memberi manfaat bagi wanita yang melahirkan anak-anak kurang upaya," kata Williams. Mereka menginginkan proses pengangkatan yang diperkemas, bantuan untuk wanita miskin, dan penjagaan anak yang dibiayai secara federal. Walaupun umat Katolik mahu pengguguran dilarang, mereka juga mahu negara ini menyokong wanita dan keluarga miskin.

Progresif lain, bagaimanapun, mengambil pendekatan yang lebih menghitung kemiskinan dan perancang keluarga. Beberapa penyokong Perjanjian Baru percaya kawalan kelahiran dapat digunakan untuk menerapkan kebijakan pemerintah - cara untuk mengurangkan jumlah orang yang miskin dan, akhirnya, menjimatkan wang negara, kata Williams. Kemudian, apabila teknologi menjadikannya lebih mudah untuk mengesan kecacatan janin, penyokong pengguguran biasanya berpendapat bahawa wanita harus mempunyai pilihan untuk menghentikan kehamilan mereka sekiranya doktor melihat penyelewengan. "Ini kepercayaan yang meluas di kalangan pendukung liberalisasi pengguguran ... bahawa masyarakat akan menjadi lebih baik jika bayi dilahirkan dengan cacat parah," kata Williams. Umat ​​Katolik yang menentang pengguguran "melihat ini sebagai perspektif yang sangat berguna," katanya. "Sekiranya anda percaya janin adalah manusia, kehidupan ini akan hancur kerana kualiti hidup orang lain, dan mereka melihat ini sebagai cara berfikir yang sangat berbahaya."

Kadang-kadang, terdapat komponen perkauman gelap untuk retorik pro-pengguguran dan kawalan kelahiran. Pada awal abad ke-20, misalnya, "ada banyak sokongan di beberapa daerah di negara ini untuk penggunaan alat kawalan kelahiran yang eugenik untuk membatasi kemampuan pembiakan wanita miskin, curang seksual, atau cacat mental - terutama wanita Afrika Amerika, Williams menulis dalam bukunya. Beberapa dekad kemudian, ketika perbelanjaan bantuan awam meningkat pada tahun 1960-an, jenis perkauman baru memasuki perbahasan pengguguran. "Banyak orang kulit putih yang menerima stereotaip sebagai wanita tunggal Afrika Amerika yang telah hamil di luar nikah dan" membiakkan anak-anak sebagai tanaman tunai, "seperti yang dikatakan oleh Gabenor Alabama, George Wallace," tulis William. "Wallace akhirnya mengambil sikap tegas terhadap pengguguran, tetapi seperti beberapa rakan konservatifnya," dia adalah penyokong awal pengesahan.

Tahun 60-an menyaksikan gelombang pertama pengesahan pengguguran pengguguran serius di rumah-rumah negara, bermula dengan undang-undang di California. Kumpulan Katolik bergerak menentang usaha ini dengan kejayaan yang bercampur-campur, berulang kali mencapai beberapa halangan besar. Untuk satu perkara, "pergerakan" itu sebenarnya bukan gerakan - penentang pengguguran tidak merujuk kepercayaan mereka sebagai "hak untuk hidup" atau "pro-kehidupan" sehingga Kardinal James McIntyre memulakan Liga Hak untuk Hidup di 1966. Selepas itu, aktivis anti-pengguguran mula lebih teratur. Tetapi kerana umat Katolik telah memimpin usaha pembangkang sejak sekian lama, pengguguran juga menjadi masalah "isu Katolik", yang mengasingkan sekutu Protestan dan pengundi. "Orang Amerika Afrika adalah antara kumpulan demografi yang paling mungkin menentang pengguguran — sebenarnya, penentangan terhadap pengguguran adalah lebih tinggi di kalangan orang Protestan Afrika Amerika daripada di kalangan Katolik kulit putih," tulis Williams. "Tetapi organisasi pro-kehidupan tidak mempunyai banyak kaitan dengan institusi kulit hitam - terutama gereja-gereja kulit hitam - dan mereka terlalu Katolik dan terlalu putih untuk menarik perhatian kebanyakan orang Protestan Amerika Afrika."

Paderi Katolik secara senyap-senyap mulai memulakan organisasi di peringkat negeri, menyalurkan dana awal tetapi melangkah keluar untuk membiarkan pemimpin Protestan mengambil peranan kepemimpinan. Ramai juga yang menekankan penentangan mereka terhadap kawalan kelahiran. "Mereka diterima sebagai pemimpin dalam gerakan mereka yang menganut agama Kristian yang menjadi penyokong kontrasepsi," kata Williams. Dan "mereka berusaha menyediakan sumber daya bagi wanita yang telah hamil di luar nikah - mereka ingin mengurangkan stigma."

Kerugian besar pertama untuk gerakan pro-nyawa berlaku pada tahun 1970. Hawaii, Alaska, dan New York menjadi negara pertama yang menghalalkan pengguguran elektif, tidak lagi memerlukan doktor untuk melakukan prosedur hanya ketika hidup seorang wanita dalam bahaya. Walaupun Hawaii hanya membiarkan penduduk mencari prosedur, New York tidak menetapkan syarat yang sama. "Dalam lima belas bulan pertama setelah New York mengesahkan pengguguran elektif, doktor negara melakukan 200,000 pengguguran," tulis Williams, "sekurang-kurangnya 60 persen daripadanya adalah untuk bukan penduduk."

Banyak pro-lifer bertindak balas dengan rasa ngeri. Untuk waktu yang lama, banyak umat Katolik telah "marah" untuk terlibat dalam perbincangan terperinci mengenai suatu hal yang melanggar rasa kesopanan dan kesopanan mereka, "tulis Williams. Selepas kekalahan perundangan tahun 1970, taktik mereka berubah. Pamflet menjadi lebih grafik. Para penyokong gembira dengan fotografi janin mereka percaya bahawa melihat ciri-ciri bayi seperti janin akan cukup untuk meyakinkan mana-mana orang Amerika mengenai keperibadiannya. Ketika surat khabar cenderung mendukung upaya pengesahan, pro-lifer meningkatkan usaha mereka untuk menyebarkan foto-foto ini. "Dengan menyebarkan gambar-gambar yang mengejutkan ini," tulis Williams, mereka mendakwa "mereka hanya mengatakan yang sebenarnya tentang suatu topik yang tidak disiarkan oleh media berita."

Ketika lebih banyak negara memperdebatkan undang-undang pengguguran liberal pada awal tahun 70-an, gerakan pro-kehidupan akhirnya mendapat momentumnya. Walaupun mereka mengalami sejumlah kekalahan perundangan, ada juga kemenangan — pada tahun 1972, misalnya, penyokong hak hidup berjaya mengatur pengundi di Michigan dan Dakota Utara menentang referendum untuk menghalalkan pengguguran. Mereka yang terlibat dalam gerakan itu lebih beragam daripada sebelumnya, termasuk tentera damai anti-perang, pelajar kolej, dan, terutama sekali, banyak wanita. Sepertinya mungkin, mungkin saja, desakan untuk pengguguran pengguguran dapat dihentikan.

