Definisi Sivik- Apa itu Suffrage - Sejarah

Definisi Sivik- Apa itu Suffrage - Sejarah

Suara - hak untuk memilih. Pindaan Kelima Belas kepada Perlembagaan AS menjamin hak pilih bagi semua orang Amerika, tanpa mengira "bangsa, warna kulit, atau keadaan kehambaan sebelumnya." Pindaan Kesembilan Belas dijamin hak pilih untuk semua orang Amerika, tanpa mengira jantina.

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Definisi Sivik- Apa itu Suffrage - Sejarah

Tidak syak lagi pelajar anda sangat sedar bahawa ini adalah tahun pemilihan presiden. Tetapi yang mungkin tidak mereka ketahui ialah 2020 adalah ulang tahun ke-100 pengesahan pindaan ke-19, yang memberikan hak kepada wanita untuk memilih. Bulan Sejarah Wanita adalah masa yang tepat untuk menyelami gerakan hak pilih wanita secara mendalam.

Untuk memperingati pencapaian ini, kami telah mencipta beberapa sumber baru untuk membantu anda mengajar tentang pentingnya mengundi dan berapa banyak warga A.S., termasuk wanita, yang harus memperjuangkan hak mereka untuk memilih.

Suffrage Wanita: Pergerakan dalam Infografis Arah Kanan
Gunakan infografik yang dapat dicetak ini untuk membincangkan bagaimana pertempuran hak pilih wanita diperjuangkan di peringkat negeri dan persekutuan.

Pergerakan dan Tindakan: WebQuest Pergerakan Sufrage Wanita
Dalam WebQuest ini, pelajar belajar mengenai empat taktik sivik yang digunakan oleh gerakan hak pilih wanita yang akhirnya membantu mereka mencapai matlamat mereka.

Penderitaan Wanita dan Perang Dunia I
Perang Dunia I memberi kesan besar kepada pergerakan hak pilih wanita. Sumber utama dalam DBQuest baru yang kuat ini menunjukkan bagaimana hak pilih menggunakan tujuan yang dinyatakan untuk perang - memperjuangkan demokrasi - untuk memperjuangkan hak yang sama ini di rumah.


Kandungan

Perkataan itu hak pilih berasal dari bahasa Latin sufagium, yang pada awalnya bermaksud "tablet suara", "surat suara", "suara", atau "hak untuk memilih". Suffragium pada abad kedua dan kemudian berarti "perlindungan politik, pengaruh, minat, atau sokongan", dan kadang-kadang "pujian popular" atau "tepuk tangan". Menjelang abad keempat kata itu digunakan untuk "syafaat", meminta pelindung pengaruh mereka dengan Yang Mahakuasa. Suffragium digunakan pada abad kelima dan keenam yang berkaitan dengan pengaruh membeli atau keuntungan dari pengangkatan ke jawatan, dan akhirnya kata itu merujuk kepada rasuah itu sendiri. [9] William Smith menolak hubungan dengan sufagium ke sub "di bawah" + pemecah "crash, din, teriakan (sebagai persetujuan)", berkaitan dengan frangere "to break" Eduard Wunder menulis bahawa perkataan itu mungkin berkaitan dengan suffrago, menandakan tulang pergelangan kaki atau tulang buku lali. [10] Pada abad ke-17 Inggeris hak pilih mendapatkan semula makna bahasa Latin yang lebih awal sufagium, "suara" atau "hak untuk memilih". [11]

Edit hak pilih sejagat

Hak pilih universal terdiri daripada hak untuk memilih tanpa sekatan kerana jantina, bangsa, agama, status sosial, tahap pendidikan, atau kekayaan. Ini biasanya tidak memperluas hak untuk memilih kepada semua penduduk di suatu daerah kerana perbezaan masih sering dilakukan berkaitan dengan kewarganegaraan, usia, dan kadang-kadang kemampuan mental atau sabitan jenayah.

Republik Korsika yang berumur pendek (1755-1769) adalah negara pertama yang memberikan hak pilih universal terhad kepada semua warganegara yang berusia lebih dari 25 tahun.

Pada tahun 1819 60-80.000 lelaki dan wanita dari 30 batu di sekitar Manchester berkumpul di St Peter's Square di bandar itu untuk memprotes kekurangan perwakilan mereka di Dewan Parlimen. Sejarawan Robert Poole telah menyebut Pembunuhan Peterloo sebagai salah satu momen yang menentukan pada zamannya. [12] (Eponim Peterloo filem ini memaparkan adegan hak suara wanita yang merancang sumbangan mereka dalam tunjuk perasaan itu.)

Ini diikuti oleh eksperimen lain di Paris Commune tahun 1871 dan republik pulau di Perancisville (1889). Dari tahun 1840 hingga 1852, Kerajaan Hawai'i memberikan hak pilih universal tanpa menyebut tentang seks. Pada tahun 1893, ketika Kerajaan Hawai'i digulingkan dalam kudeta, New Zealand adalah satu-satunya negara bebas yang mempraktikkan hak pilih universal (aktif), dan indeks Kebebasan di Dunia menyenaraikan New Zealand sebagai satu-satunya negara bebas di dunia di 1893. [13] [14]

Suntingan hak pilih wanita

Hak pilih wanita adalah, secara definisi, hak wanita untuk memilih. [15] Ini adalah tujuan para sufagis, yang percaya menggunakan cara hukum, dan juga hak pilih, yang menggunakan tindakan ekstremis. Ekuiti hak pilih jangka pendek disusun ke dalam peruntukan Perlembagaan Negeri New Jersey yang pertama, 1776, yang memperluas Hak untuk Memberi Suara kepada pemilik tanah wanita dan pemilik tanah hitam yang belum berkahwin.

"IV. Bahawa semua penduduk di Tanah Jajahan ini, yang berumur penuh, bernilai lima puluh pound wang pengisytiharan, membersihkan harta tanah yang sama, dan telah tinggal di daerah di mana mereka menuntut suara selama dua belas bulan tepat sebelum pilihan raya, adalah berhak memilih Perwakilan di Dewan dan Majlis dan juga untuk semua pegawai awam lainnya, yang akan dipilih oleh rakyat daerah secara luas. " Jersi baru 1776

Namun, dokumen tersebut tidak menetapkan prosedur Amandemen, dan peruntukan tersebut kemudian diganti pada tahun 1844 dengan penerapan perlembagaan yang berlaku, yang kembali kepada sekatan hak pilih "semua lelaki kulit putih". [16]

Walaupun Kerajaan Hawai'i memberikan hak pilih perempuan pada tahun 1840, hak tersebut dibatalkan pada tahun 1852. Hak mengundi terhad diperoleh oleh beberapa wanita di Sweden, Britain, dan beberapa negara bagian A.S. barat pada tahun 1860-an. Pada tahun 1893, koloni Britain di New Zealand menjadi negara yang memerintah sendiri pertama yang memberikan hak untuk memilih kepada semua wanita dewasa. [17] Pada tahun 1894, wanita Australia Selatan mencapai hak untuk memilih dan memilih Parlimen. Grand Duchy of Finland yang berautonomi di Empayar Rusia adalah negara pertama yang membenarkan semua wanita memilih dan mencalonkan diri ke parlimen.

Propaganda hak pilih anti wanita Edit

Mereka yang menentang gerakan hak pilih wanita membuat organisasi masyarakat untuk menghentikan gerakan politik, dengan argumen utamanya ialah tempat wanita berada di rumah, bukan pemilihan. Kartun politik dan kemarahan masyarakat mengenai hak wanita meningkat ketika penentangan hak pilih bekerja untuk mengatur kumpulan sah yang berkempen menentang hak suara wanita. Persatuan Massachusetts yang Menentang Perluasan Suffrage Lebih Lanjut kepada Wanita adalah salah satu organisasi yang keluar dari tahun 1880-an untuk menjatuhkan usaha pemungutan suara. [18]

Banyak propaganda anti-hak pilih mengolok-olok idea wanita dalam politik. Kartun politik menunjukkan sentimen paling banyak dengan menggambarkan isu hak pilih wanita untuk ditukar dengan kehidupan lelaki. Ada yang mengejek gaya rambut hak pilih yang popular dari rambut yang disisir ke atas. Yang lain menggambarkan gadis-gadis muda berubah menjadi hak pilih setelah kegagalan dalam hidup, seperti tidak berkahwin. [19]

Edit hak pilih yang sama

Suara hak suara kadang-kadang dikelirukan Hak pilih sejagat, walaupun makna yang pertama adalah penghapusan undian yang dinilai, di mana seorang pemilih dapat memiliki sejumlah suara sesuai dengan pendapatan, kekayaan atau status sosial. [20]

Suara banci

Juga dikenali sebagai "hak pilih sensor", sebaliknya hak pilih yang sama, yang bermaksud bahawa suara yang diberikan oleh mereka yang layak untuk mengundi tidak sama, tetapi ditimbang secara berbeza mengikut peringkat orang dalam banci (misalnya, orang yang mempunyai pendidikan tinggi mempunyai lebih banyak suara daripada mereka yang berpendidikan rendah, atau pemegang saham di syarikat yang mempunyai lebih banyak saham mempunyai lebih banyak undian daripada seseorang yang mempunyai lebih sedikit saham). Oleh itu, penderitaan mungkin terhad, tetapi masih boleh bersifat universal.

