Agama Cina: Ceramah

Agama Cina: Ceramah



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Oleh itu video adalah ceramah pendek mengenai agama-agama China kuno.


Agama Tradisional Cina

Agama cina bukan sistem kepercayaan dan amalan yang teratur dan bersatu. Tidak memiliki kepemimpinan, markas, pengasas, atau denominasi. Sebaliknya, & quot; Agama Cina & quot adalah istilah yang menggambarkan interaksi kompleks tradisi agama dan falsafah yang berbeza yang telah berpengaruh di China.

Agama Cina terdiri daripada empat tradisi utama: agama rakyat Cina, Konfusianisme, Taoisme dan Buddhisme. Pandangan agama kebanyakan orang Cina terdiri daripada gabungan kepercayaan dan amalan dari empat tradisi ini. Amat jarang dilakukan oleh seseorang kecuali orang lain. Bahagian ini memfokuskan kepada agama orang Cina atau agama orang asli, tetapi rujukan juga dibuat untuk tradisi lain.


Kandungan

Dinasti Han (206 SM – 220 CE) Sunting

Berbagai legenda menceritakan tentang kehadiran agama Buddha di tanah Cina pada zaman dahulu. Walaupun konsensus ilmiah adalah bahawa Buddhisme pertama kali datang ke China pada abad pertama Masehi semasa dinasti Han, melalui mubaligh dari India, [2] tidak diketahui secara tepat ketika Buddhisme memasuki China.

Generasi cendekiawan telah membahaskan sama ada mubaligh Buddha pertama kali sampai di Han China melalui jalan laut atau jalan darat di Jalan Sutera. Hipotesis laluan maritim, yang disukai oleh Liang Qichao dan Paul Pelliot, mengemukakan bahawa agama Buddha pada awalnya dipraktikkan di selatan China, Sungai Yangtze dan wilayah Sungai Huai. Sebaliknya, ia mesti masuk dari arah barat laut melalui koridor Gansu ke lembangan Sungai Kuning dan Dataran China Utara pada abad pertama Masehi. Adegan menjadi lebih jelas dari pertengahan abad kedua dan seterusnya, ketika para mubaligh yang pertama dikenali memulakan kegiatan terjemahan mereka di ibu kota, Luoyang. The Buku Han Kemudian mencatatkan bahawa pada tahun 65 M, pangeran Liu Ying dari Chu (Jiangsu sekarang) "gembira dengan praktik Taoisme Huang-Lao" dan mempunyai kedua-dua biksu dan orang awam Buddha di istananya yang memimpin upacara Buddha. [3] Hipotesis laluan darat, yang disukai oleh Tang Yongtong, mengusulkan agar agama Buddha disebarkan melalui Asia Tengah - khususnya, Kerajaan Kushan, yang sering dikenal dalam sumber-sumber China kuno sebagai Da Yuezhi ("Great Yuezhi"), setelah suku pendiri. Menurut hipotesis ini, agama Buddha mula-mula dipraktikkan di China di Wilayah Barat dan ibu kota Han Luoyang (sekarang Henan), di mana Maharaja Ming dari Han mendirikan Kuil Kuda Putih pada tahun 68 Masehi.

Pada tahun 2004, Rong Xinjiang, seorang profesor sejarah di Universiti Peking, memeriksa semula hipotesis darat dan maritim melalui tinjauan multi-disiplin mengenai penemuan dan penyelidikan baru-baru ini, termasuk Teks Buddha Gandhran, dan menyimpulkan:

Pandangan bahawa agama Buddha disebarkan ke China melalui jalan laut relatif tidak memiliki bahan yang meyakinkan dan menyokong, dan beberapa argumen tidak cukup ketat. Berdasarkan teks sejarah yang ada dan bahan ikonografi arkeologi yang ditemui sejak tahun 1980-an, terutama naskah Buddha abad pertama yang baru-baru ini dijumpai di Afghanistan, pengulas percaya bahawa teori yang paling masuk akal adalah bahawa Buddhisme sampai ke China dari Yuezhi Besar di barat laut India dan mengambil jalan darat untuk sampai ke Han China. Setelah masuk ke China, Buddhisme bercampur dengan Daoisme awal dan seni esoterik tradisional Cina dan ikonografinya mendapat penyembahan buta. [4]

Ahli sinologi Perancis Henri Maspero mengatakan bahawa ia adalah "fakta yang sangat ingin tahu" bahawa, di seluruh dinasti Han, Taoisme dan Buddhisme "selalu keliru dan muncul sebagai agama tunggal". [5] Satu abad setelah istana pangeran Liu Ying mendukung kedua Taois dan Buddha, pada tahun 166 Maharaja Huan dari Han membuat persembahan kepada Buddha dan pengorbanan kepada para dewa Huang-Lao Kaisar Kuning dan Laozi. [6] Minta maaf Cina pertama untuk agama Buddha, orang awam akhir abad ke-2 bernama Mouzi, mengatakan melalui Taoisme dia dibawa ke agama Buddha - yang disebutnya dàdào (大道, "Dao Besar").

