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Will Settle, adalah anak kepada Miles Settle, pengarah Bolton Wanderers. Pada tahun 1899 Settle menggantikan ayahnya di papan kelab.

Pada Januari 1910, dengan Bolton tegas di bahagian bawah Divisi Pertama, John Somerville dipecat dan digantikan oleh Settle. Dia tidak dapat menyelamatkan kelab dari degradasi tetapi dia mengarahkan Bolton ke promosi pada percubaan pertama. Settle juga merekrut sekumpulan pemain berbakat termasuk Ted Vizard, Joe Smith dan Jimmy Seddon.

Pada tahun 1911-12 Bolton menduduki tempat keempat di Divisi Pertama dan pada tahun 1914-15 mereka mara ke separuh akhir Piala FA. Namun, mereka dikalahkan 2-1 oleh Sheffield United. Pada akhir musim bola sepak profesional di Britain berakhir kerana Perang Dunia Pertama.

Pada tahun 1915 Will Settle meninggalkan kelab untuk digantikan oleh Tom Mather. Menurut Dean Hayes, pengarang Bolton Wanderers (1999): "Setelah mendapati tanggungjawab tertentu telah diambil darinya, dia meninggalkan kelab di bawah awan setelah 17 tahun berkhidmat."


Selamat Berbangga! Inilah & # 8217s sejarah ringkas perayaan LGBTQ + Seattle & # 8217s

Seattle merayakan Minggu Kebanggaan pertama kami pada tahun 1974 - lima tahun setelah aktivis hak asasi dan gay Marsha P. Johnson dan Sylvia Rivera, antara lain, memimpin rusuhan Stonewall di New York City dan membantu mencetuskan perjuangan untuk persamaan LGBTQ +. Walaupun perayaan Pride pertama di Seattle adalah kecil, itu awal, berlaku empat tahun selepas perarakan Pride perdana di Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, dan San Francisco.

Pride March di bandar kami telah berlangsung jauh, dari sekumpulan perintis kecil hingga perarakan besar yang menarik ribuan orang. Dan walaupun masih ada banyak pekerjaan yang perlu dilakukan, bandar kami telah mencapai kemajuan yang serius dalam setengah abad yang lalu.

MINGGU PRIDE PERTAMA - 1974

Aktivis hak asasi gay Seattle David Neth memimpin penganjuran Pride Week pertama Seattle. Minggu berakhir di Seattle Center di mana "kurang daripada 50 individu gay gembira - termasuk Neth bertelanjang dada, terbungkus mutiara, memakai potongan dan topi floppy putih - menari dengan kegembiraan di sekitar International Fountain," lapor Seattle Weekly.

PERTAMA RASMI MINGGU PRIDE - 1977

Walikota Wes Uhlman mengisytiharkan Gay Pride Week yang disetujui bandar pertama, yang memuncak pada pertama di Seattle rasmi Bangga Mac. Ini hanya satu tahun sebelum pengundi Seattle mengalahkan rang undang-undang yang akan melucutkan hak LGBTQ + orang yang mempunyai perumahan dan hak pekerjaan yang sama.

PERJALANAN PERTAMA - 1997

Aktivis trans Spencer Bergstedt dan Jason Cromwell mengumpulkan penduduk tempatan di luar Kolej Komuniti Pusat Seattle untuk mengadakan demonstrasi & sokongan mereka yang melintasi, telah melintasi, atau mencabar sempadan gender dan biologi. & # 8221 Kumpulan penyokong tempatan Gender Justice League menulis bahawa Seattle & # 8217s Trans Pride adalah yang pertama di negara ini. Iterasi Trans Pride ini berakhir pada tahun 2000.

Merenungkan unjuk rasa & # 821790-an, Spencer memberitahu The Evergrey bahawa ini adalah peluang penting & # 8220 untuk berkumpul dan mewujudkan penglihatan dalam komuniti LGBTQ yang lebih luas. & # 8221

LETAKKAN FLY - 2010

Space Needle mengibarkan bendera pelangi Pride buat pertama kalinya.

TRANS PRIDE KEMBALI - 2013

Gender Justice League memulakan semula Seattle's Trans Pride Parade di Capitol Hill. Ratusan penduduk tempatan berkumpul di Seattle Central Community College, tempat Trans Pride pertama, dan berarak di sekitar Cal Anderson Park untuk menyokong jiran transgender, interseks, dan bukan perduaan kami. Perayaan tahun ini juga merupakan Kebanggaan pertama yang diadakan sejak Washington State mengesahkan perkahwinan gay pada tahun 2012.

PRIDE KHAS EXTRA - 2015

Ini adalah Kebanggaan pertama sejak Mahkamah Agung A.S. mengesahkan perkahwinan gay di seluruh negara.

DAN DI SINI KAMI

Seattle Pride Parade tahun ini bermula pada pukul 11 ​​pagi pada hari Ahad di Fourth Avenue & amp Union Street dan akan pergi ke perhimpunan dan pesta PrideFest di Seattle Center. Tema tahun ini adalah Pride Beyond Borders, yang dikatakan oleh Presiden Seattle Pride, Kevin Toovey, adalah "peringatan bahawa kita dapat merayakan semua kejayaan dan kemajuan sejarah kita, tetapi ada usaha yang harus dilakukan untuk memastikan masyarakat kita bebas, bahagia, dan aman. "

Ketahui lebih lanjut mengenai sejarah LGBTQ + Seattle di sini, di sini, dan di sini. Ingin menyertai perayaan Pride? Lihat The Stranger's pusingan besar-besaran acara Pride. Dan jika anda bercadang untuk meraikannya, pastikan untuk menandakan #theevergrey Instagram.


Untuk maklumat lebih lanjut mengenai kursus Sejarah Spring 2021 yang akan datang, sila lihat Buletin Kursus HIST 21FQ

HIST 3220-01 / WGST 3910-02 Jantina & Kekuatan di Eropah Moden Awal

Kuasa tidak dapat diukur dari segi kuasa kuda atau kelajuan atau bahkan potensi. Ia memerlukan pelbagai bentuk & politik, ekonomi, seksual, peribadi, hanya untuk menamakan beberapa bentuk & mdash dan paling mudah dilihat dalam bentuk luaran yang menandakan penerapannya: ritual (menunduk, tunduk), simbol (pedang, mahkota, hiasan kepala), formulasi teks (tuan, puan, kehormatan anda), upacara (pertabalan, pelantikan), dan harta benda (rumah, kereta, seni, pakaian, perhiasan).

SEJARAH 3500-01 Sejarah Dasar Luar AS

Kursus ini dirancang sebagai tinjauan bagaimana Amerika Syarikat telah melakukan diplomasi Amerika dari zaman kolonial hingga sekarang. Sama pentingnya, ini juga akan menjadi sejarah bagaimana negara-negara bangsa lain melakukan diplomasi dengan Amerika Syarikat. Elemen ketiga kursus ini adalah pertimbangan bagaimana politik domestik di Amerika Syarikat mempengaruhi pelaksanaan dasar luarnya.

HIST 3770-01 Honours: Directed Reading / HIST 3910-01 Budaya & amp Kekuatan di AS Global

Kursus ini akan mendekati sejarah budaya rakyat, penghitung, dan pop di Amerika Syarikat sebagai kawasan perbatasan yang dipertikaikan, titik api politik di mana idea Amerika telah diperdebatkan, dicabar, dan akhirnya diciptakan semula. Topik kami akan berkisar dari meneroka penciptaan budaya narapidana di penjara pasca Perang Saudara sebagai ungkapan tahanan tahanan terhadap kemunculan Flapper sebagai ikon budaya baru tahun 1920 & feminisme dan kepenggunaan rsquos, hingga usaha aktivis hari ini untuk meruntuhkan monumen awam kepada tentera Gabungan dalam usaha mengubah budaya masyarakat AS menjadi ruang yang lebih inklusif.

UCOR 1400-01 Hak Asasi Manusia di Amerika Latin

Seminar teras Modul I ini akan menumpukan pada salah satu masalah besar yang melanda dunia moden & ndash pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang meluas & ndash dalam konteks Amerika Latin. Apakah hak asasi manusia? Apakah dimensi pelanggaran hak asasi manusia di Amerika Latin? Apakah pelbagai faktor di sebalik pemeliharaan dan ketidakpatuhan hak asasi manusia di rantau ini? Siapa pelaku berlainan yang terlibat dalam menafikan dan mempertahankan hak asasi manusia di Amerika Latin?