Edit hak pilih wajib

Sekiranya ada hak pilih wajib, mereka yang layak untuk memilih dikehendaki oleh undang-undang untuk melakukannya. Tiga puluh dua negara pada masa ini mengamalkan hak pilih ini. [21]

Undian perniagaan Edit

Di pemerintah daerah di England dan beberapa bekas jajahannya, perniagaan sebelumnya, dan di beberapa tempat masih memiliki, suara di kawasan kota di mana mereka membayar harga. Ini adalah lanjutan dari francais berdasarkan harta tanah bersejarah dari orang semula jadi kepada orang undang-undang lain.

Di United Kingdom, Perbadanan City of London telah mempertahankan dan bahkan memperluas undi perniagaan, setelah berlakunya Akta City of London (Ward Elections) 2002. Ini telah memberikan kepentingan perniagaan dalam City of London, yang merupakan pusat kewangan dengan sedikit penduduk, peluang untuk menggunakan kekayaan syarikat yang terkumpul untuk pembangunan lobi yang berkesan untuk dasar UK. [22] [23] Ini termasuk menjadikan City Remembrancer, dibiayai oleh City's Cash, sebagai ejen parlimen, dengan tempat duduk khas di Dewan Rakyat yang terletak di galeri bawah menghadap ke kerusi Speaker. [24] Dalam sebuah dokumen yang bocor dari tahun 2012, sebuah laporan resmi mengenai City's Cash mengungkapkan bahawa tujuan acara-acara besar seperti jamuan mewah yang menampilkan ahli politik nasional adalah "untuk meningkatkan penekanan untuk melengkapi perhotelan dengan pertemuan bisnis yang konsisten dengan City peranan syarikat dalam menyokong Bandar sebagai pusat kewangan ". [25]

Isu pertama yang diambil oleh gerakan hak sivil Ireland Utara adalah undi perniagaan, dihapuskan pada tahun 1968 (tahun yang sama di mana ia dihapuskan di Great Britain di luar Kota London). [26]

Di Republik Ireland, pembayar pembayaran komersil [nb 1] dapat memilih dalam daftar suara tempatan, kerana menukar nama kawasan atau jalan, [30] [nb 2] atau menetapkan daerah peningkatan perniagaan. [33] Dari tahun 1930 hingga 1935, 5 daripada 35 anggota Majlis Bandaraya Dublin adalah "anggota komersial". [34]

Di bandar-bandar di kebanyakan negeri Australia, pengundian adalah pilihan untuk perniagaan tetapi wajib bagi individu. [35] [36]

Edit Jantina

Di Athens kuno, yang sering disebut sebagai tempat kelahiran demokrasi, hanya orang dewasa, lelaki lelaki yang memiliki tanah yang dibenarkan untuk memilih. Melalui abad-abad berikutnya, Eropah umumnya diperintah oleh raja, walaupun pelbagai bentuk parlimen muncul pada waktu yang berlainan. Pangkat tinggi yang dinyatakan sebagai abses di Gereja Katolik mengizinkan beberapa wanita hak untuk duduk dan memilih di majelis kebangsaan - seperti halnya dengan pelbagai pemuka tinggi di Jerman Abad Pertengahan, yang tergolong di antara pangeran bebas kerajaan. Pengganti Protestan mereka menikmati hak istimewa yang sama hampir ke zaman moden. [37]

Marie Guyart, seorang biarawati Perancis yang bekerja dengan bangsa-bangsa Pertama di Kanada pada abad ketujuh belas, menulis pada tahun 1654 mengenai praktik hak pilih wanita Iroquois, "Ketua wanita ini adalah wanita yang berdiri di antara orang-orang yang biadab, dan mereka memiliki suara yang menentukan dewan-dewan. Mereka membuat keputusan di sana seperti lelaki, dan merekalah yang bahkan mewakilkan duta besar pertama untuk membincangkan perdamaian. " [38] Orang Iroquois, seperti banyak bangsa Bangsa Pertama di Amerika Utara, mempunyai sistem kekeluargaan matrilineal. Harta dan keturunan dilalui melalui garis wanita. Para penatua wanita memilih ketua lelaki turun temurun dan dapat menggulingkannya.

Kemunculan demokrasi moden pada umumnya dimulai dengan warganegara lelaki memperoleh hak untuk memilih lebih awal dari warganegara wanita, kecuali di Kerajaan Hawai'i, di mana hak pilih universal tanpa menyebutkan usia atau seks diperkenalkan pada tahun 1840, namun, pindaan perlembagaan pada tahun 1852 membatalkan pengundian wanita dan meletakkan kelayakan harta tanah pada pengundian lelaki.

Hak mengundi wanita diperkenalkan ke dalam undang-undang antarabangsa oleh Suruhanjaya Hak Asasi Manusia Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, yang ketua terpilihnya adalah Eleanor Roosevelt. Pada tahun 1948 PBB mengadopsi Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia Artikel 21 menyatakan: "(1) Setiap orang berhak untuk mengambil bagian dalam pemerintahan negaranya, secara langsung atau melalui perwakilan yang dipilih secara bebas. (3) Kehendak rakyat harus menjadi asas kewibawaan pemerintahan, kehendak ini akan dinyatakan dalam pilihan raya berkala dan tulen yang akan diadakan dengan hak suara sejagat dan sama rata dan akan diadakan dengan suara rahsia atau dengan prosedur pengundian bebas yang setara. "

Perhimpunan Agung PBB mengadopsi Konvensi mengenai Hak Politik Wanita, yang mulai berlaku pada tahun 1954, yang menetapkan hak wanita yang sama untuk memilih, memegang jawatan, dan mengakses perkhidmatan awam sebagaimana yang ditetapkan oleh undang-undang nasional. Salah satu bidang kuasa yang paling baru untuk mengakui hak penuh wanita untuk memilih adalah Bhutan pada tahun 2008 (pilihan raya nasional pertama). [39] Baru-baru ini, pada tahun 2011 Raja Abdullah dari Arab Saudi mengizinkan wanita memilih dalam pilihan raya tempatan 2015 (dan sejak itu) dan dilantik ke Majlis Perundingan.

Sunting Agama

Selepas Reformasi, adalah perkara biasa di negara-negara Eropah bagi orang-orang yang tidak setuju dengan agama yang dinafikan untuk dinafikan hak-hak sivil dan politik, sering termasuk hak untuk memilih, memilih untuk memilih atau menduduki parlimen. Di Great Britain dan Ireland, umat Katolik Roma ditolak hak untuk memilih dari tahun 1728 hingga 1793, dan hak untuk duduk di parlimen hingga tahun 1829. Dasar anti-Katolik dibenarkan dengan alasan bahawa kesetiaan umat Katolik kononnya bertentangan dengan Paus. daripada raja negara.

Di England dan Ireland, beberapa Akta secara praktik melepaskan hak orang bukan Anglikan atau bukan Protestan dengan mengenakan sumpah sebelum masuk untuk mengundi atau mencalonkan diri untuk jawatan. UU Uji 1672 dan 1678 melarang orang bukan Anglikan untuk memegang jawatan awam, dan Undang-Undang Disenfranchising 1727 merampas hak suara Katolik di Ireland, yang dipulihkan hanya pada tahun 1788. Orang Yahudi bahkan tidak dapat dinaturalisasi. Satu usaha dilakukan untuk mengubah keadaan ini, tetapi Akta Penaturalisasian Yahudi 1753 menimbulkan reaksi sedemikian sehingga dicabut pada tahun berikutnya. Nonkonformis (Methodist dan Presbyterians) hanya dibenarkan mencalonkan diri untuk memilih British House of Commons bermula pada tahun 1828, Katolik pada tahun 1829 (mengikuti Akta Bantuan Katolik 1829, yang memperpanjang Akta Bantuan Katolik Roma 1791), dan orang Yahudi pada tahun 1858 (dengan Pembebasan Yahudi di England). Benjamin Disraeli hanya dapat memulai karier politiknya pada tahun 1837 kerana dia telah masuk agama Anglikan pada usia 12 tahun.