Pada tahun 1973, semuanya berubah. Dalam Roe lwn Wade dan keputusan yang menyertainya, Doe lwn Bolton, Mahkamah Agung A.S. memutuskan bahawa wanita mempunyai hak konstitusional untuk melakukan pengguguran, bertentangan dengan kewajiban negara untuk melindungi kesihatan wanita dan kehidupan manusia yang berpotensi. Tiba-tiba, menjadi pro-kehidupan bermaksud menentang campur tangan negara dalam urusan keluarga, atau paling tidak, campur tangan pengadilan dengan hak-hak warga negara untuk menentukan apa yang seharusnya menjadi undang-undang negara mereka. Ronald Reagan, yang pernah menandatangani salah satu undang-undang liberalisasi pengguguran pertama di negara ini sebagai gabenor California, terus mencatat "tujuan" Pindaan Hidup Manusia, yang akan mengubah Perlembagaan untuk melarang pengguguran. Pemimpin baru mengambil tindakan pro-kehidupan, termasuk Jerry Falwell's Majority Moral, yang "menghubungkan masalah ini dengan pelbagai sebab konservatif politik lain - seperti kempen untuk memulihkan doa di sekolah, menghentikan kemajuan gerakan hak-hak gay, dan malah mempertahankan diri dari penyebaran komunisme antarabangsa melalui pembangunan senjata nuklear, ”tulis Williams. Peguambela mengalihkan fokus mereka ke Mahkamah Agung dan mendapatkan hakim yang akan dibatalkan Roe. Dan dalam beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini, sejumlah besar badan legislatif negara telah menetapkan sekatan tambahan untuk pengguguran, sehingga lebih sukar bagi klinik untuk beroperasi dan bagi wanita untuk mendapatkan prosedur.

Pengguguran juga menjadi perdebatan hampir secara eksklusif mengenai jantina dan seksualiti, dan sebahagian besarnya menjadi perdebatan di kalangan wanita. Selama beberapa dekad, lelaki memimpin usaha advokasi pro dan anti pengguguran wanita dibungkam secara lalai, sebahagian besarnya tidak berpolitik dan perubatan, atau mereka secara aktif dikeluarkan dari gerakan penentangan oleh paderi Katolik. Pada tahun 1970-an, itu berubah. "Perdebatan mengenai pengguguran adalah konflik mengenai jantina, walaupun kebanyakan pro-lifer pada akhir 1960-an dan awal 1970-an lambat mengakui fakta ini," tulis Williams. "Ini bukan konflik lelaki terhadap wanita, seperti yang diyakini oleh beberapa pro-pemilih, itu adalah perdebatan antara dua kumpulan wanita yang berbeza."

Baca Nota Susulan

Di pihak pro-pilihan, penyokong pengguguran percaya bahawa mereka bukan sahaja mempertahankan hak wanita untuk mengawal tubuh mereka— "mereka memberi wanita [miskin] alat yang mereka perlukan untuk membatasi ukuran keluarga mereka secara sukarela." Tetapi beberapa penentang juga dikenal sebagai "feminis pro-kehidupan," mempercayai pengguguran memberi lelaki alasan untuk memperlakukan wanita sebagai objek seksual. Seperti yang ditulis oleh Williams, mereka berpendapat "hak wanita akan dihormati hanya apabila peranan mereka sebagai pemberi kehidupan dan ibu dihormati sepenuhnya."

Semakin banyak penginjil bergabung dengan gerakan ini pada tahun-tahun berikutnya Roe, anggota gerakan pro-kehidupan menjadi lebih fokus pada konservatisme seksual, menyatukan penentangan mereka terhadap pengguguran dengan sikap umum menentang kebiasaan revolusi seksual. Dari tahun Falwell ke depan, pengguguran hanya satu dari sekumpulan isu konservatif, yang mengukuhkan pakatan gerakan pro-kehidupan dengan Parti Republik. Tetapi, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh Williams, Parti Republik tidak pernah menjadi rumah yang selesa bagi cita-cita keadilan sosial bagi mereka yang memulakan gerakan. "Partai Republik telah memberikan sedikit dukungan untuk tujuan pro-kehidupan sebelumnya Roe, "Tulisnya, dan pihak" sedikit memperhatikan pengurangan kemiskinan, peruntukan kesejahteraan sosial, atau penyebab lain yang menarik minat pemimpin pro-kehidupan generasi sebelumnya. " Namun, di dunia Demokratik yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh organisasi seperti Emily's List dan NARAL, menjadi semakin sukar bagi ahli politik di sebelah kiri untuk mengambil kedudukan yang berani secara pro-kehidupan. Seperti yang dikatakan oleh pemimpin Baptis Selatan Russell Moore dalam temu bual tahun lalu, “Saya berharap kita berada dalam situasi di mana kita mempunyai dua parti yang pro-kehidupan. Saya memulakan karier saya bekerja sebagai ahli kongres Demokrat pro-kehidupan, dan dia pro-keluarga, pro-keluarga. Dunia itu tidak wujud lagi. "


Mục lục

Roe đặc đặt lườn tại Xưởng hải quân Charleston vào ngày 23 thn 4 năm 1938. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 21 thn 6 năm 1939 được đỡ đầu bởi bà Eleanor Roe Hilton và nhập biên chế cùng Hải quân Mỹ vào ngày 5 tháng 1 năm 1940 dưới quyền chỉ huy của Hạm trưởng, Thiếu tá Hải quân R. M. Scruggs.

Trước chiến tranh Sửa đổi

Sau khi hoàn tất chạy thử máy, Roe tiến hành huấn luyện thực tập dọc theo vùng bờ Đông Hoa Kỳ và tại Thái Bình Dương. Và mùa Xuân năm 1941, nó quay trở lại vùng bờ Đông và trong mùa Hè đã hoạt động chủ yếu tại khu vực giữa Đại Tây Dương. Sang mùa Thu, nó di chuyển gần lên phía Bắc, Cn Căn cứ Hải quân Argentia, ộ hộ tống các đoàn tàu buôn đi lại giữa Newfoundland và Iceland.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Ti Tây Dương Sửa đổi

Sau khi Nhật Bản bất ngờ Tấn công Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 7 thn 12 năm 1941, Roe hềng về phía Nam vào tháng 1 năm 1942, tuần tra các lối tiếp cận quần đảo Bermuda và đến Norfolk, Virginia. Lagi 2, bukan di New York tiếp nối các chuyến hộ tống vận tải vượt Bắc Đại Tây Dương. Đếi đến ngoài khơi Iceland vào ngày 3 tháng 3, nó tiếp tục ở lại cho đến giữa tháng, tuần tra ngoài khơi hòn đảo và tại eo biển Đan Mạch. Cn cuối tháng, nó quay trở về New York và sang tháng 4, nó hộ tống tàu bè đi Panama, trải qua tháng 5 tại vùng biển New England. Trong tháng 6, nó hoàn tất một chuyến đi khác vượt Đại Tây Dương, l nn này đến tận quần đảo Anh, và trong tháng 7, nó hộ tống các tàu chiến lớn trong cácạááááááááááááá . Vào giữa tháng 8, chiếc tàu khu trục đi về phía Nam, và cho đến tháng 10 đã hoạt động giữa Trinidad và các cảng thuộc Brazil, rồi quay về Norfolk để chuẩn bị cho lếượộộchchchếếch Minh lên Bắc Phi.