Saya juga, ketika saya belum memahami Jalan Agung (Buddhisme), telah mempelajari amalan Tao. Beratus-ratus ribu resipi ada untuk jangka hayat melalui pantang dari bijirin. Saya mempraktikkannya, tetapi tanpa kejayaan saya melihat mereka digunakan, tetapi tanpa hasil. Itulah sebabnya saya meninggalkan mereka. [6]

Buddhisme Tionghoa awal digabungkan dan dicampur dengan Taoisme, dan di kalangan Taois itulah yang mendapat pertimbangan pertamanya. Jejak terbukti pada zaman Han terjemahan Cina dari kitab Buddha, yang hampir tidak membezakan antara nirwana Buddha dan keabadian Tao. Wuwei, konsep Taoisme tanpa campur tangan, adalah istilah biasa untuk menerjemahkan bahasa Sanskrit nirvana, yang ditranskripsikan sebagai nièpán (涅槃) dalam penggunaan Cina moden. [7]

Edit akaun tradisional

Sejumlah kisah popular dalam sastera Cina sejarah menyebabkan populariti legenda tertentu mengenai pengenalan agama Buddha ke China. Menurut yang paling popular, Maharaja Ming dari Han (28–75 M) mempercepat pengenalan ajaran Buddha ke China. (Awal abad ke-3 hingga awal abad ke-5) Mouzi Lihuolun pertama kali mencatat legenda ini:

Di masa lalu Kaisar Ming melihat dalam mimpi dewa yang tubuhnya mempunyai cahaya matahari dan yang terbang di hadapan istananya dan dia sangat gembira melihatnya. Keesokan harinya dia bertanya kepada para pegawainya: "Tuhan apa ini?" cendekiawan Fu Yi berkata: "Subjek anda telah mendengar mengatakan bahawa di India ada seseorang yang telah mencapai Dao dan yang disebut Buddha dia terbang di udara, tubuhnya mempunyai cahaya matahari yang semestinya tuhan itu." [8]

Kaisar kemudian menghantar utusan ke Tianzhu (India Selatan) untuk bertanya mengenai ajaran Buddha. [9] Kitab suci Buddha dikatakan telah dikembalikan ke China dengan punggung kuda putih, setelah itu Kuil Kuda Putih diberi nama. Dua bhikkhu India juga kembali bersama mereka, bernama Dharmaratna dan Kaśyapa Mātaṅga.

Sebuah lukisan dinding Cina abad ke-8 di Gua Mogao berhampiran Dunhuang di Gansu menggambarkan Kaisar Wu Han (r. 141-87 SM) menyembah patung seorang lelaki emas "lelaki emas yang dibawa pada tahun 121 SM oleh seorang jeneral Han yang hebat dalam kempennya menentang para nomad ". Walau bagaimanapun, tidak Shiji tidak juga Buku Han sejarah Kaisar Wu menyebutkan patung Buddha emas (bandingkan Kaisar Ming).

Terjemahan pertama Edit

Terjemahan dokumentasi pertama dari kitab Buddha dari pelbagai bahasa India ke bahasa Cina didokumentasikan pada tahun 148 CE dengan kedatangan seorang pangeran Parthian yang menjadi biksu An Shigao (Ch. 安世高). Dia bekerja untuk mendirikan kuil Buddha di Luoyang dan mengatur terjemahan kitab suci Buddha ke dalam bahasa Cina, yang membuktikan permulaan gelombang dakwah Buddha Asia Tengah yang berlangsung selama beberapa abad. Seorang Shigao menerjemahkan teks Buddha mengenai doktrin dasar, meditasi, dan abhidharma. Seorang Xuan (Ch. 安 玄), orang awam Parthian yang bekerja bersama An Shigao, juga menerjemahkan teks Buddha Mahāyāna awal di jalan bodhisattva.