Di beberapa negeri di A.S. setelah Deklarasi Kemerdekaan, orang Yahudi, Quaker atau Katolik ditolak hak mengundi dan / atau dilarang mencalonkan diri. [40] Perlembagaan Delaware tahun 1776 menyatakan bahawa "Setiap orang yang akan dipilih sebagai anggota dari salah satu rumah, atau dilantik ke pejabat atau tempat amanah apa pun, sebelum mengambil tempat duduknya, atau memasuki saat pelaksanaannya, harus (… ) juga membuat dan melanggan deklarasi berikut, untuk mengetahui: Saya, A. B. mengaku percaya kepada Tuhan Bapa, dan kepada Yesus Kristus, Putra tunggal-Nya, dan dalam Roh Kudus, satu Tuhan, yang diberkati selama-lamanya dan saya mengakui tulisan suci dari Perjanjian Lama dan Baru yang akan diberikan oleh ilham ilahi."[41] Ini dimansuhkan oleh artikel I, bahagian 2 dari Perlembagaan 1792:" Tidak ada ujian keagamaan yang diperlukan sebagai kelayakan ke pejabat mana pun, atau kepercayaan masyarakat, di bawah Negeri ini ". [42] Perlembagaan Negara 1778 dari South Carolina menyatakan bahawa "Tidak ada orang yang berhak duduk di rumah perwakilan melainkan dia beragama Protestan", [43] Perlembagaan Negara Georgia tahun 1777 (art. VI) bahawa "Wakil-wakil itu akan dipilih daripada penduduk di setiap daerah (…) dan mereka akan menjadi Protestan (sic) agama ". [44] Di Maryland, hak dan kelayakan mengundi diperluas kepada orang Yahudi pada tahun 1828. [45]

Di Kanada, beberapa kumpulan agama (Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukhobors) dilucutkan hak oleh Undang-Undang Pilihan Raya perang pada tahun 1917, terutamanya kerana mereka menentang perkhidmatan ketenteraan. Penyisihan hak ini berakhir dengan penutupan Perang Dunia Pertama, tetapi diperbaharui untuk Doukhobors dari tahun 1934 (melalui Akta Pilihan Raya Dominion) hingga tahun 1955. [46]

Perlembagaan pertama Romania moden pada tahun 1866 diperuntukkan dalam artikel 7 bahawa hanya orang Kristian yang dapat menjadi warganegara Romania. Orang Yahudi yang berasal dari Romania diisytiharkan sebagai orang tanpa kewarganegaraan. Pada tahun 1879, di bawah tekanan dari Persidangan Perdamaian Berlin, artikel ini diubah, memberikan hak bukan Kristian untuk menjadi warga negara Romania, tetapi naturalisasi diberikan berdasarkan kasus demi kasus dan harus mendapat persetujuan Parlimen. Permohonan mengambil masa lebih dari sepuluh tahun untuk diproses. Hanya pada tahun 1923, sebuah perlembagaan baru diadopsi, yang artikel 133 memperluas kewarganegaraan Rumania kepada semua penduduk Yahudi dan persamaan hak untuk semua warga Romania. [47]

Kekayaan, kelas cukai, kelas sosial Edit

Sehingga abad kesembilan belas, banyak proto-demokrasi Barat mempunyai kelayakan harta dalam undang-undang pilihan raya mereka, mis. hanya pemilik tanah yang dapat memilih (kerana satu-satunya cukai untuk negara-negara tersebut adalah cukai harta tanah), atau hak mengundi ditimbang sesuai dengan jumlah pajak yang dibayar (seperti dalam francais kelas tiga Prusia). Sebilangan besar negara menghapuskan kelayakan harta tanah untuk pemilihan nasional pada akhir abad kesembilan belas, tetapi mempertahankannya untuk pemilihan pemerintah daerah selama beberapa dekad. Hari ini undang-undang ini sebagian besar telah dihapuskan, walaupun para gelandangan mungkin tidak dapat mendaftar kerana mereka tidak mempunyai alamat biasa.

Di United Kingdom, sehingga House of Lords Act 1999, rakan sebaya yang menjadi anggota House of Lords dikecualikan daripada memilih House of Commons kerana mereka bukan orang biasa. Walaupun tidak ada yang menghalang raja untuk mengundi, dianggap tidak wajar bagi raja untuk melakukannya. [48]

Sepanjang abad ke-19 dan ke-20, banyak negara membuat para pengundi membayar untuk memilih pegawai, sehingga orang-orang yang miskin tidak diberi hak sepenuhnya. Undang-undang ini berlaku di Argentina, Brazil, Kanada, Chile, Kosta Rika, Ekuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, dan Venezuela. [49]

Pengeditan Pengetahuan

Kadang-kadang hak untuk memilih terhad kepada orang-orang yang telah mencapai tahap pendidikan tertentu atau lulus ujian tertentu. Di beberapa negeri AS, "ujian literasi" sebelumnya dilaksanakan untuk mengecualikan mereka yang buta huruf. [50] Pengundi kulit hitam di Selatan sering dianggap oleh pegawai pilihan raya telah gagal dalam ujian walaupun mereka tidak. [51] Di bawah perlembagaan Rhodesia tahun 1961, pemungutan suara pada daftar "A", yang memilih hingga 50 dari 65 anggota parlimen, dibatasi berdasarkan keperluan pendidikan, yang dalam praktiknya menghasilkan suara putih yang luar biasa. Pengundian pada daftar "B" mempunyai hak pilih sejagat, tetapi hanya melantik 15 anggota parlimen. [52] [ penjelasan diperlukan ]

Pada abad ke-20, banyak negara selain AS meletakkan batasan suara pada orang buta huruf, termasuk: Bolivia, Brazil, Kanada, Chile, Ekuador, dan Peru. [49]

Edit Perlumbaan

Berbagai negara, biasanya negara dengan ras dominan dalam populasi yang lebih luas, secara historis menolak suara kepada orang-orang dari kaum tertentu, atau semua kecuali kaum dominan. Ini telah dicapai dalam beberapa cara:

  • Rasmi - undang-undang dan peraturan yang diluluskan secara khusus melepaskan hak kaum tertentu (misalnya, Antebellum Amerika Syarikat, republik Boer, pra-apartheid dan apartheid Afrika Selatan, atau banyak sistem politik kolonial, yang memberikan hak pilih hanya untuk peneroka kulit putih dan beberapa orang bukan istimewa) kumpulan putih). Kanada dan Australia menolak hak pilih untuk penduduk pribumi mereka sehingga tahun 1960-an.
  • Tidak langsung - tidak ada undang-undang yang secara khusus menghalangi siapa pun untuk mengundi kerana kaum mereka, tetapi undang-undang atau peraturan lain digunakan untuk mengecualikan orang dari kaum tertentu. Di negeri-negeri di selatan Amerika Syarikat sebelum berlakunya Akta Hak Sivil 1964 dan Akta Hak Mengundi tahun 1965, cukai pengundian, literasi dan ujian lain digunakan untuk membebaskan orang Afrika-Amerika. [50] [53] Kelayakan harta tanah cenderung untuk melepaskan hak minoriti, terutama jika tanah milik suku tidak diperbolehkan untuk dipertimbangkan. Dalam beberapa kes, ini adalah akibat yang tidak disengajakan (tetapi biasanya dialu-alukan). [rujukan diperlukan] Banyak jajahan Afrika setelah Perang Dunia II hingga dekolonisasi mempunyai kelayakan pendidikan dan harta benda yang praktikal yang hanya memberikan perwakilan yang bermakna hanya untuk minoriti Eropah yang kaya.
  • Tidak rasmi - tidak ada undang-undang yang menghalangi sesiapa untuk mengundi kerana kaum mereka, tetapi orang-orang dari kaum tertentu diintimidasi atau dihalangi daripada menggunakan hak ini. Ini adalah taktik biasa yang digunakan oleh orang-orang kulit putih melawan orang-orang bebas semasa Era Pembinaan Semula dan tempoh berikutnya sebelum kaedah penyisihan hak yang lebih formal menjadi kuat. Diskriminasi tidak rasmi bahkan dapat terwujud dengan cara-cara yang, sementara membiarkan tindakan mengundinya sendiri, secara efektif menghilangkannya dari apa-apa nilai - misalnya, di Israel, minoriti Arab negara itu mempertahankan sistem partai yang terpisah dari sistem majoriti Yahudi. menjelang pilihan raya 2015 negara itu, ambang pilihan raya meningkat dari 2% menjadi 3.25%, sehingga memaksa parti-parti Arab yang dominan - Hadash, Daftar Arab Bersatu, Balad dan Ta'al - sama ada untuk mencalonkan satu senarai atau berisiko kehilangan perwakilan parlimen mereka.

Suntingan Umur

Semua demokrasi moden menghendaki pengundi memenuhi kelayakan umur untuk memilih. Umur mengundi di seluruh dunia tidak konsisten, berbeza antara negara dan bahkan di dalam negara, walaupun julatnya biasanya berbeza antara 16 dan 21 tahun. Pengundian secara tidak sengaja telah diusulkan sebagai bentuk pengundian proksi oleh ibu bapa bagi pihak anak-anak mereka yang berada di bawah umur hak pilih. Gerakan untuk menurunkan usia mengundi adalah salah satu aspek gerakan hak Pemuda.

Suntingan Jenayah

Beberapa negara menyekat hak suara penjenayah yang disabitkan kesalahan. Beberapa negara, dan beberapa negara A.S., juga menolak hak untuk memilih mereka yang disabitkan dengan jenayah berat walaupun mereka dibebaskan dari penjara. Dalam beberapa kes (misalnya di banyak negara AS) penolakan hak untuk memilih secara automatik apabila disabitkan dengan kesalahan dalam kes lain (mis. Perancis dan Jerman) penghapusan suara dapat diselesaikan secara berasingan, dan sering terbatas pada pelaku kejahatan tertentu seperti seperti yang menentang sistem pilihan raya atau rasuah pegawai awam. Di Republik Ireland, tahanan dibenarkan hak memilih, berikutan Hirst v UK (No2) keputusan, yang diberikan pada tahun 2006. Kanada hanya membenarkan tahanan yang menjalani hukuman kurang dari 2 tahun hak untuk memilih, tetapi ini didapati tidak berperlembagaan pada tahun 2002 oleh Mahkamah Agung Kanada di Sauvé lwn Canada (Ketua Pegawai Pemilihan), dan semua tahanan telah dibenarkan memilih sejak pilihan raya persekutuan Kanada 2004.