Phc phân về lực lượng tấn công phía Bắc, Roe hộ tống các tàu vận chuyển đi đến Mehedia, rồi bắn pháo hỗ trợ cho lực lượng trên bờ khi họ tiến quân để chiếm Port Lyautey trên sông Sebou và sân bay Salé. Nó dẫn trước lực lượng chính đi đến khu vực tấn công trong đêm 7-8 tháng 11, d radng radar SG để cố tìm kiếm chiếc tàu ngầm Rindu làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc. Không tìm thấy chiếc tàu ngầm, nó tự xác định vị trí tương đối của mình nhờ đê chắn sóng và các bãi tại khu vực đổ bộ, rồi quay trở lại cùng lựnníííííí Trong cuộc đổ bộ vào sáng hôm sau, nó hoạt động như tàu kiểm soát vận tải tại các bãi Blue và Yellow, rồi chuyển sang nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ. Trong buổi sông hôm đó, nó cùng tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Savannah đảp đảo các khẩu đội pháo đối phương tại Kasba, m pht pháo đài cổ nằm trên vách núi kiểm soát khu vực cửa sông Sebou.

Pilih dari 15 thn 11, Roe tiếp tục ở lại khu vực tấn công bắn pháo hỗ trợ, và sau đó hộ tống cho các tàu chiến lớn. Nó sau đó lên đường quay trở về nhà, v Hampton đến Hampton Roads, Virginia vào ngày 26 th 11. 11. Trong mùa Đông và mùa Xuân tiếp theo 1943, nó làm nhiệm vụ hộ tống các tàu chở vầàđđđầầ Caribe, cũng như các đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển tiếp liệu và lực lượng tăng viện menyanyikan Casablanca. Daripada 10 thn 6, di New York sang đi menyanyikan lagu Trung Hải cho chiến dịch Đổ bộ lên Sisilia.

Ori đến Oran vào cuối tháng 6, Roe tiếp tục đi đến Bizerte, nơi nó khởi hành đi lên phía Bắc, Lici đến Licata vào ngày 8 thn 7. Sang ngày hôm sau, nó chiếm vị trí bắn pháo hỗ trợ ngoài khơiầaffe Daripada 10 hingga 7, bukan Swanson di chuyển về phía Porto Empedocle, căn cứ tàu phóng lôi Ý được bảo vệ bởi một bãi mìn cách 24 dặm (39 km) ví phía Tây Licata để xác minh một mục tiêu hện hện hnn Trong khi cả hai con tàu sẵn sàng để nổ súng vào tàu "đối phương", Roe cơ động để tránh bãi mìn nên đi vào phía sau của Swanson. Tuy nhiên, tốc độ của nó lại nhanh hơn Swanson, nên ngay trước 03 giờ 00, Roe trm trúng trực diện Swanson bên mạn trái, khiến nó bị mất một phần mũi tàu và khiến Swanson bị ngập nước phòng nồi hơi. Cả hai con tàu bị chết đứng giữa biển, nhưng đến 05 giờ 00 cả hai lại có thể di chuyển được.

Sáng hôm đó, máy bay của Không quân Đức tìm cách kết liễu hai con tàu bị hư hại. RoeSwanson chống trả tự vệ, bắn rơi một máy bay ném bom Junkers Ju 88 bằng pháo 5 inch với kíp nổ tiếp cận, chứng tỏ giá trị của loại kíp nổ kiểu mới trong việc phòng không. Sau khi được sửa chữa tạm thời tại Oran, Roe quay trở về New York để được sửa chữa triệt để. Ữn giữa tháng 9, nó tiếp nối hoạt động hộ tống vận tải vượt Đại Tây Dương, thệc hiện hai chuyến khứ hồi đến Bắc Phi trước cuối năm đó.

Lihat lebih banyak lagi

Sang đầu năm mới 1944, Roe được điều động menyanyikan lagu Tr Thn Thái Bình Dương. Nó rời New York vào ngày 26 tháng 1, băng qua kênh đào Panama, và trình diện để hoạt động cùng Tư lệnh Lực lượng Đặc nhiệm 76 tại mũi Sudest vào ngày 12 tháng các các c nc các c nng tàu đổ bộ thuộc Đệ Thất hạm đội vận chuyển binh lính Đồng Minh tiến dọc theo bờ biển và các đảo lân cận, bắn pháo hỗ trợ xuống các khu vực mục tiêu. Daripada 16 hingga 21 hingga 3, dan seterusnya, Manus. Sang đầu tháng 4, nó vận chuyển binh lính Lục quân từ Manus đến đảo Rambutyo, rồi chuẩn bị cho việc đổ bộ lên vịnh Humboldt, nơi nó hỗ trợ vào ngày 22 tháng náng vàong váo hàng nàng cho binh lính Lục quân đang chiến đấu về phía Tây Bắc sông Driniumor. Ữn giữa tháng 5, nó giúp cho việc tấn công tại khu vực Toem-Wakde rồi vào cuối tháng đã hỗ trợ cho các tàu đổ bộ LST tại Biak. Các nhiệm vụ bắn pháo hỗ trợ và hộ tống vận tải tiếp liệu và tăng cường đến Biak được tiếp tục cho đến tháng 6, rồi trong tháng 7, chiếc tàu khu trục chuyển oornn trợ sau khi diễn ra cuộc đổ bộ tại đây.

Thc thay phiên vào giữa tháng, Roe rời khu vực quần đảo Admiralty để đi đến Majuro, nơi nó gia nhập Đệ Ngũ hạm đội. Trong sáu tuần lễ tiếp theo sau, nó phục vụ như tàu cứu hộ máy bay tại khu vực ngoài khơi Maloelap, Wotje, Mili và Jaluit. Các nhiệm vụ tuần tra, canh phòng và hộ tống tại các khu vực quần đảo Marshall và Mariana, chủ yếu là tại Mariana, kéo dài cho đến đầu tháng 12, khi nó gia nhập Đội đợt Đội đợi nđợậđợđợđặ . Hoàn thành nhiệm vụ vào ngày 8 tháng 12, lực lượng rút lui về Saipan, nơi nó thực hiện hai nhiệm vụ tìm kiếm giải cứu và đưa một bác sĩ sang một đoàn tàu hướng đến Saipan, trước khi lại lên đường bắn phá Iwo Jima vào các ngày 24 và 27 tháng 12. Trong ngày 24 tháng 12, nó đánh chìm một tàu đánh cá, và cùng với Kes đánh chìm một chiếc khác, được tin là một tàu khu trục nhỏ được cải biến thành tàu vận chuyển cao tốc. Sang ngày 27 tháng 12, nó tiêu diệt nhiều tàu nhỏ, phá hủy nhà cửa và các công sự phòng không ở phía Tây hòn đảo.