UCOR 1400-02 / 03/04 Perang Besar sebagai Konflik Global

Kursus ini meneliti dimensi global dan kesan Perang Dunia Pertama, dari perspektif orang Asia dan Afrika serta orang Eropah, orang awam dan juga tentera, wanita dan lelaki, dan rumah dan juga tentera. Sebagai tambahan kepada kisah strategi ketenteraan dan teknologi perang yang terkenal, ia menawarkan perspektif baru mengenai interaksi pelbagai bangsa dan budaya pada awal abad kedua puluh.

UCOR 3400-01 Empayar dan Afro- Utopia

Kursus ini memberi tumpuan kepada narasi kebebasan dan pembangunan kerajaan dan Afro-utopia di Black Diaspora. Kami akan mengkaji bagaimana institusi dan warisan perdagangan hamba abdi Atlantik dan kolonialisme telah dicabar, selama berabad-abad, oleh penceritaan dari perspektif pribumi Afrika, prodern, dan moden yang mengilhami visi utopia tentang alternatif dan masa depan yang lebih baik.

UCOR 3600-02 Jenayah dan Hukuman: Zaman Moden

UCOR 3600 ini mengkaji sains sosial dan cabaran global melalui lensa hukuman dalam masyarakat moden. Ini adalah kursus sains sosial peringkat tinggi UCOR & rsquos untuk jurusan yang tidak mengikuti sains sosial.


Sekiranya anda mempunyai masalah kewangan pada masa lalu, tetapi sekarang anda berusaha untuk meningkatkan kredit anda, anda berada di landasan yang betul. Langkah pertama yang baik adalah membawa akaun semasa yang belum selesai. Lebih banyak petua untuk membina dan mengekalkan skor kredit yang baik termasuk:

  • Buat semua pembayaran tepat pada masanya. Sejarah pembayaran anda & mdash sama ada anda membuat semua pembayaran tepat pada waktunya & mdash adalah faktor terpenting dalam skor kredit. Sekiranya anda berada dalam situasi di mana anda mungkin tidak dapat membuat pembayaran tepat pada waktunya, anda harus menghubungi pemberi pinjaman anda untuk membincangkan pilihan anda sebelum akaun menjadi tunggakan.
  • Kurangkan baki pada akaun pusingan. Faktor kedua terpenting dalam skor kredit adalah kadar penggunaan anda & jumlah kredit yang anda gunakan berbanding dengan had kredit keseluruhan anda. Sekiranya anda cenderung membawa baki yang tinggi pada kad kredit anda, mengurangkan beban hutang akan meningkatkan kadar penggunaan anda.
  • Daftar dalam Experian Boost & trade & dagger. Dengan Experian Boost, anda boleh mendaftar untuk menambahkan pembayaran bil utiliti, internet, kabel dan telefon anda ke dalam sejarah kredit anda, yang dapat membantu FICO & reg Score anda ☉. Setelah anda mendaftar, anda akan segera melihat kesannya.
  • Fokus pada faktor risiko anda. Sekiranya anda belum melakukannya, minta skor kredit anda dari Experian dan perhatikan faktor risiko yang diberikan bersama skor anda. Faktor-faktor ini memberitahu anda apa yang perlu anda lakukan untuk meningkatkan skor kredit anda.

Terima kasih kerana bertanya,

Jennifer White, Pakar Pendidikan Pengguna

Soalan ini datang dari sesi Periscope baru-baru ini yang kami adakan.

Apa yang ada dalam Laporan Kredit Anda?

Ikuti perkembangan maklumat kredit terkini anda - dan dapatkan Skor FICO & reg anda secara percuma.

Kad kredit tidak diperlukan

Artikel berkaitan:
Apakah Laporan Kredit Gabungan?
Membeli Rumah: Apa yang Perlu Dipertimbangkan Pasangan LGBTQ
Adakah Gadai janji Mengurangkan Kredit Anda?
Cara Membeli Gadai janji
Hutang Lama Pasangan Baru Tidak Akan Mengurangkan Skor Kredit Anda
Adakah Kebankrapan yang Dilepaskan Masih Mempengaruhi Skor Kredit?
Sumber
Penyelidikan Terkini
Ulasan Terkini

Dapatkan aplikasi Experian Percuma:

& kerisKesannya mungkin berbeza. Sebilangan mungkin tidak melihat peningkatan skor atau kemungkinan persetujuan. Tidak semua pemberi pinjaman menggunakan fail kredit Experian, dan tidak semua pemberi pinjaman menggunakan skor yang dipengaruhi oleh Experian Boost.

Score Skor kredit dikira berdasarkan model FICO & reg Score 8. Pemberi pinjaman atau syarikat insurans anda mungkin menggunakan Skor FICO & reg yang berbeza daripada Skor FICO & reg 8, atau jenis skor kredit lain sama sekali. Ketahui lebih lanjut.

Dasar Pengarang: Maklumat yang terdapat dalam Ask Experian adalah untuk tujuan pendidikan sahaja dan bukan merupakan nasihat undang-undang. Pendapat yang dinyatakan di sini adalah penulis sahaja, bukan bank, penerbit kad kredit atau syarikat lain, dan belum disemak, diluluskan atau disokong oleh mana-mana entiti ini. Semua maklumat, termasuk kadar dan bayaran, adalah tepat pada tarikh penerbitan dan dikemas kini seperti yang diberikan oleh rakan kongsi kami. Sebilangan tawaran di halaman ini mungkin tidak tersedia melalui laman web kami.

Walaupun dikekalkan untuk maklumat anda, siaran yang diarkibkan mungkin tidak menggambarkan dasar Pakar semasa. Pasukan Ask Experian tidak dapat menjawab setiap soalan secara individu. Walau bagaimanapun, jika soalan anda menarik minat khalayak pengguna yang luas, pasukan Experian akan memasukkannya ke dalam catatan akan datang.

Kebaikan dan keburukan tawaran ditentukan oleh pasukan editorial kami, berdasarkan penyelidikan bebas. Bank, pemberi pinjaman, dan syarikat kad kredit tidak bertanggungjawab terhadap kandungan yang disiarkan di laman web ini dan tidak menyokong atau menjamin sebarang ulasan.

Pendedahan Pengiklan: Tawaran yang terdapat di laman web ini adalah dari syarikat pihak ketiga ("rakan kongsi kami") dari mana Experian Consumer Services menerima pampasan. Pampasan ini boleh mempengaruhi bagaimana, di mana, dan dalam urutan apa produk muncul di laman web ini. Tawaran di laman web ini tidak mewakili semua perkhidmatan kewangan, syarikat, atau produk yang ada.

* Untuk maklumat lengkap, lihat terma dan syarat tawaran di laman web penerbit atau rakan kongsi. Sebaik sahaja anda klik berlaku, anda akan diarahkan ke laman web penerbit atau rakan kongsi di mana anda boleh menyemak terma dan syarat tawaran sebelum memohon. Kami menunjukkan ringkasan, bukan syarat undang-undang penuh - dan sebelum memohon, anda harus memahami syarat tawaran sepenuhnya seperti yang dinyatakan oleh penerbit atau rakan kongsi itu sendiri. Walaupun Experian Consumer Services menggunakan usaha yang wajar untuk menyampaikan maklumat yang paling tepat, semua maklumat tawaran ditunjukkan tanpa jaminan.

Laman web Experian telah dirancang untuk menyokong penyemak imbas internet moden dan terkini. Experian tidak menyokong Internet Explorer. Sekiranya anda menggunakan penyemak imbas yang tidak disokong pengalaman anda mungkin tidak optimum, anda mungkin mengalami masalah rendering, dan anda mungkin terdedah kepada risiko keselamatan yang berpotensi. Sebaiknya tingkatkan ke versi penyemak imbas terkini.

& salinan 2021 Hak cipta terpelihara. Pakar. Tanda dagang Experian dan Experian yang digunakan di sini adalah tanda dagangan atau tanda dagangan berdaftar Experian dan sekutunya. Penggunaan nama dagang, hak cipta, atau tanda dagang lain hanya untuk tujuan pengenalan dan rujukan sahaja dan tidak menyiratkan adanya hubungan dengan hak cipta atau pemegang tanda dagang produk atau jenama mereka. Nama produk dan syarikat lain yang disebutkan di sini adalah hak milik pemiliknya masing-masing. Lesen dan Pendedahan.


Berapa lama masa yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan skor kredit anda setelah pembayaran hutang?