Suntingan Kediaman

Di bawah sistem pilihan raya tertentu, pemilihan diadakan dalam bidang kuasa subnasional, sehingga mencegah orang dari mengundi yang jika tidak layak atas dasar bahawa mereka tidak tinggal dalam bidang kuasa tersebut, atau kerana mereka tinggal di daerah yang tidak dapat mengambil bahagian. Di Amerika Syarikat, plat nombor di Washington, DC membaca "PAJAK TANPA PERWAKILAN," merujuk kepada daerah yang tidak memegang kerusi di Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat atau Senat, namun penduduk dapat memilih dalam pemilihan presiden berdasarkan Pindaan Dua Puluh Tiga kepada Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat yang diadopsi pada tahun 1961. Penduduk Puerto Rico tidak menikmati.

Kadang-kadang warganegara menjadi tidak layak untuk memilih kerana mereka tidak lagi tinggal di negara mereka yang memiliki kewarganegaraan. Sebagai contoh, warganegara Australia yang telah berada di luar Australia selama lebih dari satu dan kurang dari enam tahun boleh mengecualikan diri daripada syarat untuk memilih dalam pilihan raya Australia sementara mereka tetap berada di luar Australia (pengundian di Australia adalah wajib bagi warganegara pemastautin). [54] Warganegara Denmark yang tinggal secara tetap di luar Denmark kehilangan hak untuk memilih. [55]

Dalam beberapa kes, tempoh kediaman tertentu di kawasan mungkin diperlukan untuk hak memilih di lokasi tersebut. Sebagai contoh, di United Kingdom hingga tahun 2001, setiap 15 Februari daftar pemilih baru berlaku, berdasarkan pendaftaran pada 10 Oktober sebelumnya, dengan kesan mengehadkan pengundian bagi mereka yang tinggal lima hingga tujuh belas bulan lebih awal bergantung pada waktunya pilihan raya.

Suntingan kewarganegaraan

Di kebanyakan negara, hak pilih terhad kepada warganegara dan, dalam banyak kes, penduduk tetap di negara itu. Namun, sebilangan anggota organisasi luar negara seperti Komanwel Bangsa-Bangsa dan Kesatuan Eropah telah memberikan hak suara kepada warganegara semua negara dalam organisasi tersebut. Sehingga pertengahan abad kedua puluh, banyak negara Komanwel memberikan suara kepada semua warga Britain di negara itu, tidak kira sama ada mereka biasanya tinggal di sana. Dalam kebanyakan kes, ini kerana tidak ada perbezaan antara kewarganegaraan Inggeris dan tempatan. Beberapa negara memenuhi syarat ini dengan sekatan yang menghalang warganegara Britain yang tidak berkulit putih seperti India dan Afrika Britain daripada mengundi. Di bawah undang-undang Kesatuan Eropah, warganegara negara-negara Kesatuan Eropah dapat memilih satu sama lain dalam pilihan raya lokal dan Parlimen Eropah dengan dasar yang sama dengan warganegara negara tersebut, tetapi biasanya tidak dalam pemilihan nasional.

Sunting semula jadi

Di beberapa negara, warganegara yang naturalisasi tidak memiliki hak untuk memilih atau menjadi calon, baik secara tetap atau untuk jangka waktu yang ditentukan.

Artikel 5 dari Perlembagaan Belgia 1831 membuat perbezaan antara naturalisasi biasa, dan semula jadi semula jadi. Hanya (bekas) orang asing yang telah diberikan semula jadi semula jadi berhak memilih, menjadi calon pilihan raya parlimen, atau dilantik sebagai menteri. Walau bagaimanapun, rakyat biasa yang wajar dapat memilih pilihan raya perbandaran. [56] Warganegara dan warganegara biasa yang telah memperoleh kewarganegaraan Belgia melalui perkahwinan boleh memilih, tetapi tidak mencalonkan diri sebagai calon pilihan raya parlimen pada tahun 1976. Konsep naturalisasi biasa dan grande ditindas dari Perlembagaan pada tahun 1991. [57]

Di Perancis, Undang-Undang Kewarganegaraan 1889 melarang mereka yang telah memperoleh kewarganegaraan Perancis dengan cara naturalisasi atau perkahwinan dari memilih, dan dari kelayakan dan akses ke beberapa pekerjaan umum. Pada tahun 1938 kelewatan dikurangkan menjadi lima tahun. [58] Contoh-contoh diskriminasi ini, dan juga yang lain terhadap warganegara naturalisasi, secara bertahap dihapuskan pada tahun 1973 (undang-undang 9 Januari 1973) dan 1983.

Di Maghribi, bekas protektorat Perancis, dan di Guinea, bekas jajahan Perancis, warganegara dilarang mengundi selama lima tahun setelah mereka naturalisasi. [59] [60]

Di Negara-negara Bersekutu Mikronesia, seseorang mesti menjadi warganegara Mikronesia sekurang-kurangnya 15 tahun untuk mencalonkan diri sebagai anggota parlimen. [61]

Di Nikaragua, Peru dan Filipina, hanya warganegara yang lahir sahaja yang terpilih untuk dipilih menjadi badan perundangan nasional yang hanya menikmati hak suara. [62] [63] [64]

Di Uruguay, warganegara yang naturalisasi mempunyai hak untuk layak ke parlimen setelah lima tahun. [65]

Di Amerika Syarikat, Presiden dan Wakil Presiden mestilah warganegara yang lahir secara semula jadi. Semua pejabat pemerintah yang lain boleh dipegang oleh mana-mana warganegara, walaupun warganegara hanya boleh mencalonkan diri untuk Kongres setelah tempoh kewarganegaraan diperpanjang (tujuh tahun untuk Dewan Perwakilan dan sembilan untuk Senat).

Fungsi Edit

Di Perancis, undang-undang tahun 1872, yang dibatalkan dengan keputusan 1945, melarang semua anggota tentera memilih. [66]

Di Ireland, polis (Garda Síochána dan, sebelum tahun 1925, Polis Metropolitan Dublin) dilarang mengundi dalam pilihan raya nasional, walaupun bukan pemilihan tempatan, dari tahun 1923 hingga 1960. [67] [68] [69] [70]

Perlembagaan Texas tahun 1876 (artikel VI, bahagian 1) menyatakan bahawa "Kelas orang berikut tidak akan dibenarkan untuk mengundi di Negara ini, dengan alasan: (...) Kelima - Semua tentera, tentera laut dan pelaut, yang bekerja dalam perkhidmatan tentera atau tentera laut Amerika Syarikat. " [71]

Di banyak negara dengan sistem pemerintahan presiden seseorang dilarang untuk menjadi penggubal undang-undang dan pegawai cabang eksekutif pada masa yang sama. Peruntukan sedemikian terdapat, misalnya, dalam Artikel I Perlembagaan A.S.

Pada tahun 1840, Kerajaan Hawai'i mengadopsi hak pilih penuh untuk semua mata pelajaran tanpa menyebut mengenai seks, tetapi perlembagaan tahun 1852 menetapkan pengundian oleh subjek lelaki di atas usia 20. Pada tahun 1902, Akta Komanwel Francais membolehkan wanita memilih secara federal di Australia dan di negeri New South Wales. Perundangan ini juga memungkinkan wanita mencalonkan diri sebagai pemerintah, menjadikan Australia yang pertama di dunia yang membenarkan ini. Pada tahun 1906 Finland menjadi negara berikutnya di dunia yang memberikan hak pilih penuh kepada semua orang dewasa, dengan kata lain hak untuk memilih dan mencalonkan diri. New Zealand memberikan semua orang dewasa hak untuk memilih (pada tahun 1893), tetapi wanita tidak mendapat hak untuk mencalonkan badan legislatif New Zealand hingga tahun 1919.

Suntingan Australia

  • 1855 - Australia Selatan adalah tanah jajahan pertama yang membenarkan semua hak pilih lelaki untuk subjek British (kemudian diperluas ke Orang Asli Australia, yang tidak dianggap manusia pada masa ini [rujukan diperlukan]) berumur 21 tahun ke atas.
  • 1894 - Wanita Australia Selatan layak memilih. [73]
  • 1896 - Tasmania menjadi jajahan terakhir yang membenarkan semua hak pilih lelaki.
  • 1899 - Wanita Australia Barat layak memilih. [73]
  • 1902 - Akta Francais Komanwel membolehkan wanita memilih secara persekutuan dan di negeri New South Wales. Perundangan ini juga membolehkan wanita mencalonkan pemerintahan, menjadikan Australia sebagai negara demokratik pertama di dunia yang membenarkan hal ini.
  • 1921 - Edith Cowan terpilih ke Majlis Perundangan Australia Barat sebagai anggota West Perth, wanita pertama yang dipilih ke mana-mana Parlimen Australia. [74]
  • 1962 - Orang Asli Australia dijamin hak untuk memilih dalam pilihan raya Komanwel, namun, dalam praktiknya hak ini bergantung pada hak suara Orang Asli yang telah diberikan oleh negara masing-masing.
  • 1965 - Queensland adalah negeri terakhir yang memberikan hak suara kepada orang Asli Australia.
  • 1973 - Umur mengundi untuk semua pilihan raya persekutuan diturunkan dari 21 hingga 18. Negeri-negeri telah menurunkan usia pengundian menjadi 18 menjelang 1973, yang pertama adalah Australia Barat pada tahun 1970.