Buddhisme Mahāyāna pertama kali disebarkan secara meluas di China oleh biksu Kushan Lokakṣema (Ch. 支 婁 迦 讖, aktif sekitar 164–186 M), yang berasal dari kerajaan Buddha kuno Gandhāra. Lokakṣema menerjemahkan sutra Mahāyāna penting seperti Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, serta sutra Mahāyāna awal yang jarang terjadi pada topik seperti samādhi, dan meditasi pada buddha Akṣobhya. Terjemahan dari Lokakṣema ini terus memberi gambaran tentang masa awal Buddhisme Mahāyāna. Kumpulan teks ini sering merangkumi penekanan pada amalan pertapa dan tempat tinggal hutan, dan penyerapan dalam keadaan tumpuan meditasi: [10]

Paul Harrison telah menggarap beberapa teks yang boleh dikatakan versi paling awal yang kita miliki dari Mahāyāna sūtras, yang diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Cina pada separuh terakhir abad kedua CE oleh penterjemah Indo-Scythian Lokakṣema. Harrison menunjukkan semangat dalam Lokakṣema sūtra corpus untuk latihan pertapa tambahan, untuk tinggal di hutan, dan terutama sekali untuk keadaan penyerapan meditasi (samādhi). Keadaan meditasi dan meditasi tampaknya telah menempati tempat utama di awal Mahāyāna, tentunya kerana keberkesanan rohani mereka tetapi juga kerana mereka mungkin memberi akses kepada wahyu dan inspirasi baru.

Sekolah Buddha awal Sunting

Semasa zaman awal Buddhisme Cina, sekolah-sekolah Buddha awal India diakui sebagai penting, dan teks-teksnya dipelajari, adalah Dharmaguptakas, Mahīśāsakas, Kāśyapīyas, Sarvāstivādins, dan Mahāsāṃghikas. [12]

Kaum Dharmaguptakas melakukan lebih banyak usaha daripada sekte lain untuk menyebarkan agama Buddha di luar India, ke daerah-daerah seperti Afghanistan, Asia Tengah, dan China, dan mereka mendapat kejayaan besar dalam melakukannya. [13] Oleh itu, kebanyakan negara yang menganut agama Buddha dari China, juga mengadopsi garis keturunan Dharmaguptaka vinaya dan pentahbisan untuk bhikkhu dan bhikṣuṇī. Menurut A.K. Warder, dalam beberapa hal di negara-negara Asia Timur, sekte Dharmaguptaka dapat dianggap bertahan hingga sekarang. [14] Warder lebih jauh menulis bahawa Dharmaguptakas dapat dikreditkan dengan berkesan membangun Buddhisme Cina pada masa awal: [15]

Kaum Dharmaguptakas adalah penganut Buddha pertama yang membangun diri mereka di Asia Tengah. Mereka tampaknya telah melakukan gerakan berputar-putar yang luas di sepanjang jalur perdagangan dari Aparānta ke barat laut ke Iran dan pada masa yang sama ke Oḍḍiyāna (lembah Suvastu, utara Gandhāra, yang menjadi salah satu pusat utama mereka). Setelah memantapkan diri mereka sejauh barat Parthia, mereka mengikuti "jalan sutera", paksi timur-barat Asia, ke timur melintasi Asia Tengah dan menuju ke China, di mana mereka secara berkesan mendirikan Buddhisme pada abad kedua dan ketiga Masihi. Mahīśāsakas dan Kāśyapīyas muncul telah mengikuti mereka di seluruh Asia ke China. [. ] Untuk periode awal Buddhisme Cina, Dharmaguptakas merupakan sekolah utama dan paling berpengaruh, dan bahkan kemudian Vinaya tetap menjadi asas disiplin di sana.

Enam Dinasti (220-589) Edit

Kaedah terjemahan awal Edit

Pada mulanya, agama Buddha di China menghadapi sejumlah kesulitan untuk menjadi mapan. Konsep monastik dan penolakan terhadap urusan sosial nampaknya bertentangan dengan norma dan piawaian yang telah lama wujud dalam masyarakat Cina. Bahkan ada yang menyatakan bahawa agama Buddha memudaratkan kewibawaan negara itu, bahawa biara-biara Buddha tidak memberikan sumbangan apa-apa terhadap kemakmuran ekonomi China, bahawa agama Buddha adalah biadab dan tidak sesuai dengan tradisi budaya China. [16] Namun, Buddhisme sering dikaitkan dengan Taoisme dalam tradisi pertapaan pertapaannya, dan untuk alasan ini sistem pencocokan konsep digunakan oleh beberapa penterjemah India awal, untuk menyesuaikan idea Buddha asli ke dalam idea dan terminologi Taois. [17] [18]

Buddhisme menarik minat para intelektual dan elit Cina dan pengembangan Buddhisme gentry dicari sebagai alternatif kepada Confucianisme dan Daoisme, kerana penekanan Buddhisme pada moral dan ritual menarik bagi Confucianis dan keinginan untuk menanam kebijaksanaan batin menarik bagi Taois. Buddhisme Gentry adalah media pengantar untuk permulaan Buddhisme di China, ia mendapat sokongan imperialis dan sopan. Menjelang awal abad ke-5 Buddhisme telah didirikan di China selatan. [19] Selama ini, para bhikkhu India terus melakukan perjalanan di sepanjang Jalan Sutera untuk mengajar agama Buddha, dan kerja terjemahan terutama dilakukan oleh bhikkhu asing dan bukannya orang Cina.