Jumlah masa yang diperlukan untuk kredit anda mula bertambah banyak bergantung pada sejarah kredit anda. Sekiranya hutang yang dijelaskan itu agak tidak normal bagi anda - anda telah berjaya melunaskan beberapa hutang pada masa lalu - yang akan membantu pulangan kredit anda. Itu menunjukkan pemberi pinjaman anda mampu membayar hutang anda tepat pada waktunya. Mempunyai hutang lain yang masih anda bayar dan masih ada, seperti gadai janji, pinjaman kereta atau akaun kredit lain juga akan membantu. Orang yang mempunyai sejarah kredit yang cukup kuat dan positif mungkin dapat mula meningkatkan skor kredit mereka dalam enam bulan atau mungkin hanya separuh dari waktu itu.

Sekiranya sejarah kredit anda lebih sedikit, mungkin memerlukan lebih lama. Contohnya, jika anda tidak mempunyai sejarah pembayaran hutang dan anda tidak membuat pembayaran tepat pada masanya untuk gadai janji, pinjaman atau kad kredit lain. Dan jika akaun yang anda selesaikan adalah lama yang anda miliki, itu akan merugikan skor anda kerana panjang sejarah kredit anda (termasuk usia akaun tertua anda) merangkumi 15% daripada skor kredit anda. Sekiranya anda mempunyai sejarah kredit yang lemah dan / atau tipis, mungkin memerlukan 12 hingga 24 bulan dari saat anda menyelesaikan hutang terakhir anda agar skor kredit anda pulih.

Walau apa pun, anda akan mendapat faedah dari penyelesaian hutang jika ini bermakna anda tidak lagi kehilangan pembayaran. Ia juga akan meningkatkan nisbah hutang kepada pendapatan (DTI), jumlah pembayaran hutang bulanan yang anda bandingkan dengan pendapatan kasar bulanan anda, dan penggunaan kredit anda, iaitu berapa banyak kredit yang anda ada berbanding dengan jumlah yang anda gunakan . Pemberi pinjaman melihat DTI anda dalam proses kelulusan pinjaman dan penggunaan kredit anda merangkumi 30% daripada skor kredit anda.

"Dengan persekitaran pinjaman yang menghindari risiko semasa, pemiutang cenderung untuk menaja produk pinjaman baru kepada seseorang yang mempunyai nisbah hutang terhadap pendapatan yang tidak sesuai dengan parameter yang ditetapkan," kata Michael Bovee, pakar hutang dan pengasas bersama Selesaikan. "Fakta ini mempengaruhi kemampuan banyak orang yang ingin mendapatkan kredit baru - bahkan mereka yang mempunyai skor kredit yang baik."


Pertimbangkan untuk meminta "bayar untuk hapus"

Sebagai sebahagian daripada rundingan penyelesaian hutang anda, anda mungkin dapat meminta pemiutang atau pemungut hutang bersetuju untuk melaporkan akaun anda sebagai dibayar penuh atau meminta mereka untuk menghapuskannya dari laporan anda. Anda boleh mencadangkannya sebagai pertukaran untuk membayar sebahagian hutang anda atau menaikkan jumlah yang anda tawarkan untuk membayar. Ini tidak mungkin berfungsi dengan bank kad kredit dan pemberi pinjaman lain, tetapi boleh berkesan dengan koleksi perubatan dan utiliti, dan sekarang juga menjadi sebahagian daripada dasar pelaporan kredit di tiga pembeli hutang terbesar di negara ini: Pengurusan Kredit Midland (MCM), Portfolio Recovery Associates (PRA) dan Cavalry Portfolio. Anda boleh mengetahui lebih lanjut mengenai setiap dasar pembayaran untuk penghapusan syarikat ini di sini.


SejarahLink.org

Kawasan kejiranan Capitol Hill di Seattle adalah bahagian dari rabung panjang yang menghadap ke pusat bandar. Pada tahun 1872, para perintis membersihkan jalan gerobak melalui hutan ke tanah perkuburan di puncaknya (kemudian dinamakan Pemakaman Lake View). Ia dikeluarkan pada tahun 1880-an. James Moore (1861-1929), ketua pemaju Capitol Hill, memberikan nama itu pada tahun 1901. Sebelum itu disebut Bukit Broadway. Capitol Hill adalah komuniti yang meriah, dengan daerah perniagaan yang berkembang di Broadway Avenue dan sepanjang jalan ke-15 dan ke-19. Ia adalah rumah bagi Volunteer Park dan Seattle Asian Art Museum, St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral serta gereja-gereja lain, Seattle Central Community College, Cornish College for the Arts, Richard Hugo House (pusat penulis), serta banyak kedai , restoran, dan kedai kopi. Capitol Hill adalah tempat perayaan tahunan Seattle untuk minggu Gay Pride.

Bermula dengan Menara Air.

Untuk pemandangan Capitol Hill dan tinjauan sejarahnya, kita boleh bermula dengan menaiki 107 tangga ke dek pemerhatian menara air Volunteer Park yang sejak 1907 berdiri di puncak bukit setinggi 444 kaki. Di sana untuk dinikmati adalah pameran mewah bukan hanya sejarah Taman Sukarelawan tetapi juga seluruh warisan taman dan jalan raya Olmsted Bros yang diusahakan oleh firma landskap terkenal untuk Seattle pada awal abad kedua puluh.

Menara pemerhatian adalah salah satu desiderata yang dijelaskan dalam cadangan pertama syarikat, rancangan 1903. Dan di sana Volunteer Park juga digambarkan sebagai "permata" taman bandar. Oleh itu, menara itu akan menjadi permata mahkota

Panorama 1912

Kami akan menaiki menara pada tahun 1912 ketika tidak ada kanopi daun dan masih mungkin untuk melihat bukit.

Pada tahun 1912, Volunteer Park berusia 25 tahun, tetapi kebanyakan pembangunan yang dapat dilihat dari menara itu jauh lebih muda dari itu. Melihat ke barat, kita melihat Volunteer Park High Reservoir (berpagar dan dipenuhi dengan air Sungai Cedar pada tahun 1901). Melihat ke arah barat laut, kita melihat rumah seni dan kerajinan Inggeris yang mewah dari John dan Eliza Leary di 10th Avenue E (berumur lapan tahun pada tahun 1912). Tepat di utara, jalan kereta yang dulunya merupakan laluan kegemaran untuk prosesi pengebumian untuk sampai ke Pemakaman Lakeview secara langsung melalui taman telah dilebarkan dan diaspal (14th Avenue N) mengikut arahan Olmsted.

Tahun ini - 1912 - taman ini telah disekat di hujung utara dengan pembinaan Konservatori kaca yang dibeli oleh jabatan taman dari katalog dan dipasang di laman web ini. Di timur laut terdapat pergola berkisi.

Melihat ke arah timur dan selatan dari menara, penonton melihat bumbung beratus-ratus kediaman berukuran hampir rumah memenuhi banyak kecil penambahan Capitol Hill - termasuk "Milllionaires 'Row" di 14th Avenue N - dipromosikan oleh James Moore . Sebilangan kecil kediaman ini berusia lebih dari 10 tahun (pada tahun 1912) adalah bukti inisiatif Moore, pemaju super Seattle pada akhir abad kesembilan belas dan awal abad kedua puluh.

Pemandangan tahun 1912 ke arah barat daya menuju pusat bandar melihat bahagian empat blok yang tidak dikembangkan dari Furth Addition, yang terletak di antara Moore's Capitol Hill Addition dan jalur perniagaan yang berkembang di Broadway Avenue di selatan Roy Street. Tepat di sebelah barat Furth Addition, di blok Sara Yesler Addition, terdapat hamburan kediaman - kebanyakan dari mereka tinggal di rumah besar.

Lebih daripada 40 Tambahan

Menjelang tahun 1912, terdapat lebih dari 40 penambahan di kawasan yang secara kasar kami sebut Capitol Hill, termasuk Furth, Yesler, dan tujuh saluran Capitol Hill Moore, dan beberapa penambahan Pontius. Rezan dan Margaret Pontius membina ladang mereka di dasar Capitol Hill di Kejiranan Cascade yang akan datang (di hujung selatan, pusat bandar Lake Union). Mereka memperoleh sebahagian besar lereng barat bukit dan penambahan mereka dari tahun 1880-an adalah antara yang terawal di bukit.

Pada tahun 1960-an, Interstate Freeway (I-5) dengan cepat menentukan sempadan barat Capitol Hill. Mengikut logika Pontius, sebelum I-5 dipotong di lereng mereka, jiran-jiran ini - Capitol Hill dan Cascade - menyatu. Pada tahun 1910, di Republican Street, sebuah tangga besar dibangun di antara Eastlake Avenue di bahagian bawah dan di sebelah timur Melrose Avenue di bahagian atas. Sebilangan besar Republican Street Hillclimb dikeluarkan untuk jalan raya: kedua-dua kawasan itu terputus.