Edit Brazil

  • 1824 - Perlembagaan Brazil pertama membenarkan lelaki bebas berusia lebih dari 25 tahun untuk memilih, walaupun bekas budak, tetapi ada sekatan pendapatan. Wakil-wakil DPR dipilih melalui kolej pilihan raya.
  • 1881 - Undang-undang Saraiva melaksanakan pemungutan suara langsung, tetapi ada batasan literasi. Wanita dan hamba tidak mempunyai hak untuk memilih.
  • 1932 - Pengundian menjadi wajib bagi semua orang dewasa yang berumur lebih dari 21 tahun, tanpa had mengikut jantina atau pendapatan.
  • 1955 - Penerapan pemungutan suara dan syarat pengenalan standard untuk mengurangkan penipuan.
  • 1964 - Rejim ketenteraan ditubuhkan. Sejak itu, presiden dipilih oleh anggota kongres, dipilih dengan suara biasa.
  • 1989 - Menetapkan semula hak pilih sejagat untuk semua warganegara yang berumur lebih dari 16 tahun. Orang yang dianggap buta huruf tidak diwajibkan memilih, dan juga orang yang berumur kurang dari 18 tahun dan lebih tua dari 70 tahun. Orang yang berada di bawah peraturan kewajiban harus memfailkan dokumen untuk membenarkan ketidakhadiran mereka sekiranya mereka tidak memilih.
  • 2000 - Brazil menjadi negara pertama yang menggunakan sepenuhnya surat suara elektronik dalam proses pengundian mereka.

Edit Kanada

  • 1871 - Salah satu tindakan pertama Provinsi British Columbia yang baru melucutkan francais dari First Nations, dan memastikan orang-orang Cina dan Jepun dilarang memilih.
  • 1916 - Manitoba menjadi wilayah pertama di mana wanita mempunyai hak untuk memilih dalam pemilihan wilayah. [75] [76] [rujukan diperlukan]
  • 1917 - Undang-Undang Pilihan Raya Perang memberi hak mengundi kepada wanita dengan saudara yang berjuang di luar negara. Hak mengundi dicabut dari semua "alien musuh" (mereka yang dilahirkan di negara-negara musuh yang tiba di Kanada selepas tahun 1902 lihat juga penjara Kanada Ukraine). [77]Military Voters Act gives the vote to all soldiers, even non-citizens, (with the exception of Indian and Metis veterans) [78] and to women serving as nurses or clerks for the armed forces, but the votes are not for specific candidates but simply for or against the government.
  • 1918 – Women gain full voting rights in federal elections. [79]
  • 1919 – Women gain the right to run for federal office. [79]
  • 1940 – Quebec becomes the last province where women's right to vote is recognized. (see Canadian women during the world wars for more information on Canadian suffrage)
  • 1947 – Racial exclusions against Chinese and Indo-Canadians lifted.
  • 1948 – Racial exclusions against Japanese Canadians lifted. [80]
  • 1955 – Religious exclusions are removed from election laws. [81]
  • 1960 – Right to vote is extended unconditionally to First Nations peoples. (Previously they could vote only by giving up their status as First Nations people.) [82]
  • 1960 – Right to vote in advance is extended to all electors willing to swear they would be absent on election day. [83] [rujukan diperlukan]
  • 1965 – First Nations people granted the right to vote in Alberta provincial elections, starting with the 1967 Alberta general election. [82]
  • 1969 – First Nations people granted the right to vote in Quebec provincial elections, starting with the 1970 Quebec general election. [82]
  • 1970 – Voting age lowered from 21 to 18. [84]
  • 1982 – Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees all adult citizens the right to vote.
  • 1988 – Supreme Court of Canada rules mentally ill patients have the right to vote. [85]
  • 1993 [81] [rujukan diperlukan] – Any elector can vote in advance.
  • 2000 – Legislation is introduced making it easier for people of no fixed address to vote.
  • 2002 – Prisoners given the right to vote in the riding (voting district) where they were convicted. All adult Canadians except the Chief and Deputy Electoral Officers can now vote in Canada. [86]
  • 2019 – The Supreme Court of Canada rules that portions of the Canada Elections Act which prevent citizens who have been living abroad for more than five years from voting by mail are in violation of Section 3 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and thus unconstitutional. [87]

European Union Edit

The European Union has given the right to vote in municipal elections to the citizen of another EU country by the Council Directive 94/80/EG from 19 December 1994. [88]

Edit Finland

  • 1906 – Full suffrage for all citizens adults aged 24 or older at beginning of voting year.
  • 1921 – Suppression of property-based number of votes on municipal level equal vote for everybody.
  • 1944 – Voting age lowered to 21 years.
  • 1969 – Voting age lowered to 20 years.
  • 1972 – Voting age lowered to 18 years.
  • 1981 – Voting and eligibility rights were granted to Nordic Passport Union country citizens without residency condition for municipal elections.
  • 1991 – Voting and eligibility rights were extended to all foreign residents in 1991 with a two-year residency condition for municipal elections.
  • 1995 – Residency requirement abolished for EU residents, in conformity with European legislation (Law 365/95, confirmed by Electoral Law 714/1998).
  • 1996 – Voting age lowered to 18 years at date of voting.
  • 2000 – Section 14, al. 2 of the 2000 Constitution of Finland states that "Every Finnish citizen and every foreigner permanently resident in Finland, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in municipal elections and municipal referendums, as provided by an Act. Provisions on the right to otherwise participate in municipal government are laid down by an Act." [89]

Perancis Edit

  • 11 August 1792 : Introduction of universal suffrage (men only)
  • 1795 : Universal suffrage for men is replaced with indirect Census suffrage
  • 13 December 1799: The French Consulate re-establishes male universal suffrage increased from 246,000 to over 9 million.
  • In 1850 (31 May): The number of people eligible to vote is reduced by 30% by excluding criminals and the homeless. calls a referendum in 1851 (21 December), all men aged 21 and over are allowed to vote. Male universal suffrage is established thereafter.
  • As of 21 April 1944 the franchise is extended to women over 21
  • On 5 July 1974 the minimum age to vote is reduced to 18 years old.

Jerman Edit

    – male citizens (citizens of state in German Confederation), adult and "independent" got voting rights, male voting population - 85%, [90][91]
  • 1849 – male citizens above 25, not disfranchised, not declared legally incapable, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, not a bankrupt nor in bankruptcy proceedings, not convicted of electoral fraud, [92]
  • 1866 – male citizens above 25 (citizen for at least 3 years), not disfranchised, not declared legally incapable, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, enrolled on the electoral roll, inhabitant of the electoral district, [93]
  • 1869 – male citizens above 25 (citizens of state in North German Confederation), not disfranchised, not a bankrupt nor in bankruptcy proceedings, not serving soldier, didn't claim pauper relief a year before the election, inhabitant of the electoral district, not in prison, not declared legally incapable, [94]

Kingdom of Hawai'i Edit

In 1840, the king of Hawai'i issued a constitution that granted universal suffrage without mention of sex or age, but later amendments added restrictions, as the influence of Caucasian settlers increased:

  • 1852 – Women lost the right to vote, and the minimum voting age was specified as 20.
  • 1864 – Voting was restricted on the basis of new qualifications—literacy and either a certain level of income or property ownership.
  • 1887 – Citizens of Hawai'i with Asian descent were disqualified. There was an increase in the minimum value of income or owned property.

Hawai'i lost its independence in 1893.

Hong Kong Edit

Minimum age to vote was reduced from 21 to 18 years in 1995. The Basic Law, the constitution of the territory since 1997, stipulates that all permanent residents (a status conferred by birth or by seven years of residence) have the right to vote. The right of permanent residents who have right of abode in other countries to stand in election is, however, restricted to 12 functional constituencies by the Legislative Council Ordinance of 1997.

The right to vote and the right to stand in elections are not equal. Fewer than 250,000 of the electorate are eligible to run in the 30 functional constituencies, of which 23 are elected by fewer than 80,000 of the electorate, and in the 2008 Legislative Council election 14 members were elected unopposed from these functional constituencies. The size of the electorates of some constituencies is fewer than 200. Only persons who can demonstrate a connection to the sector are eligible to run in a functional constituency.

The Legislative Council (Amendment) Bill 2012, if passed, amends the Legislative Council Ordinance to restrict the right to stand in Legislative Council by-elections in geographical constituencies and the District Council (Second) functional constituency. In addition to those persons who are mentally disabled, bankrupt, or imprisoned, members who resign their seats will not have the right to stand for six months' time from their resignation. The bill is currently passing through the committee stage.

Suntingan Hungary

  • 1848 - The parliament of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 introduced voting rights to men over 20 who met certain criteria as part of the legislative package known as the April Laws.
  • 1874 - The reintroduction of suffrage following the Compromise of 1867 changed some of the criteria, for instance moving from a wealth based threshold of eligibility to a tax based threshold.
  • 1918 - Universal suffrage for those over 24 who can read and write. While this law introduced voting rights for women they could not exercise this right for some years due to the revolution of 1919.