Một đợt tấn công khác xuống các quần đảo Volcano và Bonin diễn ra vào tuần đầu của tháng 1 năm 1945, tiếp nối bởi một đợt nghỉ ngơi tại Ulithi trước khi tiếp nối hoạt động tuần tra và hộ tống từ Guam. Vào cuối tháng 4, nó quay trở lại khu vực Volcano-Bonin làm nhiệm vụ cột mốc radar và tìm kiếm giải cứu trong các hoạt động không kích xuống các đảo chính quốc Nhật Bản. Đến cuối tháng 5, nó quay trở lại hoạt động tại khu vực Mariana, và sang tháng 6, nó được lệnh quay trở về vùng bờ Tây. Chiếc tàu khu trục về đến vịnh San Francisco vào ngày 29 tháng 7, và đang trải qua một đợt đại tu khi chiến tranh kết thúc vào ngày 14 tháng 8. Roe được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 30 tháng 10 năm 1945 tên nó được cho rút khỏi danh sách Đăng bạ Hải quân vào ngày 16 tháng 11, và nó bị bán để tháo dỡ vào tháng 8 năm 1947.

Roe ặc tặng thưởng sáu Ngôi sao Chiến trận do thành tích phục vụ trong Thế Chiến II.


Roe II DD-418 - History

History of USS HULL (DD-350)

Recommended reading for additional DD-350 history

Down to the Sea: An Epic Story of Naval Disaster and Heroism in World War II

(click picture to view cover)

(click picture to view)

Newsweek Battle Baby compliments of Pat Douhan SOM2 DD-350

All DD-350 pages compliments of Dave Vrooman EM3 '60 - '62

USS Lambung (DD-350), the third of the Farraguts, was the first to be built by a government shipyard. The new destroyer was assigned to the New York Navy Yard for construction. Lambung was named for Captain Isaac Hull, skipper of USS Perlembagaan in her epic battle with the British frigate Guerriere during the War of 1812. She was the fourth United States vessel and the third destroyer to bear the name. Pemusnah Lambung was laid down 7 March 1933 launched 31 January 1934, sponsored by Miss Patricia Louise Platt and commissioned 11 January 1935, with Commander R. S. Wentworth commanding.

Like her two sisters following a shakedown cruise, which took her to the Azores, Portugal, and the British Isles, Lambung was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years. , Lambung was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. She arrived in San Diego via the Panama Canal 19 October 1935. She began her operations with the Pacific Fleet off San Diego, engaging in tactical exercises and training. The new destroyer maneuvered with the Pacific Fleet for more than five years.

During the summer of 1936, she cruised to Alaska. In April 1937 she took part in fleet exercises in Hawaiian waters, ultimately calling Pearl Harbor her homeport when the fleet transferred from the mainland to the advanced anchorage on 12 October 1939. During this increasingly tense pre-war period, Lambung often acted as plane guard to the Navy's Pacific carriers during the perfection of tactics, which would be a central factor in America's victory in World War II. She continued these operations until the outbreak of the war.

The pattern of fleet problems, plane guard duty and patrolling was rudely interrupted 7 December 1941 when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and other Hawaiian Military facilities. Lambung was alongside tender USS Dobbin (AD-3) undergoing repairs, but quickly put her anti-aircraft batteries into operation. Her antiaircraft battery chased off several attackers and assisted in splashing others. As the main object of the raid was battleships, the destroyer suffered no hits and with the end of the attack came extraordinary efforts to raise steam. Scant hours later, she was able to sortie from Pearl to escort USS Perusahaan (CV-6) back to the still-smoking port. During the next critical months of the war, Lambung operated with Admiral Wilson Brown's Task Force 11, screening USS Lexington (CV-2) in important strikes on Japanese bases in the Solomons. Her return to Pearl Harbor 26 March meant 3 months of convoy duty in the submarine threatened waters between Hawaii, and the West Coast of the United States.

Lambung was soon back in the thick of combat however. She sailed, on the first anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, for Suvu, Fiji Islands, to prepare for America's first offensive land thrust, the amphibious assault on Guadalcanal. In company with her sisters, she departed 26 July for the Solomons, and on the day of the landings, 7 August 1942, she fought off enemy air attacks, screened cruisers during shore bombardment, and then took up station as antisubmarine protection for the transports. Next day she helped repel strong enemy bombing attacks, shooting down several of the attackers, and that evening performed the sad duty of sinking transport USS George F. Elliott(AP-13), burning beyond control, the transport's wounds proved too severe for damage control forces. On 9 August, the destroyer sank a small schooner off Guadalcanal, departing that evening for Espiritu Santo. During the difficult weeks on Guadalcanal, Lambung made three voyages with transports and warships in support of the troops, undergoing air attacks 9 and 14 September. For the next two years, Imperial Japanese forces felt the presence of the far-ranging destroyer from the Aleutians to the Southern Pacific. DD-350 supported swift strikes against enemy held islands in the Central Pacific, sometimes as a diversion to the true invasion targets, sometimes as a prelude to full-scale landings.

The ship returned to Pearl Harbor 20 October, and spent the remainder of the year with battleship Colorado (BB-45) in the New Hebrides. She sailed 29 January from Pearl Harbor bound for repairs at San Francisco, arriving 7 February 1943. Upon completion, she moved to the bleak Aleutians, arriving Adak 16 April, and began a series of training maneuvers with battleships and cruisers in the northern waters. As the Navy moved in to retake Attu in May, Lambung continued her patrol duties, and during July and early August, she took part in numerous bombardments of Kiska Island. The ship also took part in the landings on Kiska 15 August, only to find that the Japanese had evacuated their last foothold in the Aleutian chain.

Lambung returned to the Central Pacific after the Kiska operation, arriving Pearl Harbor 26 September 1943. She departed with the fleet 3 days later for strikes on Wake Island, and operated with escort carriers during diversionary strikes designed to mask the Navy's real objective-the Gilberts. Lambung bombarded Makin during this assault 20 November, and with the invasion well underway arrived in convoy at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1943. From there, she returned to Oakland 21 December for amphibious exercises. Next on, the island road to Japan was the Marshall Islands, and Lambung sailed with Task Force 53 from San Diego 13 January 1944. She arrived 31 January off Kwajalein, screening transports in the reserve area, and through February carried out screening and patrol duties off Eniwetok and Majuro. Joining a battleship and carrier group, the ship moved to Mille Atoll 18 March, and took part in a devastating bombardment. Lambung also took part in the bombardment of Wotje 22 March.