Sempadan Bukit Capitol

Capitol Hill adalah bahagian dari permatang panjang yang membentang utara-selatan di belakang pusat bandar dan akhirnya terbelah menjadi dua rabung. Berlari ke selatan, jurang barat Capitol Hill, yang paling dekat dengan pusat bandar, terus menjadi First Hill (sebelumnya atau disebut Pill Hill, Profanity Hill, dan Yesler Hill), dan terus berlanjut ke selatan sebagai Beacon Hill, dan seterusnya ke Renton. Punggung sebelah timur Bukit Capitol sampai ke Madison Street di mana namanya berubah menjadi Bukit Renton atau Bukit Kedua. Permatang ini akhirnya mengembara di Rainier Valley.

Oleh kerana perbatasan timur Capitol Hill tidak seperti jalan bebas hambatan untuk menentukannya, kami biasanya menerima perpaduan bukit ke Madison Valley dan Central Area. Di hujung utara kita mungkin merangkul perbatasan jalan raya (520) yang menghubungkan I-5 dengan Jambatan Terapung Evergreen Point (Albert Rosellini). Kawasan di utara jalan raya ini (520) adalah Penambahan Denny-Fuhrman. Penambahan Denny – Fuhrman awal (di mana Sekolah Dasar Seward berada) melihat kedua-dua Daerah Universiti di seberang Teluk Portage dan ke kejiranan Eastlake di sepanjang Lake Union lebih kerap daripada di Capitol Hill.

Orang yang masuk akal boleh menarik sempadan selatan bukit di sepanjang garis yang berbeza. Jacqueline Williams, dalam dirinya Bukit Bersama Masa Depan: Bukit Capitol Seattle, 1900-1946 memilih Pine Street. Untuk Dewan Perniagaan Capitol Hill, perbatasan selatan sampai ke First Hill di mana banyak anggota dewan mempunyai perniagaan mereka.

Saya memilih Pike Street kerana dua sebab, kedua-duanya bersifat topografi. Pertama, rabung yang lebih panjang yang dijelaskan di atas naik ke selatan Pike Street cukup untuk dipanggil dengan nama lain: First Hill. Sebab kedua juga berfungsi. Dari pusat bandar, mendekati Capitol Hill melalui Union Street tidak praktikal, kerana di 8th Avenue, Union terlalu curam. Hanya satu blok di sebelah utara Union, Pike Street adalah jalan pertama di pusat perniagaan yang boleh diperbaiki dengan mudah untuk sampai ke Capitol Hill. Menjelang tahun 1912, tiga jalur troli naik ke kelas yang lebih lembut di sepanjang Pike Street yang bersama dengan Broadway kemudian menjadi "Auto Row" di Seattle yang dipenuhi dengan bilik pameran kenderaan, kedai alat ganti, dan stesen servis.

Menamakan Bukit Capitol

Capitol Hill mendapat namanya pada musim gugur 1901. Sebelum ini ia dipanggil Broadway Hill. Sebilangan besar penerangan tentang bagaimana bukit itu mendapat namanya menjadi salah satu daripada dua cerita. Dengan satu perihalan - sentimental - James Moore memilih moniker "Capitol Hill" untuk bahagian suku yang dibelinya pada tahun 1900 terutamanya kerana isterinya berasal dari kota Barat lain yang memiliki Capitol Hill sendiri: Denver. Menjelang cerita kedua, nama itu dipilih dengan harapan dapat menarik negeri untuk memindahkan perniagaannya dari Olympia ke Prospect Street. Beberapa sumber mengatakan bahawa versi awal rancangan ini bermula dengan "pengasas kota" Arthur Denny pada tahun 1860-an.

Ini mungkin salah. Jacqueline Williams (Bukit dengan Masa Depan) memberikan bukti dari surat khabar awal bahawa James Moore menamakan "Capitol Hill," dan bahawa dia memilih nama itu mungkin kerana alasan isterinya dan politik - atau lebih tepatnya, promosi.

Pada musim bunga tahun 1901, kurang dari setahun setelah dia membeli dan mulai memperbaiki Capitol Hill Addition tepat di sebelah selatan Volunteer Park, Moore memujuk William H. Lewis, seorang ahli politik King County yang kemudian berkhidmat di Washington State House of Representatives, untuk memperkenalkan bil yang menawarkan kedua-dua laman web untuk kampus ibu kota di Capitol Hill dan dana untuk membina Bangunan Capitol. Ini bukan cadangan yang sangat serius. Namun, untuk sementara waktu, penduduk tempatan dapat membayangkan jangkauan cita-cita Moore dan membayangkan harta tanahnya yang tinggi yang dikuasai oleh ibu kota. Bagaimanapun, masih ada masalah lama di Olympia bahawa walaupun memiliki kerusi pemerintahan negara, ia tidak memiliki seluar yang merupakan bangunan capitol yang layak untuk negeri ini.

Keuntungan Satu Hari

Williams telah melacak silsilah untuk sebidang tanah pertama yang disebut James Moore sebagai "Capitol Hill" dan ia melambangkan pertukaran harta tanah di Old West. Moore membeli 160 ekarnya dari Hugh C. Wallace pada 10 Julai 1900, dengan harga $ 225,000. Wallace tidak pernah tinggal di darat dan tidak mengusahakannya, dan sebenarnya mungkin tidak pernah melihatnya. Sebaliknya, Wallace membelinya dengan harga $ 35,000 lebih rendah daripada yang dijualnya kepada Moore pada hari yang sama.

Tacoman Wallace membeli tanah itu dari ladang Selim Woodworth. Woodworth menerima tanah dari pemerintah sebagai pembayaran sebahagian untuk pertempuran dalam perang 1847 dengan Mexico. Yang pasti, Woodworth tidak pernah melihatnya.

Tanah Perkuburan dan Taman Sukarela dengan Pemandangan Tasik

Sebelum tahun-tahun pembalakan yang jelas di Capitol Hill pada tahun 1880-an, kadang-kadang diperlukan untuk melewati hutan dan ke puncak dengan gerabak yang sering menjadi pendengaran. Pada tahun 1872, Masons of Seattle, Pioneer Doc Maynard (1808-1873) di antara mereka, memilih sebahagian dari apa yang sejak 1890 telah disebut Pemakaman Lake View sebagai tanah perkuburan bagi para anggota. Ketika Maynard meninggal kurang dari satu tahun kemudian, saudara-saudaranya meninggalkan mayat itu dalam keadaan lebih dari sebulan ketika mereka membina jalan cawangan ke tanah perkuburan di luar jalan wagon lama yang melanda utara dari Madison Street di jalan sekarang di 23rd Avenue .

Menurut Robert L. Ferguson (Perintis Pemandangan Tasik), jalan baru meninggalkan jalan 23rd Avenue berhampiran Ward Street menuju ke barat ke garis depan 14th Avenue. Belok ke utara, ia terus melalui ladang babi dan segera sampai ke tanah perkuburan. Maynard dikebumikan hanya beberapa kaki dari titik tertinggi di Bukit Capitol.

Taman Sukarelawan

Pada tahun 1876, kota ini membeli 40 ekar bersebelahan di selatan Tanah Perkuburan Masonik. Pada tahun 1885, mereka menyebutnya Washelli dan mula memindahkan jenazah dari tanah perkuburan lama di mana bandar itu berubah menjadi Taman Denny. Dua tahun kemudian, sementara Leigh Hunt, penyunting dan penerbit Seattle Post-Intelligencer, berkobar-kobar di sepanjang jurang, dengan keterangannya sendiri dia "jatuh ke dalam persekutuan yang mendalam dengan alam dan di bawah mantra terpesona dari bentuknya yang terlihat." Di bawah pengaruh lamunan ini, Hunt seterusnya menemui beberapa kubur yang ditandai di Washelli. Mungkin bermimpi salinan yang baik, editor mendakwa bahawa suara datang kepadanya yang menuntut "Buang orang mati di tempat lain tanah ini disediakan untuk kesenangan hidup."