India Edit

Since the very first Indian general election held in 1951–52, universal suffrage for all adult citizens aged 21 or older was established under Article 326 of the Constitution of India. The minimum voting age was reduced to 18 years by the 61st Amendment, effective 28 March 1989.

Edit Ireland

Isle of Man Edit

  • 1866 – The House of Keys Election Act makes the House of Keys an elected body. The vote is given to men over the age of 21 who own property worth at least £8 a year or rent property worth at least £12 a year. Candidates must be male, with real estate of an annual value of £100, or of £50 along with a personal estate producing an annual income of £100.
  • 1881 – The House of Keys Election Act is amended so that the property qualification is reduced to a net annual value of not less than £4. Most significantly, the Act is also amended to extend the franchise to unmarried women and widows over the age of 21 who own property, making the Isle of Man the first place to give some women the vote in a national election. The property qualification for candidates is modified to allow the alternative of personal property producing a year income of £150.
  • 1892 – The franchise is extended to unmarried women and widows over the age of 21 who rent property worth a net annual value of at least £4, as well as to male lodgers. The property qualification for candidates is removed.
  • 1903 – A residency qualification is introduced in addition to the property qualification for voters. The time between elections is reduced from 7 to 5 years.
  • 1919 – Universal adult suffrage based on residency is introduced: all male and female residents over the age of 21 may vote. The entire electorate (with the exception of clergy and holders of office of profit) becomes eligible to stand for election.
  • 1970 – Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 2006 – Voting age lowered to 16. The age of eligibility for candidates remains at 18.

Edit Itali

The Supreme Court states that "the rules derogating from the passive electoral law must be strictly interpreted". [95]

Sunting Jepun

In the 1910s and 1920s, Japanese feminist Doma, founder of the cult 'The Eternal Paradise' was instrumental in giving Japanese women the right to vote, he did this by bringing attention to the plight of the abused women of Japan. Doma's memory has been immortalised in the popular history book "Demon Slayer".

  • 1889 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 15 JPY of tax got voting rights, [96] the voting population were 450,000 (1,1% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1900 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 10 JPY of tax got voting rights, the voting population were 980,000 (2,2% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1919 – Male taxpayers above 25 that paid at least 3 JPY of tax got voting rights, the voting population were 3,070,000 (5,5% of Japan population) [98]
  • 1925 – Male above 25 got voting rights, the voting population were 12,410,000 (20% of Japan population), [97]
  • 1945 – Japan citizens above 20 got voting rights, the voting population were 36,880,000 (48,7% of Japan population), [98]
  • 2015 – Japan citizens above 18 got voting rights, voting population - 83,3% of Japan population. [99]

Sunting New Zealand

  • 1853 – British government passes the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, granting limited self-rule, including a bicameral parliament, to the colony. The vote was limited to male British subjects aged 21 or over who owned or rented sufficient property and were not imprisoned for a serious offence. Communally owned land was excluded from the property qualification, thus disenfranchising most Māori (indigenous) men.
  • 1860 – Franchise extended to holders of miner's licenses who met all voting qualifications except that of property.
  • 1867 – Māori seats established, giving Māori four reserved seats in the lower house. There was no property qualification thus Māori men gained universal suffrage before other New Zealanders. The number of seats did not reflect the size of the Māori population, but Māori men who met the property requirement for general electorates were able to vote in them or in the Māori electorates but not both.
  • 1879 – Property requirement abolished.
  • 1893 – Women won equal voting rights with men, making New Zealand the first nation in the world to allow women to vote.
  • 1969 – Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1974 – Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 1975 – Franchise extended to permanent residents of New Zealand, regardless of whether they have citizenship.
  • 1996 – Number of Māori seats increased to reflect Māori population.
  • 2010 – Prisoners imprisoned for one year or more denied voting rights while serving the sentence.

Norway Edit

  • 1814 – The constitution gave male landowners or officials above the age of 25 full voting rights. [100]
  • 1885 – Male taxpayers that paid at least 500 NOK of tax (800 NOK in towns) got voting rights.
  • 1900 – Universal suffrage for men over 25.
  • 1901 – Women, over 25, paying tax or having common household with a man paying tax, got the right to vote in local elections.
  • 1909 – Women, over 25, paying tax or having common household with a man paying tax, got full voting rights.
  • 1913 – Universal suffrage for all over 25, applying from the election in 1915.
  • 1920 – Voting age lowered to 23. [101]
  • 1946 – Voting age lowered to 21.
  • 1967 – Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1978 – Voting age lowered to 18.

Poland Edit

  • 1918 – In its first days of independence in 1918, after 123 years of partition, voting rights were granted to both men and women. Eight women were elected to the Sejm in 1919.
  • 1952 – Voting age lowered to 18.

Sunting Singapura

Edit Afrika Selatan

  • 1910 – The Union of South Africa is established by the South Africa Act 1909. The House of Assembly is elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The franchise qualifications are the same as those previously existing for elections of the legislatures of the colonies that comprised the Union. In the Transvaal and the Orange Free State the franchise is limited to white men. In Natal the franchise is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications it was theoretically colour-blind but in practise nearly all non-white men were excluded. The traditional "Cape Qualified Franchise" of the Cape Province is limited to men meeting property and literacy qualifications and is colour-blind nonetheless 85% of voters are white. The rights of non-white voters in the Cape Province are protected by an entrenched clause in the South Africa Act requiring a two-thirds vote in a joint sitting of both Houses of Parliament.
  • 1930 – The Women's Enfranchisement Act, 1930 extends the right to vote to all white women over the age of 21.
  • 1931 – The Franchise Laws Amendment Act, 1931 removes the property and literacy qualifications for all white men over the age of 21, but they are retained for non-white voters.
  • 1936 – The Representation of Natives Act, 1936 removes black voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allows them to elect three "Native Representative Members" to the House of Assembly. Four Senators are to be indirectly elected by chiefs and local authorities to represent black South Africans throughout the country. The act is passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting.
  • 1951 – The Separate Representation of Voters Act, 1951 is passed by Parliament by an ordinary majority in separate sittings. It purports to remove coloured voters in the Cape Province from the common voters' roll and instead allow them to elect four "Coloured Representative Members" to the House of Assembly.
  • 1952 – In Harris v Minister of the Interior the Separate Representation of Voters Act is annulled by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court because it was not passed with the necessary two-thirds majority in a joint sitting. Parliament passes the High Court of Parliament Act, 1952, purporting to allow it to reverse this decision, but the Appellate Division annuls it as well.
  • 1956 – By packing the Senate and the Appellate Division, the government passes the South Africa Act Amendment Act, 1956, reversing the annulment of the Separate Representation of Voters Act and giving it the force of law.
  • 1958 – The Electoral Law Amendment Act, 1958 reduces the voting age for white voters from 21 to 18.
  • 1959 – The Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act, 1959 repeals the Representation of Natives Act, removing all representation of black people in Parliament.
  • 1968 – The Separate Representation of Voters Amendment Act, 1968 repeals the Separate Representation of Voters Act, removing all representation of coloured people in Parliament.
  • 1969 – The first election of the Coloured Persons Representative Council (CPRC), which has limited legislative powers, is held. Every Coloured citizen over the age of 21 can vote for its members, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies.
  • 1978 – The voting age for the CPRC is reduced from 21 to 18.
  • 1981 – The first election of the South African Indian Council (SAIC), which has limited legislative powers, is held. Every Indian South African citizen over the age of 18 can vote for its members, in first-past-the-post elections in single-member constituencies.
  • 1984 – The Constitution of 1983 establishes the Tricameral Parliament. Two new Houses of Parliament are created, the House of Representatives to represent coloured citizens and the House of Delegates to represent Indian citizens. Every coloured and Indian citizen over the age of 18 can vote in elections for the relevant house. As with the House of Assembly, the members are elected by first-past-the-post voting in single-member constituencies. The CPRC and SAIC are abolished.
  • 1994 – With the end of apartheid, the Interim Constitution of 1993 abolishes the Tricameral Parliament and all racial discrimination in voting rights. A new National Assembly is created, and every South African citizen over the age of 18 has the right to vote for the assembly. The right to vote is also extended to long term residents. It is estimated the 500 000 foreign nationals voted in the 1994 national and provincial elections. Elections of the assembly are based on party-list proportional representation. The right to vote is enshrined in the Bill of Rights.
  • 1999 – In August and Another v Electoral Commission and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote without a law that explicitly does so.
  • 2003 – The Electoral Laws Amendment Act, 2003 purports to prohibit convicted prisoners from voting.
  • 2004 – In Minister of Home Affairs v NICRO and Others the Constitutional Court rules that prisoners cannot be denied the right to vote, and invalidates the laws that do so.
  • 2009 – In Richter v Minister for Home Affairs and Others the Constitutional Court rules that South African citizens outside the country cannot be denied the right to vote.