The veteran ship next participated in the devastating raid on the great Japanese base at Truk 29-30 April, after which she arrived Majuro 4 May 1944. There she joined Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's battleships for a thrust into the Marianas and the invasion of Saipan. Lambung bombarded Saipan 13 June, covered minesweeping operations with gunfire, and patrolled during the initial landing 15 June. Two days later DD-350 was detached and with other ships steamed out to join Rear Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carriers as the Japanese made preparations to close the Marianas for a decisive naval battle. The great fleets approached each other 19 June for the biggest carrier engagement of the war, and as four large air raids hit the American dispositions fighter cover from the carriers of Lambung's Task Group 58.2 and surface fire decimated the Japanese planes. With an able assist from American submarines, Mitscher succeeded in sinking two Japanese carriers in addition to inflicting fatal losses on the Japanese naval air arm during "The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot". Hull's accurate antiaircraft fire, now considerably more formidable than the .50 cal. machine guns she used at Pearl Harbor just thirty months before, contributed to the "ring of steel" protecting the carriers from the wrath of the Japanese. Mitscher's forces so decimated the ranks of the Imperial Japanese Navy's aircrews that her carriers were never to effectively threaten the Allies again.

During July, the destroyer operated with carrier groups off Guam, and after the assault, 21 July patrolled off the island. In August she returned to Seattle, arriving the 25th, and underwent a yard refit that kept her in the States until 23 October. When she anchored at Pearl Harbor. Lambung was assigned to screen the Third Fleet refueling group which kept the fast carriers in the Central Pacific operational, departing 20 November 1944 to rendezvous with fast carrier striking forces in the Philippine Sea.

Suddenly, Hull's luck had changed. Fueling began 17 December, but increasingly heavy seas forced cancellation later that day. The refueling group became engulfed in the approaching typhoon Cobra next day, with barometers falling to very low levels and winds increasing above 90 knots. At about 1100 18 December Lambung became locked "in irons," in the trough of the mountainous sea and unable to steer. All hands worked feverishly to maintain integrity and keep the ship afloat during the heavy rolls, but finally, in the words of her commander, Lieutenant Commander J. A. Marks: "The ship remained over on her side at an angle of 80 degrees or more as the water flooded into her upper structures. I remained on the port wing of the bridge until the water flooded up to me, then I stepped off into the water as the ship rolled over on her way down."

The typhoon swallowed many of the survivors, but valiant rescue work by Tabberer (DD-418) and other ships of the fleet in the days that followed saved the lives of 7 officers and 55 enlisted men.

Hull received 10 battle stars for World War II service.


William J. Ruhe

Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Sil Captain William J. Ruhe was born in Allentown, Pennsylvania in 1915, the son of Percy and Amy Ruhe. After his schooling in Allentown, he attended the University of Pittsburgh and the U. S. Naval Academy, graduating from the Naval Academy and commissioned an ensign in 1939.

Prior to World War II he served tours on USS Trenton CL-11 and USS Roe DD-418. After the start of the war he transitioned to the submarine service and made three combat patrols on USS S-37 and USS Sea Dragon SS-194 in the waters off Rabaul and Guadalcanal. Serving as executive officer on USS Crevalle SS-291, he made five combat patrols in the China Sea. He completed the war as the commanding officer of USS Sturgeon SS-187. For his wartime service he was awarded three Silver Stars and the Navy Unit Commendation

During the Korean Conflict he commanded the USS Sea Devil SS-400, and in 1959 he was assigned as Commander of Submarine Division 22. He also served as commanding officer of the Naval Reserve Center in his hometown of Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Captain Ruhe came aboard USS Topeka CLG-8 as Commanding Officer in December, 1964 and served in that capacity until October, 1965.

After retirement he was employed by General Dynamics as Corporate Director of Marine Programs.

Captain Ruhe wrote two books about his naval service: War in the Boats: My WWII Submarine Battles, and Slow Dance to Pearl Harbor: A Tin Can Ensign in Prewar America. He also wrote the submariners song "Down,Down Underneath the Ocean".

He passed away at his home in McLean, Virginia on November 4, 2003.
. lebih banyak lagi


60 Pictures of Easy Company

The 506th, which is part of the U.S. Army’s 101st Airborne Division, was established in 1942 at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, and underwent extensive training under strict rules and regulations. The most physically challenging part of their training was the regular running of Currahee, a 1,735 ft (529 m) steep hill.

The hill itself became an unofficial symbol of the entire regiment, which adopted the nickname “Currahee,” and E Company also adopted the Cherokee word as its motto―We stand alone together.

Major Richard Winters Captain Lewis Nixon & Lieutenant Harry Welsh Austria 1945

While the “E” stands for “Easy,” these men were anything but, jumping into Normandy behind enemy lines as part of the 2nd Battalion hours before the invasion.

During Operation Overlord, E Company was part of the airborne invading force which was to secure the rear and provide cover until the Omaha and Utah beachheads were linked.

Among their most famous endeavors was taking and holding the town of Carentan―a crucial strategic point, without which the outcome of the Allied invasion could have taken a different turn.

General Anthony Clement “Nuts” McAuliffe

After the liberation of France, E Company was sent to assist the British forces around Eindhoven, as part of Operation Market Garden.

In late October 1944, they would play a key role in evacuating over 100 British soldiers who were trapped behind German lines near the village of Renkum, close to the town of Arnhem.

Richard Winters in Holland, October 1944

Their next stop was the winter offensive in December 1944 and January 1945 in Belgium. The men from Easy Company took part in the famous Battle of the Bulge, and fought under horrible winter conditions, suffering from a general lack of supplies and ammunition.

Some of their more notable actions from this period involved taking control of the Bois Jacques woods area, and the frustrating attack on the town of Foy, where they dealt with fierce resistance as well as the breakdown of the chain of command.

Easy Company near Foy

However, Foy was eventually captured from the enemy, as the German line in Bastogne fell apart. The figurative gates of Germany were finally open.

As the war was nearing its end, the company was assigned to occupation duties which included guarding Berchtesgaden, better known as Adolf Hitler’s famous Eagle’s Nest. E Company’s contribution to the fight was rewarded with patrol duties in mostly safe areas during the last few months of the war.

Although the 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment is still in service as a training unit of the U.S. Army, the direct lineage of E Company is today inactive.

More photos

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

Popeye Wynn and Hank Zimmerman

Burr Smith was killed by a direct mortar hit along with PENKALA near FOY

Joe Lesniewski Herbert M. Sobel Sr.

Staff Sergeant Myron N. “Mike” Ranney

Robert “Popeye” Wynn

George Luz and ‘Babe’ Heffron

David Webster

David Kenyon Webster

Floyd Talbert, unidentified soldier, Paul Rogers and Forrest Guth

Richard Winters (facing the camera in the back) teaching his soldiers to pack their parachutes. Skip Muck is the man on the right looking at the camera.