Segera kota itu mematuhi penerbit yang berpengaruh. Kubur-kubur itu dipindahkan bersebelahan dengan Pemakaman Lake View dan ekar yang sekarang tidak dihuni dijadikan tempat simpanan untuk “hubungan yang lebih mendalam dengan alam”. Laman web ini akhirnya dinamakan City Park dan pada tahun 1901, Volunteer Park, untuk memperingati kumpulan patriotik penduduk tempatan yang secara sukarela berperang dalam Perang Sepanyol-Amerika tahun 1898-1899.

Pemangkasan dan penanaman kecil berlaku pada awal tahun 1890-an di bawah arahan Edward Otto Schwagerl, arkitek landskap yang dipikirkan dengan baik yang disewa pada tahun 1892. Walau bagaimanapun, keadaan panik ekonomi pada tahun 1893 menghentikan kerja ini. City Park bersarang selama 10 tahun lagi sehingga syarikat Olmsted disewa pada tahun 1903 untuk merangka rancangan di seluruh bandar untuk taman dan boulevards.

Sekolah Lowell

Harapan dan statistik yang berkaitan dengan penubuhan sekolah kelas satu mungkin merupakan petunjuk terbaik untuk pembangunan awal kejiranan. Pada tahun 1890, Lowell School dibuka di Mercer Street dan Federal Avenue dengan nama Pontius School. Menjelang tahun 1892, nama tersebut telah berubah menjadi Columbia School dan sekolah tersebut menggunakan tujuh orang guru untuk mengajar 261 orang murid. Pada tahun 1902, 12 orang guru mengajar 469 sarjana dalam lapan darjah. Pada tahun 1910, untuk mengurangkan kekeliruan dengan Columbia School di kejiranan Columbia City di Seattle yang baru-baru ini, namanya diubah menjadi Lowell School, setelah penyair, esei, dan diplomat Amerika James Russell Lowell (1819-1891).

Pada tahun 1901, air tulen tiba. Di sekitarnya, berjalan di bawah pusat 12th Avenue, sebuah paip dipasang untuk membawa air tawar sepanjang batu terakhir dalam perjalanan sejauh 26 batu dari Sungai Cedar ke takungan baru di Volunteer Park yang baru dinamakan. Dengan pantas rumah-rumah di Capitol Hill minum dan mencuci dengan air yang banyak yang dihantar terus dari Cascade Mountains.

Ketibaan kedua ke Volunteer Park pada tahun 1901 yang sangat membantu daya tarikan James Moore's Capitol Hill Addition adalah barisan troli City Park. Dalam tempoh lapan tahun lagi, Puget Sound Traction Light and Power Company akan meluaskan tiga lagi jalur ke utara ke sepanjang Capitol Hill Ridge. Seperti garis City Park, garis Capitol Hill menghampiri jambatan di sepanjang Pike Street untuk mencapai kaki panjang terakhir di 15th Avenue. Jalur 19th Avenue mengikuti pada tahun 1907 garis 23rd Avenue pada tahun 1909, diletakkan di sepanjang jalan wagon lama sejauh utara seperti Portage Bay dan pintu masuk ke Pameran Alaska-Yukon-Pasifik musim panas di Kampus University of Washington.

Garis troli keempat, Bellevue-Summit Line, ditambahkan pada tahun 1913 untuk melayani kawasan kejiranan di bukit yang kedua-duanya paling dekat dengan bandar dan semakin dibina dengan rumah pangsapuri. Di sepanjang Broadway, jalan ke-15 dan ke-19 perkhidmatan berkala troli meningkatkan daya hidup ekonomi dan budaya di jalan raya. Hingga hari ini, pelbagai pusat kejiranan dijumpai di ketiga-tiga jalan ini.

Baris Jutawan

Perkembangan khidmat masyarakat dan pekerjaan umum termasuk air, perlindungan kebakaran, pembentungan, dan troli adalah keghairahan dari banyak kelab masyarakat, komersial, dan peningkatan yang dengan cepat tampil di kawasan kejiranan yang berkembang pesat seperti yang dilakukan Capitol Hill pada awal abad kedua puluh.

Satu pengecualian ingin tahu mengenai "pemikiran positif" ini berasal dari pemilik rumah yang menetap di jalan utama James Moore, "Millionaires 'Row". Selama bertahun-tahun sebelum penambahbaikan pemaju, 14th Avenue adalah kaki terakhir jalan kereta yang menuju ke Perkuburan Lake View. Di pintu masuk selatan taman dengan jalan raya sendiri, 14th Avenue menjadi Moore dan pembeli sebagai jalur yang paling terkenal. Perarakan orang berkabung yang terus menggunakan 14th Avenue mungkin boleh diterima oleh barisan baru, tetapi bukan garis troli yang dicadangkan oleh pesaing ke garis Capitol Hill gabungan Syarikat Seattle Electric.

Tanggapan yang berkesan (dan hiasan) terhadap ancaman ini dinyatakan dalam surat kepada Moore yang ditulis oleh Jurutera Bandar lama R. H. Thomson (1856-1949). Thomson menasihati pemaju untuk menambah jalur penanaman di tengah-tengah barisan pertunjukannya di mana trek troli biasanya akan diletakkan. Jalur ini dibina, walaupun pada akhirnya tidak diperlukan, kerana troli yang bersaing tidak diberi francais untuk memasuki kawasan kejiranan.

Jenis Kediaman

Mungkin ada kesamaran untuk semua promosi Capitol Hill James Moore. While he advertised them as the next retreat for the city’s more affluent citizens, the lots are generally small for the homes that were constructed on them. The effect, especially in the Stevens Neighborhood (named for the Isaac Stevens Primary School on 17th Avenue and Galer Street ) is a community that feels both grand and intimate. These playland qualities were enhanced by the large Catholic families that soon moved into these homes. They came certainly because the homes were big but also to be near Holy Names Academy (1907) at 22nd Avenue and Aloha Street, St. Joseph’s Church (1907) and School (1908) on 18th Avenue, and Forest Ridge School (1907) on Interlaken Boulevard. The Stevens neighborhood became in effect a concentrated Catholic neighborhood.

In his presentation to Historic Seattle’s Capitol Hill symposium in 2000, Leonard Garfield, director of the Museum of History and Industry (MOHAI), outlined a typology of Capitol Hill residences. Garfield noted that because the history of residential development on Capitol Hill occurred at such a rapid pace, housing types overlap in both time and place. Grand homes were not necessarily segregated from lesser ones -- or even from apartments. They were connected and yet disconnected. “People saw what they wanted to see.”

Modest homes were built on the ridge in the 1880s and 1890s. Very few if any of these structures survive. These simple homes were followed by a few oversized ones arranged like country estates. The English Tudor style John and Eliza Leary home at 1551 10th Avenue N, now home of the Episcopal Diocesan Offices, is a good and grand example. Close on the heels of these country retreats came the advance guard of working and professional households of a booming Seattle. These owners expected to raise families in the “streetcar suburbs” that were rapidly constructed to the sides of the business and transportation strips of Broadway, 15th, and 19th avenues. Many of these homes were built in the efficient but still attractive Classic Box style.

In between the Henrys and the homemakers are a hybrid class of mostly nouveau riche residents, who may have worked but did not necessarily have to. They often built grander homes than even the biggest boxes and also preferred to site them in their own limited zones. The residences on “Millionaire’s Row” may be included in this set -- at first they put up a gate straddling 14th Avenue at Roy Street. Many of the big houses west of Volunteer Park on Federal Avenue and beside the somewhat serpentine streets north of Aloha Street and west of Broadway fit this more upper-crusty character. A sizeable percentage of the homes of this type were built late -- after World War I.

Finally, Garfield distinguishes the apartment houses of Capitol Hill where family life was often provided for with large units and handsome structures distinguished with architectural ornaments and courtyards. Later, many of these larger apartments were multiplied into smaller units for single occupants.

Broadway is a thoroughly sensible street. It travels most of the length of both First and Capitol Hills and although rarely on the summit its grade is always easy. Indeed Broadway is the best evidence that First and Capitol Hill are one hill for when traveling along Broadway you will find the distinction between them subtle.

Broadway was the obvious path for the electric trolley that in 1891 first linked Capitol Hill to Beacon Hill through First Hill and what in the beginning was a long boulevard of stumps and dreams and at least one swale. (The swale centered at Republican Street where in the evening riders could hear frogs croaking. ) After Broadway was paved in 1903, it became the favorite flyway first for cyclists and soon after motorists ­-- a preferred promenade for flashy wheels.

Broadway High School

On or just off Broadway between Pike and Roy streets the busiest cultural and commercial life of Capitol Hill were developed. We begin at Pine Street with Broadway High School.