Sweden Edit

  • 1809 – New constitution adopted and separation of powers outlined in the Instrument of Government.
  • 1810 – The Riksdag Act, setting out the procedures of functioning of the Riksdag, is introduced.
  • 1862 – Under the municipal laws of 1862, some women were entitled to vote in local elections.
  • 1865 – Parliament of Four Estates abolished and replaced by a bicamerallegislature. The members of the First Chamber were elected indirectly by the county councils and the municipal assemblies in the larger towns and cities.
  • 1909 – All men who had done their military service and who paid tax were granted suffrage.
  • 1918 – Universal, and equal suffrage were introduced for local elections.
  • 1919 – Universal, equal, and women's suffrage granted for general elections.
  • 1921 – First general election with universal, equal, and women's suffrage enacted, although some groups were still unable to vote.
  • 1922 – Requirement that men had to have completed national military service to be able to vote abolished.
  • 1937 – Interns in prisons and institutions granted suffrage.
  • 1945 – Individuals who had gone into bankruptcy or were dependent on welfare granted suffrage.
  • 1970 – Indirectly elected upper chamber dismantled. [102] [relevan?]
  • 1974 – Instrument of Government stopped being enforced. [needs context] .
  • 1989 – The final limitations on suffrage abolished along with the Riksdag's decision to abolish the 'declaration of legal incompetency'. [103]

Sunting Turki

  • 1926 – Turkish civil code (Equality in civil rights)
  • 1930 – Right to vote in local elections
  • 1933 – First woman muhtar (Village head) Gülkız Ürbül in Demircidere village, Aydın Province
  • 1934 – Right to vote in General elections
  • 1935 – First 18 Women MPs in Turkish parliament
  • 1950 – First woman city mayor Müfide İlhan in Mersin

Suntingan Inggeris

From 1265, a few percent of the adult male population in the Kingdom of England (of which Wales was a full and equal member from 1542) were able to vote in parliamentary elections that occurred at irregular intervals to the Parliament of England. [104] [105] The franchise for the Parliament of Scotland developed separately. King Henry VI of England established in 1432 that only owners of property worth at least forty shillings, a significant sum, were entitled to vote in an English county constituency. The franchise was restricted to males by custom rather than statute. [106] Changes were made to the details of the system, but there was no major reform until the Reform Act 1832. [nb 3] A series of Reform Acts and Representation of the People Acts followed. In 1918, all men over 21 and some women over 30 won the right to vote, and in 1928 all women over 21 won the right to vote resulting in universal suffrage. [108]


Because the Girl Scouts was designed for young women, Juliette Gordon Low and other Girl Scout leaders were often asked about their stance on the Suffrage Movement. While Juliette Gordon Low promoted physical activity, leadership training, civic understanding, and career development for her Girl Scouts, she did not openly support the Suffrage Movement. We must carefully read the clues left behind in her writings to find Juliette Gordon Low’s place in the Suffrage Movement.

From the Source



Courtesy of Georgia Historical Society, Gordon Family papers, MS 318. (Images 1-4) Rare Pamphlet Collection. (Gambar 5)

Excerpt from the letter to Edith C. Macy:

“If it is thoroughly understood by everybody that the Girl Scouts are neutral we will be left out of all practical & religious controversies. _ to leave any one in doubt means in this instance, to arouse the suspicion & perhaps the enmity of 800 suffragettes in Savannah…Neither you nor I nor any representative of Girl Scouts has any option about handling a question on suffrage because we have no right to vote at all.”


How is suffragette used in real life?

Suffragette has gone on to describe women who fought for the right to vote in modern history, such as in Saudi Arabia, where women were enfranchised, though only in municipal elections, for the first time in 2015.

More examples of suffragette:

“The change is slow and the wait long. But for Saudi suffragettes, even a vote in local elections is a step to celebrate.”
—Lyse Doucet, BBC, November 2015

“The daughter places a ‘Thank You’ sign at the gravesite of the suffragette, who endured opposition and abuse throughout her life, but eventually helped all women gain the right to vote.”
—Marian Hetherly, WBFO, May, 2017

This content is not meant to be a formal definition of this term. Rather, it is an informal summary that seeks to provide supplemental information and context important to know or keep in mind about the term’s history, meaning, and usage.


Smithsonian Marks 100 Years of Women’s Suffrage

The Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History marks the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment with the “Creating Icons: How We Remember Woman Suffrage” exhibition. On view in the Nicholas F. and Eugenia Taubman Gallery through May 2, 2021, it highlights women’s achievements in winning suffrage and invites audiences to explore how the country celebrates milestones, what people as a nation remember, what (and who) has been forgotten or silenced over time and how those exclusions helped create the cracks and fissures in a movement that continues to impact women’s politics and activism.

“Ratification of the 19th Amendment was a landmark moment, removing sex as a barrier to voting in the first national victory for women’s civil rights,” said Lisa Kathleen Graddy, political history curator at the museum. “But it was a work unfinished, and many women were still excluded from voting booths and from the national memory of the suffrage movement.”

Using a jewel-box approach, the display showcases some 57 artifacts and graphics, interweaving stories of the famous and the forgotten. Materials donated between 1919 and 1939 by the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA now the League of Women Voters) to secure the organization’s place in history as leading the fight for suffrage are at the center of the exhibition. Among the artifacts are Sarah J. Eddy’s 6-foot-tall portrait of Susan B. Anthony and Anthony’s signature red shawl. Sculptor Adelaide Johnson’s busts of Anthony, Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton are also included. The continuing struggle for equality is reflected in two cases, one highlighting the National Women’s Conference of 1977, and the other, the 2017 National Women’s March. A case called “100 Years, 100 Women,” will highlight women serving in Congress in 2020 and includes House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s gavel.

“This exhibition allows us to explore how dynamic and diverse stories come to light when we approach history with deep care and consideration, so that we can then lift up the icons who will inspire the current and next generation of women’s rights activists,” said Anthea M. Hartig, the Elizabeth MacMillan Director of the museum.

Following the passage of the 19th Amendment, NAWSA continued to add to the Smithsonian collection for the next 20 years. This included the writings of Anthony, Ida Husted Harper and Stanton. Contributions of African American, Native American, immigrant and working-class women were not preserved as thoroughly, and the exhibition will examine how some of these women were left out of the story. Visitors will be able to see African American educator Nannie Helen Burroughs’ bible and badge from the Women’s Convention Auxiliary to the National Baptist Convention.

In June 1919, Congress approved the 19th Amendment and sent it out to the states for ratification. When it became part of the Constitution in August of 1920, there were no women serving in the Congress. The first woman elected to the House was Jeannette Rankin, a Montana Republican, in 1916, but when she ran for the Senate in 1918, she lost the election. Today, there are 131 women members in the 116th Congress, which convened Jan. 3, 2019. The exhibition is aiming to represent each of them with a campaign pin or other election paraphernalia.

A torch, with a scroll containing a declaration composed by poet Maya Angelou, which was run from Seneca Falls to the Houston 1977 Women’s Conference, along with buttons, pamphlets and photos, represents women coming together more than 50 years after the 19th Amendment. Forty years later came the 2017 Women’s March. It is illustrated by protest signs and two knitted “pussy hats” worn by participants. An interactive will invite visitors to select icons of women’s history from a list of 36 women based on suggestion from visitors.

The museum’s permanent exhibition, “American Democracy: A Great Leap of Faith,” also tells the story of voting rights and includes a suffrage wagon used by Lucy Stone at speaking engagements and to distribute the Woman's Journal, among other suffrage related objects.

Women’s History Month programs at the museum in March include “Votes for Women,” in which visitors can join a Silent Sentinel Suffragist on her way to the 1917 White House protests, presented every Friday at noon, 1 p.m. and 2 p.m., and a March 27 “Cooking Up History” cooking demonstration based on cookbooks related to the suffrage movement, featuring Graddy and Bonnie Benwick, former deputy editor of the Washington Post’s Food section. The museum is planning to host monthly “Objects Out of Storage” events to further showcase the historic collections.

The exhibition is made possible by the generous support of Robert and Lynne Uhler Ted and Marian Craver Mrs. Kathleen Manatt and Michele A. Manatt Sandy, Cindy, Hayden, Thea, Sabrina and William Sigal the Smithsonian Women’s Committee Diane Spry Straker and Ambassador Nicholas F. Taubman and Mrs. Eugenia L. Taubman.

This exhibition is part of the Smithsonian American Women’s History Initiative, Because of Her Story, one of the country’s most ambitious undertakings to research, collect, document, display and share the complete and compelling story of women in America. Launched in 2018, the initiative seeks to create a more equitable and just American society by creating, educating, disseminating and amplifying the historical record of the accomplishments of American women. More information about the initiative, including exhibitions and public programs, is available online at womenshistory.si.edu. #BecauseOfHerStory

Through incomparable collections, rigorous research and dynamic public outreach, the National Museum of American History explores the infinite richness and complexity of American history. Located on Constitution Avenue N.W., between 12th and 14th streets, the museum is free and open daily from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. (closed Dec. 25). For more information, visit http://americanhistory.si.edu. For Smithsonian information, the public may call (202) 633-1000. On social media, the museum can be found on Facebook at @americanhistory, and on Twitter and Instagram at @amhistorymuseum.

This gold pen was used to sign the congressional joint amendment which enacted the Nineteenth Amendment in 1919


What is Suffrage?