Richard Winters and Harry Welsh

William Dukeman Pat Christenson, Denver ‘Bull’ Randleman and Bill Dukeman

Joe Toye and Don Malarkey

Easy Company

Don Malarkey, Joe Toye and Skip Muck

Donald Hoobler

William J. “Wild Bill“ Guarnere

Joe Liebgott Earl McClung

Floyd Talbert Earl ‘One Lung’ McClung Don Malarkey and Floyd Talbert

Captain Richard D. Winters and Captain Lewis Nixon

Skip Muck and Chuck. Easy Company, 2nd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division.

Lynn D. Campton, Easy Company

Easy Company members Joe Liebgott, Eugene Roe and Burton Christenson in Eindhoven, 1944.

101st Airborne Medic Eugene Roe, a member of Easy Company, Band of brothers.

Carwood Lipton

Frank Perconte

Left to right: Forrest Guth, Floyd Talbert, John Eubanks, unknown, Francis Mellet on D-Day

George Luz (1921-1998) Fought in Normandy, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge. Luz is credited with keeping Easy Company morale up with his humor in dire times.

Smith, Muck, Malarkey, Randelmann, Serila, Sheehy, Burgess, Lowery, Grant, Cunningham, bain, Toye at Camp McKall

Easy Company’s David Kenyon Webster, author of “Parachute Infantry – An American Paratrooper’s Memoir of D-Day and the Fall of the Third Reich”

Forrest Guth and Floyd Talbert with locals on D-day morning

Albert Blithe at Camp Toccoa, Georgia, in 1942.

Eugene Roe

Forrest Guth (1921 2009) One of the original 140 men who trained under Sobel at Camp Toccoa. Guth had the ability to repair and modify weapons. For instance he could make an M-1 rifle fully automatic. He became the armorer for his comrades. Guth’s uniform was also unique Guth sewed many extra pockets on it. Guth fought in D-Day, the Netherlands, and the Battle of Bulge.

William ‘Wild Bill’ Guarnere

Colonel Robert Frederick Sink

Don Malarkey, left, with Burr Smith in Austria near war’s end.

Technical Sergeant Donald Malarkey

Major Richard Winters.

Staff Sergeant Darrell Powers

Private First Class Edward Heffron

Richard Winters at the end of training

Gordon Carson and Frank Perconte, Easy Company, 101st Airborne

Captain Herbert M. Sobel

Easy Company during Operation Market Garden

Brigadier General Anthony McAuliffe and his staff gathered inside Bastogne’s Heintz Barracks for Christmas dinner December 25th, 1944. This military barracks served as the Division Main Command Post during the siege of Bastogne, Belgium during World War II.


A. V. Roe and Company (Avro)

A. V. Roe and Company, better known simply as Avro, was one of the most famous of all British aircraft manufacturers, best known for the iconic Avro Lancaster bomber. Originally founded in 1910 by the aircraft pioneer Alliot Verdon Roe, by the time the Lancaster appeared the company was part of the Hawker Siddeley Group, while Roe himself had moved on to form Saunders-Roe Ltd.

A. V. Roe&rsquos interest in aircraft developed before the First World War. His first design was the Roe I Biplane of 1907, which lacked a powerful enough engine to take off without assistance, until one was loaned in 1908. On 8 June 1908 Roe successfully took to the air, although only for a series of short hops.

A. V.&rsquos brother H. V. Roe was himself a successful businessman, and owner of Everard and Company of Brownsfield Mills, Manchester. On 1 January 1910, with financial assistance from H. V., A. V. Roe and Company was founded. The fledgling company was given engineering space at Brownsfield Mills. The first aircraft produced by the new company was the Roe II Triplane, one of a series of early designs that culminated in the Avro 500 biplane of 1912, considered by Roe to be his first truly successful design. A. V. Roe was responsible for a number of &ldquofirsts&rdquo, amongst them the Avro Type F of 1912, the first aircraft to fly with an entirely enclosed cockpit.

All of these early aircraft were produced in very small numbers, but the Avro 504 would change that, with 8,340 built over two decades. A tiny number of these aircraft saw front line service during the First World War with the R.F.C, while the R.N.A.S. used the Avro 504 during its famous raid on the Zeppelin sheds at Freidrichshafen on 21 November 1914. Despite this its main claim to fame, and the reason so many were built, was that the Avro 504 became the standard training aircraft for the young R.A.F.

The interwar years saw the arrival of Roy Chadwick, later famous as the designer of the Lancaster, and the departure of A. V. Roe. In 1928 he sold the company to J. D. Siddeley, and Avro became part of the Armstrong Siddeley Development Company and a sister-firm of Armstrong Whitworth. Siddeley followed suit in 1935 when he sold out to Hawker, and Avro became part of the Hawker Siddeley Aircraft Group.

A large number of new designs were produced between the wars, with most produced in small numbers. The next major success was the Avro 621 Tutor, which replaced the Avro 605 in RAF service. This aircraft was designed in 1929, and remained in service throughout the Second World War.

The next major success for Avro was the Anson, of which over 11,000 were produced. Originally ordered as a coastal reconnaissance aircraft, the Anson was soon replaced in that role by the Lockheed Hudson, but went on to serve as a training aircraft.

The most famous of all Avro aircraft was the Lancaster. This was developed from the much less successful Avro Manchester, a very similar looking but twin engined aircraft, which was led down by the failure of the Rolls-Royce Vulture engine. The Lancaster saw the twin Vultures replaced by four much more reliable Merlin engines, producing one of the finest aircraft of the Second World War.

The design of the Lancaster was used as the basis for the Avro York transport aircraft, the Avro 691 Lancastrian passenger plane and the post-war Avro 694 Lincoln, originally designed for the Pacific war. The Lincoln was further modified to produce the Avro 696 Shackleton, a mainstay of Coastal Command after the war.

A dramatic change in design came with the Avro 698 Vulcan, the first large delta wing aircraft, and Avro&rsquos first military jet aircraft. Over the next decade the company produced a number of civil airlines, but the Avro name disappeared in July 1963 when the company became part of Hawker Siddeley Aviation.

Major Aircraft
Avro 504 trainer
Avro 549 Aldershot bomber, 1922-1926
Avro 555 Bison carrier reconnaissance and spotting aircraft, 1922-29
Avro 621 Tutor trainer, 1929-1936
Avro 636 Sea Tutor trainer, 1932
Avro 652 Anson maritime reconnaissance aircraft, 1933-1968
Avro 679 Manchester heavy bomber, 1939-1942
Avro 683 Lancaster heavy bomber, 1941-1960s
Avro 865 York transport, 1943-c.1960
Avro 694 Lincoln heavy bomber, 1945-55
Avro 696 Shackleton long range maritime reconnaissance, 1949-
Avro 698 Vulcan heavy bomber, 1952-

British Aircraft Manufacturers since 1908, Gunter Endres. A very useful reference book which provides brief histories of seventy five British aircraft manufacturers, ranging from famous names like Avro or Supermarine, to more obscure firms such as Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside. The publication date of 1995 means that this book covers the entire history of all but a handful of the main First and Second World War Companies.

Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on Equity (ROE) is the measure of a company&rsquos annual return ( net income Net Income Net Income is a key line item, not only in the income statement, but in all three core financial statements. While it is arrived at through ) divided by the value of its total shareholders&rsquo equity Stockholders Equity Stockholders Equity (also known as Shareholders Equity) is an account on a company's balance sheet that consists of share capital plus , expressed as a percentage (e.g., 12%). Alternatively, ROE can also be derived by dividing the firm&rsquos dividend growth rate by its earnings retention rate (1 &ndash dividend payout ratio Dividend Payout Ratio Dividend Payout Ratio is the amount of dividends paid to shareholders in relation to the total amount of net income generated by a company. Formula, example ).

Return on Equity is a two-part ratio in its derivation because it brings together the income statement and the balance sheet Balance Sheet The balance sheet is one of the three fundamental financial statements. These statements are key to both financial modeling and accounting , where net income or profit is compared to the shareholders&rsquo equity. The number represents the total return on equity capital and shows the firm&rsquos ability to turn equity investments into profits. To put it another way, it measures the profits made for each dollar from shareholders&rsquo equity.

Return on Equity Formula

The following is the ROE equation:

ROE = Net Income / Shareholders&rsquo Equity

ROE provides a simple metric for evaluating investment returns. By comparing a company&rsquos ROE to the industry&rsquos average, something may be pinpointed about the company&rsquos competitive advantage Competitive Advantage A competitive advantage is an attribute that enables a company to outperform its competitors. It allows a company to achieve superior margins . ROE may also provide insight into how the company management is using financing from equity to grow the business.

A sustainable and increasing ROE over time can mean a company is good at generating shareholder value Shareholder Value Shareholder value is the financial worth owners of a business receive for owning shares in the company. An increase in shareholder value is created because it knows how to reinvest its earnings wisely, so as to increase productivity and profits. In contrast, a declining ROE can mean that management is making poor decisions on reinvesting capital in unproductive assets.

ROE Formula Drivers

While the simple return on equity formula is net income divided by shareholder&rsquos equity, we can break it down further into additional drivers. As you can see in the diagram below, the return on equity formula is also a function of a firm&rsquos return on assets (ROA) Return on Assets & ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) is a type of return on investment (ROI) metric that measures the profitability of a business in relation to its total assets. and the amount of financial leverage Financial Leverage Financial leverage refers to the amount of borrowed money used to purchase an asset with the expectation that the income from the new asset will exceed the cost of borrowing. it has. Both of these concepts will be discussed in more detail below.

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Return on Equity Template

Why is ROE Important?

With net income in the numerator, Return on Equity (ROE) looks at the firm&rsquos bottom line to gauge overall profitability for the firm&rsquos owners and investors. Stockholders are at the bottom of the pecking order of a firm&rsquos capital structure Capital Structure Capital structure refers to the amount of debt and/or equity employed by a firm to fund its operations and finance its assets. A firm's capital structure , and the income returned to them is a useful measure that represents excess profits that remain after paying mandatory obligations and reinvesting in the business.

Why Use the Return on Equity Metric?

Simply put, with ROE, investors can see if they&rsquore getting a good return on their money, while a company can evaluate how efficiently they&rsquore utilizing the firm&rsquos equity. ROE must be compared to the historical ROE of the company and to the industry&rsquos ROE average &ndash it means little if merely looked at in isolation. Other financial ratios Financial Ratios Financial ratios are created with the use of numerical values taken from financial statements to gain meaningful information about a company can be looked at to get a more complete and informed picture of the company for evaluation purposes.

In order to satisfy investors, a company should be able to generate a higher ROE than the return available from a lower risk investment.

Effect of Leverage

A high ROE could mean a company is more successful in generating profit internally. However, it doesn&rsquot fully show the risk associated with that return. A company may rely heavily on debt Long Term Debt Long Term Debt (LTD) is any amount of outstanding debt a company holds that has a maturity of 12 months or longer. It is classified as a non-current liability on the company&rsquos balance sheet. The time to maturity for LTD can range anywhere from 12 months to 30+ years and the types of debt can include bonds, mortgages to generate a higher net profit, thereby boosting the ROE higher.

As an example, if a company has $150,000 in equity and $850,000 in debt, then the total capital employed is $1,000,000. This is the same number of total assets employed. At 5%, it will cost $42,000 to service that debt, annually. If the company manages to increase its profits before interest to a 12% return on capital employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE), a profitability ratio, measures how efficiently a company is using its capital to generate profits. The return on capital , the remaining profit after paying the interest is $78,000, which will increase equity by more than 50%, assuming the profit generated gets reinvested back. As we can see, the effect of debt is to magnify the return on equity.

The image below from CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Course shows how leverage increases equity returns.

Drawbacks of ROE

The return on equity ratio can also be skewed by share buybacks Dividend vs Share Buyback/Repurchase Shareholders invest in publicly traded companies for capital appreciation and income. There are two main ways in which a company returns profits to its shareholders &ndash Cash Dividends and Share Buybacks. The reasons behind the strategic decision on dividend vs share buyback differ from company to company . When management repurchases its shares from the marketplace, this reduces the number of outstanding shares Weighted Average Shares Outstanding Weighted average shares outstanding refers to the number of shares of a company calculated after adjusting for changes in the share capital over a reporting period. The number of weighted average shares outstanding is used in calculating metrics such as Earnings per Share (EPS) on a company's financial statements . Thus, ROE increases as the denominator shrinks.

Another weakness is that some ROE ratios may exclude intangible assets from shareholders&rsquo equity. Intangible assets Intangible Assets According to the IFRS, intangible assets are identifiable, non-monetary assets without physical substance. Like all assets, intangible assets are non-monetary items such as goodwill Goodwill In accounting, goodwill is an intangible asset. The concept of goodwill comes into play when a company looking to acquire another company is , trademarks, copyrights, and patents. This can make calculations misleading and difficult to compare to other firms that have chosen to include intangible assets.

Finally, the ratio includes some variations on its composition, and there may be some disagreements between analysts. For example, the shareholders&rsquo equity can either be the beginning number, ending number, or the average of the two, while Net Income may be substituted for EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA or Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation, Amortization is a company's profits before any of these net deductions are made. EBITDA focuses on the operating decisions of a business because it looks at the business&rsquo profitability from core operations before the impact of capital structure. Formula, examples and EBIT EBIT Guide EBIT stands for Earnings Before Interest and Taxes and is one of the last subtotals in the income statement before net income. EBIT is also sometimes referred to as operating income and is called this because it's found by deducting all operating expenses (production and non-production costs) from sales revenue. , and can be adjusted or not for non-recurring items Non-Recurring Item In accounting, a non-recurring item is an infrequent or abnormal gain or loss that is reported in the company&rsquos financial statements. .