In 1902, Broadway High School opened (as Seattle High School) on the corner of Broadway and E Pine Street. It was Seattle's first building specifically constructed as a high school. The architects were William E. Boone and J. M. Corner. The building was controversial for its large size and location (then remote from downtown), but within a year was filled to capacity. The 1903 class had 103 graduates, the largest graduating class in the history of Seattle. Today a remnant of the building is incorporated into Seattle Central Community College's Broadway Performance Hall.

With no athletic field of its own, the students at Broadway High used the playfield developed just south of what was then still called the Lincoln Park Low Reservoir. Both the reservoir and park were one short block east of the school. Like the high reservoir at Volunteer Park, the low one was built in 1900 for the then new Cedar River gravity water supply. In their 1903 description of the park, the Olmsted Brothers recommended that there be "no provision for the more vigorous forms of play." Their plans for the park were "particularly designed to make baseball impractical." This prescription by the Boston-based landscapers was overturned in less than a month by neighbors, including high school students, in need of vigorous play -- especially baseball.

Churches and a Market

Among the Capitol Hill churches on Broadway we will note three -- first the First Christian Church. It faced Seattle High School across Broadway and opened in 1902, the same year as the high school. The church’s second and surviving sanctuary at the site was dedicated in 1923. (It and the nearby Westminster Presbyterian Church at Harvard Avenue and Howell Street also completed in 1923, were the two notable contributions to Seattle architecture by the Los Angeles architect Robert H. Orr.)

Six blocks north of First Christian Church, Pilgrim Congregation Church was organized in 1899 as a parish of Plymouth Congregational. The sanctuary was designed by architect Julian F. Everett, who later designed the Pioneer Square Pergola. The new church opened its doors to a wide front lawn in 1906. Twenty-four years later the lawn was considerably narrowed when Broadway Avenue was widened and straightened north of Harrison Street. The cuts were made on the east side of the street,­ the Pilgrim side. Many structures, the church not included, were moved back with the power and telephone poles. In 1949, Pilgrim church was diminished again, but this time by an act of God when the earthquake of that year toppled the top of its tower.

Broadway Market

The gleaming, block-long Broadway Market opened in 1928. For 30 years this market served as a collection of independently owned small shops. At one time these included a creamery, a florist, two delis, a fish market, a drug store, a beauty salon, two meat markets, a health food store, two fruit stands, a candy shop, two bakeries, a ten-cent store, and Norm's Café, a favorite neighborhood hang-out.

In 1958 Norm and most of the others moved out and Safeway and Marketime moved in. The windows were stuccoed over and the charm of shopping given a green glow under fluorescent lights. More recently, the market has been enlarged and reopened as an arcade featuring again a variety of small businesses. The new and enlarged windows are open again.

St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral

North of Roy Street, on the border between one of the several Pontius additions to the south and both the Sara Yesler and Jacob Furth Additions to the north, the arterial turns slightly east to become 10th Avenue N. To four long blocks north of Roy Street the St. Marks Episcopal congregation moved from its First Hill parish into what its second bishop, Stephen Fielding Bayne Jr., later called "This Holy Box." Dedicated in 1931, the concrete church was but the skeleton of the congregation's dream cathedral.

Ten years later the bad debts of the Great Depression with the help of an unsympathetic St. Louis banker who held the mortgage closed the cathedral doors. They did not open again for services until 1944. For a brief time in the interim the sanctuary was used as an anti-aircraft training center. The congregation spent part of their exodus worshiping in the Woman's Century Club at the southeast corner of Roy Street and Harvard Avenue.

Clubs, Cornish, an English Cottage, and Anhalt's Angles

The Woman’s Century Club, formed in 1891, for a while made its home in the clubhouse of the Seattle Federation of Women's Clubs at the southeast corner of Harvard Avenue and Thomas Street. In 1925, the club moved four blocks north directly across Roy Street from the Rainier Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The DAR’s Mount Vernon facsimile also opened in 1925. Together with the Cornish School of the Arts, which had moved to the northwest corner of the same intersection only four years earlier, the trio created at the intersection of Roy and Harvard the principal cultural center of the increasingly cosmopolitan Capitol Hill.

The 1931 addition of architect Arthur Loveless’s North Broadway Shopping Center, the "English cottage" next door to the DAR, made this two-block stretch of unique architecture a Seattle landmark of great distinction. Adding the many great homes to the north of Roy Street and to the west of Broadway Avenue amounts to what for many is the most charmed part of Capitol Hill. Included there (at 750 Belmont Avenue) is the first luxury apartment house designed by Frederick William Anhalt (1896-1996).

Sam Hill and SAM

In 1909, Sam and Mary Hill built their Classic Revival home on Highland Drive just west of Broadway Street. The couple was married in 1888 and since Mary was the daughter of James J. Hill, the "empire builder" of the Great Northern Railroad, she did not have to change her name. Sam Hill was the principal booster for the Northwest chapter of the Good Roads movement of the early twentieth century.

After Sam Hill's death in 1931, his home on Highland stood vacant until Theodore and Guendolen Plestcheeff purchased it in 1937. Born nearby on First Hill in the mid-1890s as Guendolen Carkeek, Guendolen Plestcheef lived in the Hill home until her death in 1994. As the daughter of Emily Carkeek (1852-1926), the founder of the Seattle Historical Society and during Seattle's late Victorian years the English-born Grande Dame of local culture, Guendolen Plestcheef was herself one of the city’s great advocates for arts and crafts.

Perhaps the greatest boost to local arts occurred on Capitol Hill a few months after Sam Hill’s passing and about five short blocks east of his home on Highland. In the 1930s, the city decided to allow Richard E. Fuller (1897-1976), president of the Art Institute of Seattle, and his mother Margaret (MacTavish) Fuller (1860-1953) locate their Art Institute of Seattle in the park. John Olmsted opposed this and the Olmsted relationship with Seattle ended.

The museum opened in 1933. It became the Seattle Art Museum, and was rededicated as the Seattle Asian Art Museum in 1994.

To go to Part 2, click "Next Feature"

The SCHOONER Project:
Yang Berhormat. Jan Drago
Seattle City Council
Seattle Department of Neighborhoods

Map showing Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle

Observation tower, Volunteer Park, 1910s

Courtesy UW Special Collection (SEA2086)

An advertisement for James A. Moore's Capitol Hill Addition, 1902

James Moore (1861-1929)

"Avenue of Mansions," 14th Avenue N, Capitol Hill, Seattle, 1906

13th Avenue near Volunteer Park, Seattle, 1900s

Capitol Hill Addition "boxes" advertised in the Seattle Mail and Herald, 1900s

Courtesy UW Special Collections

Capitol Hill Millionaire Row home at 14th Avenue N and Prospect, April 9, 2001

Seattle High School (later Washington High School, then Broadway High School) (William E. Boone and J. M. Corner, 1902), Seattle, ca. 1908

Courtesy Tacoma Public Library (29960)lic Library (163317)

Broadway Performance Hall, Broadway E, Seattle, June 3, 2011

HistoryLink.org Photo by Priscilla Long

Capitol Hill, lookin south, Seattle, 1920s

Columbia School (later Lowell School), Capitol Hill, Seattle, ca. 1906

750 Belmont Avenue E (Frederick William Anhalt, 1930), now Belmont Court, Seattle

14th Avenue N and Aloha Street, Capitol Hill, Seattle, 1910s

Asian Art Museum with Calder's Eagle, Volunteer Park, April 9, 2001

Sumber:

Jacqueline Block Williams, The Hill With A Future: Seattle's Capitol Hill, 1900-1946, (Seattle: CPK INK, 2001) Paul Dorpat, "Volunteer Park Voices," Story 86 Seattle Now and Then, Vol. 1, 2nd Edition (Seattle: Tartu Publications, 1984) Paul Dorpat, "Seattle's Second Hill," Story 80 Seattle Now and Then, Vol. 2, 2nd Edition (Seattle: Tartu Publications, 1988) Paul Dorpat, "Millionaire Row and Seattle's Wireless Man," Story 78 Ibid. Paul Dorpat, "Republican Hill Climb," Story 79 Ibid. Paul Dorpat, "Broadening of Broadway," Story 77 Ibid. Paul Dorpat, "The View From Denny Hill to Capitol Hill," Story 50 Ibid. Paul Dorpat Interview with Leonard Garfield, Director of the Museum of History and Industry, April 9, 2001, Seattle, Washington Casey Rosenberg, Streetcar Suburb: Architectural Roots of a Seattle Neighborhood (Seattle: Fanlight Press, ca. 1989) Shaping Seattle Architecture: A Historical Guide to the Architects ed. by Jeffrey Karl Ochsner (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994) R. H. Thomson letterbooks, University of Washington Archives, University Manuscripts and Special Collections, University of Washington Libraries, Seattle, Washington.
Note: The name of Stephen Fielding Bayne Jr. was corrected on May 12, 2008.