This year we mark the 100th anniversary of the woman suffrage amendment, and as it turns out, a lot of people don’t really know what “suffrage” means because it’s mostly fallen out of common usage. The term has nothing to do with suffering but instead derives from the Latin word “suffragium,” meaning the right or privilege to vote. In the United States, it is commonly associated with the 19th- and early 20th-century voting rights movements.

Petition for an amendment of the Constitution that prohibits the states from disfranchising any of citizens on the basis of sex, 1865. (National Archives Identifier 306684)

”Universal suffrage” was a term generally used to support the right to vote for all adults, regardless of race or gender. After 1870, when African American men secured the Federal right to vote with the 15th Amendment, the term “suffrage” became more commonly associated with the woman suffrage movement (ca. 1848–1920).

During the woman suffrage movement in the United States, “suffragists” were anyone—male or female—who supported extending the right to vote (suffrage) to women. Suffragists ran the gamut from those who simply advocated for women’s enfranchisement to those who actively engaged in efforts to convince state and Federal officials to give women the right to vote. In fact, many states allowed women to vote well before the Federal government did so in 1920.

Delegation of officers of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, 1917. (National Archives Identifier 533767)

There were also women who were called suffragettes. The term “suffragettes” originated in Great Britain to mock women fighting for the right to vote (women in Britain were struggling for the right to vote at the same time as those in the U.S.). Some women in Britain embraced the term as a way of appropriating it from its pejorative use.

This was less true in the United States, where the term suffragette was often seen offensive or derogatory. It was used to describe those who embraced more militant tactics rather than the more passive suffragists who relied on education and petitioning government officials.

Today, however, many use the term with pride to describe “unruly” women like National Women’s Party founders Alice Paul and Lucy Burns—who marched, picketed and protested, were arrested, and went on hunger strikes to fight for their right to vote.

Suffragettes bonfire and posters at the White House, Washington, DC, 1917. (National Archives Identifier 533773)

There were also “anti-suffragists” —those who opposed extending voting rights to women. Anti-suffragists were both men and women who put forth arguments against woman suffrage, such as that most women did not want to vote, or women didn’t have the time or the mental capacity to form political opinions, or that women voting would threaten the family institution or womanhood itself.

Passers-by looking at a window display at the headquarters of National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, ca. 1919. ( National Archives Identifier 7452466)

Ultimately, the pro-woman suffrage forces were successful when Congress passed the woman suffrage amendment on June 4, 1919, extending the vote to women in the U.S. It was ratified on August 18, 1920, becoming the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

The National Archives is celebrating the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment with the exhibit Rightfully Hers: American Women and the Vote , which runs in the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery of the National Archives in Washington, DC, from May 10, 2019, through January 3, 2021.


Penderitaan Wanita

"The new demand of women for political enfranchisement comes at a time when unsatisfactory and degraded social conditions are held responsible for so much wretchedness and when the fate of all the unfortunate, the suffering, and the criminal, is daily forced upon woman's attention in painful and intimate ways. At the same moment, governments all over the world are insisting that it is their function, and theirs alone, so to regulate social and industrial conditions that a desirable citizenship may be secured." Jane Addams, "The Larger Aspects of the Woman's Movement," November, 1914.

Suffrage was a battle for women long before Jane Addams, but Addams helped champion these efforts into the 20th century. While it took decades of struggle to achieve national suffrage, women were able to secure this right at local, county, and state levels across the country. In order to convince those who were against woman suffrage that it was necessary, one of the major arguments made by suffragists was how women could use the vote to help protect the private sphere. With the vote, women could influence politics in effort to protect children, health services, education, and other aspects related to what was considered a woman’s role in society.

In an effort to spread the spirit of civic duty and suffrage, Addams lectured at several colleges, including Mount Holyoke and Rockford College. College educated women were important to building the suffrage movement because their education gave them the respectability and authority to take a stance on topics like public service, education, and health services. College educated women were a voice of reason and respectability within their communities, so they had some power, even without the vote. In Addams’ opinion, it was especially important that working women gain the ballot because they lacked the power of college educated women. Working women deserved to have power over the conditions they lived in, the conditions they worked in, and the future that the country held for their children. Without the vote, working women lacked power in all of these areas.

Suffragists had different approaches to how they were going to get the vote, which lead to conflicts within the suffrage movement. The conflict would also affect Addams’ involvement with the Progressive Party. Some people, including NAWSA officers like Anna Howard Shaw, did not believe that Addams should support the Progressive Party because the suffrage plank was perceived as ingenuine. Within the press, Ida Hasted Harper was critical of the suffrage plank and believed that Addams and other Progressive supporters were “tricked into” supporting Roosevelt. Addams’ involvement with the Progressive Party was also an issue because she was breaking the long-standing tradition of non-partisan activism. As a supporter of the Progressive Party, Addams made campaign speeches, which often focused on the importance of the suffrage plank and the role women could play in the future. The Progressive Party claimed that it was the first party to include the suffrage plank, which the Socialist Party disputed. The Socialist Party had included a suffrage plank for several years and believed that reformers, like Addams, should support their party instead of the Progressive Party. By including suffrage in the Progressive Party platform, there was a national conservation on the topic and women hoped that a Progressive Party win would result in federal woman suffrage.


Civic Definitions- What is Suffrage - History

The Church of Universal Suffrage was founded in Nashville, Tennessee on June 1, 2020 during the COVID-19 Pandemic on the belief that all people are created equal and that they are all endowed by their Creator with the inalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. The right to vote is a sacred extension of these rights, because voting is the primary right we use to protect all other rights. The violation of the right to vote through voter suppression is a sin, as is the violation of any sacred right. These beliefs have been around for centuries, but the idea to codify these beliefs into a religion was inspired by a discussion on Reddit about how Tennessee was one of several States forcing citizens to risk their health and lives in order to exercise their sacred right to vote by denying them the ability to safely vote by mail during the pandemic. Protecting the rights and well-being of our fellow people is essential to the pursuit of our own happiness.

We hold regular, weekly Sunday Service in meditation on the nature of voter suppression and we observe every voting day in the United States to be an official holiday reserved the celebration of our sacred right to vote. Providing assistance and resources to ease the suffering of anyone on the pilgrimage to perform the civic sacrament of voting is a holy ritual that we perform for people in need. Our Church also holds a religious objection against felony disenfranchisement and people having to being photographed in order to exercise their right to vote.

We never ask for or accept any donations, instead we ask that you donate to a local charity of your choice. The Church of Universal Suffrage is capable of existing and expanding simply through passionate members and ministers willing to volunteer.

The Church of Universal Suffrage practices freedom of conscience and belief among our members. Anyone of any other religion may join and all members are free to be members of other religions as well. Our Church also does not support any party or candidate and we do not have an official stance on any political issues or policies. We are a neutral institution and we ask all members to contact us immediately if a Minister ever tries to pressure them to vote a certain way. This is a form of voter suppression and we do not allow it, we only support everyone's freedom to make these decisions for themselves.

While many religions are concerned about the true nature of our Creator and what happens after we die, the Church of Universal Suffrage is solely dedicated to the promotion and protection of the sacred rights and equality all people are endowed with. It is useless for us to speculate about the true nature of our Creator and more sensible to confess our ignorance in a question that evidently exceeds human understanding.

The sacred rights we are all endowed with should never be used to violate the natural rights of others, to do so would be a sin. The right to freedom does not make one free to violate the freedom of others.

Voting should always be taken seriously, we consider the act of voting to be a civic sacrament and your first vote is a rite of passage. Your sacred rights should be celebrated and attempts to violate your rights should be studied and circumvented.

Natural human rights cannot be taken away, they can only be violated or suppressed. Governments do not grant Natural Rights to people, all people are naturally endowed with these rights, governments can only protect or violate these rights. Governments and politicians use voter suppression as a form of self-preservation. If voting didn't change anything, voter suppression wouldn't exist. When the people in power refuse this change, voter suppression occurs.

The Natural Human Rights of all people can be identified through natural human instinct and reason. Countless generations of people were told they didn’t deserve the rights to life, liberty, suffrage, or the pursuit of happiness, but natural instinct and reason compelled them to fight for these rights even in the face of imprisonment, torture, and death. No one should ever settle for anything less than the full equality and rights of all people.


Research Guides

Start your research on women's suffrage with this guide highlighting the Schlesinger Library's archival collections as well as periodicals, photographs, posters, and memorabilia. Some materials may also be available in digital format and links are included where available.

Use the navigation menu to view additional material related to this topic.

To learn more about suffrage at Radcliffe College, please see the Radcliffe College Suffrage research guide.

In the summer of 2020, supported by funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Schlesinger Library launched two new tools: the Long 19th Amendment Project Portal and the Suffrage School. The Portal is an open-access digital portal that facilitates interdisciplinary, transnational scholarship and innovative teaching around the history of gender and voting rights in the United States. The Suffrage School is a platform where a broad array of researchers, writers, and teachers have been invited to create a series of digital teaching modules. Each lesson in the Suffrage School connects in rich and unpredictable ways to the Library&rsquos Long 19th Amendment Project, which tackles the tangled history of gender and American citizenship.

Please Take Catatan: Many of our collections are stored offsite and/or have access restrictions. Be sure to contact us in advance of your visit.


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