How to Use Return on Equity

Some industries tend to achieve higher ROEs than others, and therefore, ROE is most useful when comparing companies within the same industry. Cyclical industries tend to generate higher ROEs than defensive industries, which is due to the different risk characteristics attributable to them. A riskier firm will have a higher cost of capital and a higher cost of equity.

Furthermore, it is useful to compare a firm&rsquos ROE to its cost of equity Cost of Equity Cost of Equity is the rate of return a shareholder requires for investing in a business. The rate of return required is based on the level of risk associated with the investment . A firm that has earned a return on equity higher than its cost of equity has added value. The stock of a firm with a 20% ROE will generally cost twice as much as one with a 10% ROE (all else being equal).

The DuPont Formula

The DuPont formula DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability breaks down ROE into three key components, all of which are helpful when thinking about a firm&rsquos profitability. ROE is equal to the product of a firm&rsquos net profit margin, asset turnover, and financial leverage:

/> DuPont Analysis In the 1920s, the management at DuPont Corporation developed a model called DuPont Analysis for a detailed assessment of the company&rsquos profitability

If the net profit margin increases over time, then the firm is managing its operating and financial expenses well and the ROE should also increase over time. If the asset turnover increases, the firm is utilizing its assets efficiently, generating more sales per dollar of assets owned. Lastly, if the firm&rsquos financial leverage increases, the firm can deploy the debt capital to magnify returns. DuPont analysis is covered in detail in CFI&rsquos Financial Analysis Fundamentals Course.

Video Explanation of Return on Equity

Below is a video explanation of the various drivers that contribute to a firm&rsquos return on equity. Learn how the formula works in this short tutorial, or check out the full Financial Analysis Course!

Caveats of Return on Equity

While debt financing can be used to boost ROE, it is important to keep in mind that overleveraging has a negative impact in the form of high interest payments and increased risk of default Debt Default A debt default happens when a borrower fails to pay his or her loan at the time it is due. The time a default happens varies, depending on the terms agreed upon by the creditor and the borrower. Some loans default after missing one payment, while others default only after three or more payments are missed. . The market may demand a higher cost of equity, putting pressure on the firm&rsquos valuation Valuation Principles The following are the key valuation principles that business owners who want to create value in their business must know. Business valuation involves the . While debt typically carries a lower cost than equity and offers the benefit of tax shields Tax Shield A Tax Shield is an allowable deduction from taxable income that results in a reduction of taxes owed.Nilai perisai ini bergantung pada kadar cukai efektif bagi syarikat atau individu. Perbelanjaan biasa yang boleh dikurangkan termasuk susutnilai, pelunasan, pembayaran gadai janji dan perbelanjaan faedah, nilai terbanyak dihasilkan apabila syarikat menemui struktur modalnya yang optimum yang mengimbangi risiko dan ganjaran leverage kewangan.

Selanjutnya, penting untuk diingat bahawa ROE adalah nisbah, dan syarikat boleh mengambil tindakan seperti penurunan nilai aset Kemerosotan nilai aset tetap dapat digambarkan sebagai penurunan mendadak dalam nilai saksama akibat kerosakan fizikal, perubahan dalam undang-undang yang ada membuat dan membeli balik saham Pembelian Balik Saham Pembelian semula saham merujuk kepada ketika pengurusan syarikat awam memutuskan untuk membeli balik saham syarikat yang sebelumnya dijual kepada orang ramai. Sebuah syarikat boleh memutuskan untuk membeli semula sahamnya untuk menghantar isyarat pasaran bahawa harga sahamnya cenderung meningkat, untuk menaikkan metrik kewangan dengan jumlah saham yang belum dijelaskan (contohnya, pendapatan sesaham atau EPS), atau hanya kerana ingin meningkatkan pegangan ekuiti sendiri dalam syarikat. untuk meningkatkan ROE secara buatan dengan mengurangkan jumlah pemegang saham & ekuiti rsquo (penyebutnya).

Sumber tambahan

Ini telah menjadi panduan CFI & rsquos untuk mengembalikan ekuiti, formula pulangan ekuiti, dan pro / kontra metrik kewangan ini. CFI adalah pembekal Pemodelan Kewangan & Penganalisis Penilaian (FMVA) & penunjuk perdagangan Menjadi Pemodelan Kewangan & Penganalisis Penilaian (FMVA) & penganalisis Pemodelan dan Penilaian Kewangan CFI (FMVA) & pensijilan reg akan membantu anda mendapatkan keyakinan yang anda perlukan dalam kewangan anda kerjaya. Daftar hari ini! . Untuk terus belajar dan mengembangkan kemahiran penganalisis kewangan anda, lihat sumber CFI berharga tambahan ini:

  • Return on Assets (ROA) Return on Assets & amp ROA Formula ROA Formula. Return on Assets (ROA) adalah jenis metrik pengembalian pelaburan (ROI) yang mengukur keuntungan perniagaan berhubung dengan jumlah asetnya.
  • Panduan EBITDA EBITDA EBITDA atau Pendapatan Sebelum Faedah, Cukai, Susut Nilai, Pelunasan adalah keuntungan syarikat sebelum mana-mana pemotongan bersih ini dibuat. EBITDA memfokuskan pada keputusan operasi perniagaan kerana melihat keuntungan perniagaan & rsquo dari operasi teras sebelum kesan struktur modal. Formula, contoh
  • Penilaian Aliran Tunai Penilaian panduan percuma untuk mempelajari konsep yang paling penting mengikut kadar anda sendiri. Artikel-artikel ini akan mengajar anda amalan terbaik penilaian perniagaan dan bagaimana menilai syarikat menggunakan analisis syarikat yang setanding, pemodelan aliran tunai diskaun (DCF), dan urus niaga terdahulu, seperti yang digunakan dalam perbankan pelaburan, penyelidikan ekuiti,
  • Pemodelan Kewangan Amalan Terbaik Panduan Pemodelan Kewangan Percuma Panduan pemodelan kewangan ini merangkumi petua dan amalan terbaik Excel mengenai andaian, pemacu, ramalan, menghubungkan ketiga-tiga penyataan, analisis DCF, banyak lagi

Latihan Penganalisis Kewangan

Dapatkan latihan kewangan bertaraf dunia dengan program latihan penganalisis kewangan CFI & rsquos dalam talian yang menjadi Certified Financial Modeling & amp Valuation Analyst (FMVA) & reg CFI's Financial Modeling and Valuation Analyst (FMVA) & pensijilan reg akan membantu anda mendapatkan keyakinan yang anda perlukan dalam kerjaya kewangan anda. Daftar hari ini! !

Dapatkan keyakinan yang anda perlukan untuk menaiki tangga dalam jalan kerjaya kewangan korporat berkuasa tinggi.

Pelajari pemodelan dan penilaian kewangan di Excel Jalan mudah, dengan latihan langkah demi langkah.


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