Christopher Columbus

During the Middle Ages, Europeans knew little, if anything, about the existence of the Americas. Scandinavian voyagers explored present-day Newfoundland around 1000 A.D., and made several attempts at colonization. Without dependable backing from strong nation-states, and in the face of a determined and violent opposition from native inhabitants, however, their fragile villages were ultimately abandoned and forgotten.

In Europe, territorial battles between Christians and Muslims dominated much of the period between the 11th and 14th centuries. By the middle of the 15th century, Europeans had grown accustomed to a variety of exotic Asian goods including silk, drugs, perfume, and spices. However, Muslim forces controlled key passageways to the east and forced European tradesmen to pay huge sums for their ways. European consumers tired of the increasing prices and demanded faster, less expensive routes to Asia. During this era, as city-states and emerging nations fostered a new-found enthusiasm for expansion and exploration, Christopher Columbus was born in the Italian port of Genoa. The son of a wool-comber, Columbus spent his youth learning his father’s trade. By his teenage years, he became a seaman and took part in voyages to England and Ireland with Portuguese mariners.

The invention of the printing press around this time made information sharing much easier. Journals described the experiences of many explorers, including the travels of Marco Polo to Asia almost three hundred years earlier. Europeans were captivated by his descriptions of incredible wealth and golden pagodas.

Columbus, too, became caught up in the excitement and read many books on navigation and geography. He eventually devised a plan to find a westward route to Asia. In 1484, he presented his plan to King John II of Portugal but was denied financial support. He spent years asking the rulers of various countries, including France and England, for assistance before Spain’s Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand finally agreed to help. The monarchs wanted desperately to spread Christianity throughout the world and increase the Spanish presence over that of Portugal. Of course, the opportunity to acquire gold and riches greatly influenced their decision as well.

Once Columbus received the support he had been seeking so long, he surprised many by making a series of demands. Should he succeed on his voyage, he wanted to be knighted, appointed Admiral of the Ocean Sea and viceroy (governor) of any new lands he discovered, and awarded ten percent of any profits generated by his expedition. The Spanish monarchs reluctantly agreed to his stipulations and provided Columbus with three small ships and a crew of about ninety sailors.

On August 3, 1492, the Niña, Pinta, and the Santa Maria set sail from Palos in southern Spain. The fleet spent almost a month in the Canary Islands to make repairs and gather supplies. With the maintenance chores complete, Columbus continued his voyage west. Much like many sailors of the 15th century, Columbus’s men were superstitious and wary of venturing too far from land. The weather remained fair for most of the journey but crew members often pleaded with their leader to turn around and return home. Columbus refused. Then, on October 12, 1492, as the exhausted sailors grew closer to mutiny, lookout Roderigo de Triana spied land from his perch atop the mast of the Pinta. His cries of “Tierra! Tierra!” echoed across the water to the crews on the other ships.

Columbus led a party ashore, drove a flag into the ground, and called the new land San Salvador (Holy Savior). Although he was standing on an island in the Bahamas, Columbus was so positive that he had found the East Indies that he named the natives “Indians.” He then ventured on to Cuba, which he thought was China, and mistook Haiti (Hispaniola) for Japan. Thinking that he had retraced Marco Polo’s footsteps, Columbus took what gold and natural resources he could carry aboard his ships back to Spain. The king and queen were impressed with his findings and agreed to fund more excursions to the New World. Although Columbus repeated his journey three more times, he refused to accept the evidence that the people, animals, and plants of the New World were nothing like those found in Europe or Asia. He remained convinced that he had discovered a new westward route to the Indies.


Seattle Labor History Highlights

Highlights of the history of working people in Washington State are depicted in a stunning new mural at the Washington State Labor Council headquarters on Jackson at 16th. More about the mural. Here is the WSLC news magazine

Few cities make use of labor history the way Seattle does. The city proudly recognizes struggles like the Seattle General Strike of 1919 and the WTO &ldquoBattle of Seattle&rdquo as part of what makes the region famous and important. News media, city officials, and educators join in commemorating key anniversaries. This is no accident. It reflects the continued political importance of unions and the ongoing cultural work of labor activists and labor educators.

In a recent article, I discussed Seattle’s Left Coast Formula. The term references political traditions that Seattle shares with other West Coast cities, especially San Francisco. Linked by business enterprise, migration, and geo-economic function, left coast cities developed institutions and expectations that have kept radicalism alive for more than a century while allowing political elites identified as liberals or progressives to stay in power pretty consistently. No Guilianis or Bloombergs win elections in these cities. And the relationship more recently includes intriguingly complicated political negotiations. Seattle and its left coast sister cities respond both to the awesome authority of tech titan billionaires and to the insurgent demands of unions and radical social movements.

Seattle has a long history of labor radicalism dating back into the 19th century. A lumber village sited between trees and water, Seattle incorporated in 1869, taking the name of chief Sealth, a leader of the Suquamish and Duwamish people whose land had been seized in the 1850s. The Northern Pacific railroad arrived in 1884, expanding and diversifying the population. Chinese workers were among those seeking work and a new start. In 1886, mobs of whites, many of them affiliated with the Knights of Labor, attacked Chinatown and after a violent clash with city authorites, forced residents to board ships bound for San Francisco. Similar incidents drove Chinese workers out of Tacoma and much of the the Territory.

Washington became a state in 1888 and unions of many kinds were already exerting influence, as were radical farmers. The 1896 election of a People&rsquos Party candidate for Governor, John R. Rogers, signalled a radical turn and inspired a deliberate experiment in political migration. Members of Eugene Debs&rsquo Social Democracy of America announced a plan to take over a state and turn it toward socialism. They chose Washington and set out to recruit colonists. The result was a string of cooperative settlements up and down Puget Sound, most of which folded within a few years. But radicals continued to look to the region. By 1912 the state was one of the bright spots for the Socialist Party. Only four states counted more dues paying members than Washington.

Washington became even more important to the Industrial Workers of the World. The key IWW newspaper, The Industrial Worker, set up operations in Spokane in 1909 and moved to Seattle four years later. These developments reveal one of dynamics of Seattle radicalism, the interplay between reputation and political migration. The story that something was happening in Puget Sound became self-fulfilling as members of first one generation of Reds then other generations moved across country to participate.

The general strike of February 1919 doubled that effect. Seattle is known for many things these days, but for much of the last century, a good portion of its reputation rested on the dramatic events of ninety-eight years ago.

The Seattle Union Record, the mass circulation paper owned the Labor Council, announces the plan to strike on February 3, three days before the start the general strike. See Seattle General Strike Project

It began in the shipyards which employed 35,000 workers during WWI. Promised raises that were never forthcoming, the shipyard workers struck and appealed to the Seattle Central Labor Council for help. In a remarkable show of solidarity, more than 100 unions agreed. On the morning of February 6, more 60,000 union members quit work, bringing the city to a stand still. Meanwhile the Labor Council arranged for unions to take over key services, including feeding thousands. Although entirely peaceful, the general strike was construed by the Mayor and the major newspapers as a call for revolution. As federal troops stood by, support withered and after five days, the Labor Council called it off.

The 1930s saw a new burst of radical labor activism, first in mass participation in unemployed movements, then in the building of powerful unions. The 1934 longshore strike that led to a general strike in San Francisco involved a near general strike in Seattle. For 83 days, maritime workers and their supporters kept the port closed despite several battles with police that cost three lives. Out of this struggle would come the ILWU which for the last 80 years has anchored progressive unionism up and down the West Coast. In 1935, a campaign to organize the region&rsquos key industry&ndash wood &ndash resulted in a second pivotal strike and the creation of the International Woodworkers of America, another leftwing union.

Radicals were also effective in electoral politics. The Washington Commonwealth Federation, led initially by former socialists, then dominated by the Communist Party, pushed the Democratic Party to the left, winning elections and influencing state and local policy. “There are forty-seven states in the Union and the Soviet of Washington,&rdquo FDR&rsquos campaign manager allegedly said during the 1936 campaign, signally a renewal of the state&rsquos radical reputation.

If the left was visible and effective throughout the 1930s and 1940s, two unions of lasting importance belonged not to the CIO, but the more conservative AFL. Teamster Dave Beck developed organizing and boycott strategies that became key to unionizing the trucking industry from Seattle to Los Angeles. In 1936, airplane mogul Bill Boeing signed a contract with the Army Air Corps to build B-17 bombers and at the same time agreed to recognize the International Association of Machinists as the bargaining agent for workers in what would soon become the most important employer in the state.

Bill Boeing was a notorious segregationist and &ldquoWhites only&rdquo was the rule in the IAM, so the company and union collaborated to deny employment to Black and Asian workers until a 1940 campaign led by the African American publisher William H. Wilson and his Northwest Enterprise, and drawing support from the Communist Party and progressive whites, forced Boeing to begin hiriing African Americans. The IAM agreed to the expanded labor market but refused membership to African American workers until 1946.

Civil rights activism had a longer history than labor movements in the region, starting with the first Native struggles to protect livelihoods and freedom. An early NAACP chapter had scored small victories in the 1910s and 1920s. In the 1930s, Filipino cannery workers formed an effective and radical union while the Japanese American Courier tried to represent the city&rsquos largest community of color.

The campaign for rights and dignity took new and more effective forms in the 1960s, first with the clever campaigns of CORE, SNCC, the Japanese American Citizens League, then with the new radicalisms of the late 1960s and 1970s.

Seattle&rsquos Black Panther Party chapter, initiated by members of the Black Student Union at UW, captured the imagination of a generation and soon a vibrant Asian American movement and Chicano activists were making waves and making history. In 1970, members of the pan-Indian organization, United Indians of All Tribes, scaled the fences of Fort Lawton, the soon to be de-commissioned Army base near the heart of Seattle and reclaimed the land for its original owners. Violently evicted, they returned, and ultimately won a victory that established the Daybreak Star Cultural Center.

Seattle Post-Intelligencer front page story about the United Indians of All Tribes' first attempt to reclaim Fort Lawton land on March 8, 1970. See Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project report

Our current political era dates from the WTO demonstrations in the final days of the last millennium. That event was the coming out party for a reenergized and reradicalized labor movement, which has been a powerful ally for progressives ever since. It inspired activism on many fronts including the social movements that Ruth Milkman links to the Millennial generation. It also fired up eco-radicals who joined trade unionists in the streets in 1999 and have maintained an effective blue-green alliance ever since. This was on display two years ago when climate change activists supported by labor blockaded a shell oil platform that was headed for Alaska. The press called it “Paddle in Seattle” as hundreds of kayaks filled Elliot Bay.

In today’s resurgent progressive politics, the labor movement plays a pivotal role. Leaders of the state federation and King County Labor Council pursue an aggressive social justice agenda centered on living wage campaigns. This began to yield results in 1996 when the State Labor Council funded a successful statewide ballot measure that gave Washington the highest minimum wage in the nation. Teachers unions and the Service Employees International Union (SEIU) followed with other ballot measures. In 2001, Washington voters gave home care workers the right to join a union and to bargain collectively with the state. Today, 40,000 home care and day care workers are members of SEIU. Meanwhile, Seattle unions launched a campaign for a sick leave ordinance. In 2011, the city council agreed, making Seattle just the third city in the country to require all employers to provide sick leave benefits.

When 40,000 union members joined thousands of activists organized by Global Exchange, The Ruckus Society, and Rainforest Action Network, they were signaling the start of a labor, environment, global social justice coalition. The demonstrations in late November 1999 forced the cancellation of the Ministerial meeting of the WTO. Photo: Al Crespo. See WTO History Project

All this was a prelude to the push for a $15 minimum wage which began not in Seattle itself but in the nearby city of SeaTac, where the airport is located. SEIU, with support from other unions, crafted a SeaTac ballot measure raising the minimum wage for employees of the airlines and airport-related businesses. When residents of the suburb voted yes in a tight 2013 election, the stage was set to move the campaign into Seattle itself. Six months later, in June 2014, the city council passed a phased-in $15 minimum wage.

Since November, there has been more electrifying moments. Protest marches seem to be weekly occurance, and for all intents and purposes are officially sanctioned. Seattle&rsquos mayor and the state&rsquos governor have joined many, including the January Womxns March which counted as many as 120,000 participants in a city of 700,000.

But in the article for Dissent, I described Seattle as a city with a dual personality. On the one hand, we have these dynamic social movements and progressive elected officials, while on the other hand, the city is being carved up and redeveloped in one of the most intense building booms in its history, largely engineered by a pair of billionaires, Paul Allen and Jeff Bezos.

If you want to contemplate the reconstruction of Seattle at the hands of the billionaires, there are two neighborhoods to visit. Across Lake Union, about a mile north of downtown, is an area now known as &ldquoAmazonia.&rdquo It’s other name is South Lake Union and it used to be a neighborhood of warehouses and auto dealerships. Fifteen years ago, Paul Allen who co-founded Microsoft and now plays with rocket ships, football and basketball teams, and real-estate, began buying up block after block of South Lake Union. Then he made a deal with Jeff Bezos to bring Amazon’s headquarters and thousands upon thousands of Amazon’s programmers, designers, managers, and engineers into the area. These “amazombies,” as they are called by some locals—they are mostly young white tech guys wearing distinctive badges&ndash now number about 20,000 and are predicted to double in the next few years.

This is just part of the growth story. The city’s population has increased 21% in the last fifteen years. And now other companies like Weyerhaeuser and Expedia are moving from the suburbs into the heart of the city. So there is a weird schizophrenic feel to the city. The billionaire’s redevelopment plans and the radical movements and progressive leadership in city hall are all sharing this moment and they are linked in surprising ways. Not oppositional. Bezos, Allen, Microsoft, the Gates Foundation haven’t said a peep in opposition to what the city council has been doing. The $15 minimum wage law, fine. The paid sick days law, fine. LGBT and immigrant rights, fine. Most recently the very progressive City Council passed a Secure Scheduling law, requiring large companies to let their employees know their work schedules two weeks in advance. Starbucks is not happy about that, but the tech titans don’t care.

The Fight for 15 movement had been active for years before the SeaTac breakthrough in 2013. In Seattle, a proposed ballot measure that would have raised the minimum wage immediately to $15 was undercut by a phased increase law preferred by the mayor and city council. See SeaTac/Seattle Minimum Wage Project

Meanwhile, progressive politicians give a green light to what the billionaires want, freedom to carve up the city and public funds for new transportation systems. We are building tunnels and bridges like crazy and finally a light rail system, and streets are being retrofitted with bike lanes, and neighborhoods are being up zoned for greater density and huge complexes of apartments are going up in many areas. Count the construction cranes chopping up the skyline. Seattle is a developer’s dream.

Why the green light? It reflects a curious set of alliances that involves first, the labor movement, whose leadership is very progressive but also dedicated to supporting job creation and the construction trades. Secondly, it is driven by an urbanist coalition of eco activists and bicycle activists who want a green city, a denser city not dependent on automobiles. They have made common cause with developers and with Mayor Ed Murray whose housing task force is pushing relaxed zoning and the apartment building boom claiming that this will address the escalating price of housing and the crisis of hyper gentrification.

Kowtowing to developers seems like a weird answer to gentrification but oddly in this supposedly progressive city, opposition has been muted. There are of course critics like Kshama Sawant (our Socialist Alternative city council member). She and some others call for rent control, a millionaire’s tax, and other direct approaches. But state law prevents cities from enacting rent control. So the city council is fiddling with ineffective plans to require developers to include a few below market rate units while they rip down block after block of older structures and evict tenants who will not be able to afford the new housing.

Here is another little walk I would recommend. Travel south from campus across the Montlake Bridge and another two miles along 23rd Ave. This is the heart of the Central District, Seattle’s historic African American and also Asian American neighborhood. No longer. Hyper gentrification has forced families of color out of that neighborhood and more and more out of the city. The CD, as it is known, is now only 20% African American. San Francisco, Portland, Berkeley, even Oakland are experiencing something similar, becoming richer, whiter and more Asian, losing working class families even while their political reputations seem to promise a new era of progressive action.

Where does it lead? Can the exciting social movements continue in a city that is affordable only for well-paid tech professionals? Will the billionaires continue to tolerate them? Will the tech boom (or is it a tech bubble) continue? Will the political leaders and voters at any point find the courage to say no to the plutocrats? Kita akan lihat.

This introduction was written by James Gregory for the Scales of Struggle Conference of the Labor and Working Class History Association which met in Seattle June 22-25, 2017


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Komen:

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  2. Nejora

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  4. Kazisho

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  5. Odwulf

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