Kedatangan Kumārajīva (334–413 CE) Sunting

Ketika rahib terkenal Kumārajīva ditangkap semasa penaklukan China terhadap kerajaan Buddha Kucha, dia dipenjarakan selama bertahun-tahun. Ketika dibebaskan pada tahun 401 M, dia segera mendapat tempat tinggi dalam agama Buddha Cina dan dinilai sebagai tuan besar dari Barat. Dia sangat dihargai oleh Kaisar Yao Xing dari negara Kemudian Qin, yang memberinya gelaran kehormatan dan memperlakukannya seperti tuhan. Kumārajīva merevolusikan Buddhisme Cina dengan terjemahannya yang berkualiti tinggi (dari tahun 402–413 M), yang masih dipuji kerana kelancaran, kejelasan makna, kehalusan, dan keterampilan sastera yang mengalir. Oleh kerana usaha Kumārajīva, agama Buddha di China tidak hanya diakui untuk kaedah praktiknya, tetapi juga sebagai falsafah dan agama yang tinggi. Kedatangan Kumārajīva juga menetapkan standard untuk terjemahan teks teks Buddha dalam bahasa Cina, dengan berkesan menghilangkan sistem pencocokan konsep sebelumnya.

Terjemahan Kumārajīva sering lebih popular daripada terjemahan penterjemah lain. Antara yang paling terkenal adalah terjemahannya dari Sutra Berlian, Amitabha Sutra, Teratai Sutra, Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, dan juga Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra.

Suntingan Sūtra Piṭaka yang telah siap

Sekitar masa Kumārajīva, empat āgama Sanskrit utama juga diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Cina. Setiap āgama diterjemahkan secara bebas oleh seorang sami India yang berbeza. Āgama ini terdiri dari satu-satunya Sūtra Piṭaka yang masih hidup, yang umumnya setanding dengan Pali Sutta Pitaka dari Buddhisme Theravada. Ajaran Sūtra Piṭaka biasanya dianggap sebagai salah satu ajaran awal mengenai Buddhisme dan teks inti dari Sekolah-sekolah Buddha awal di China. Perlu diperhatikan bahawa sebelum zaman moden, āgama ini jarang sekali pernah digunakan oleh masyarakat Buddha, disebabkan oleh pengertian Hīnayāna mereka, kerana Buddhisme Cina sudah terbukti sebagai Mahāyāna sebagai pujukan.

Tradisi Buddha awal China Edit

Oleh kerana banyaknya teks Buddha terdapat dalam bahasa Cina dan sebilangan besar biksu asing yang datang untuk mengajar agama Buddha di China, seperti cabang-cabang baru yang tumbuh dari batang pokok utama, pelbagai tradisi fokus khusus muncul. Di antara yang paling berpengaruh adalah amalan Buddhisme Tanah Tulen yang didirikan oleh Hui Yuan, yang memfokuskan diri pada Buddha Amitābha dan tanah suci baratnya Sukhāvatī. Tradisi awal lain adalah sekolah Tiantai, Huayan dan Vinaya. [20] Sekolah-sekolah seperti itu didasarkan pada keutamaan sekolah Lotus Sūtra, Avataṃsaka Sūtra, dan juga Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, masing-masing, bersama dengan sutra dan ulasan tambahan. Pengasas Tiantai Zhiyi menulis beberapa karya yang menjadi buku panduan meditasi penting dan banyak dibaca di China seperti "Samatha-vipasyana ringkas", dan "samatha-vipasyana yang hebat."

Kehidupan harian para biarawati Edit

Aspek penting seorang biarawati adalah amalan vegetarian kerana sangat ditekankan dalam agama Buddha agar tidak membahayakan makhluk hidup dengan tujuan mereka memakannya. Ada juga beberapa biarawati yang tidak makan secara teratur, sebagai usaha berpuasa. Amalan pemakanan biarawati yang lain adalah amalan mereka menggunakan minyak wangi atau kemenyan sebagai "persiapan untuk membakar diri dengan api." [21]

Beberapa kegiatan biarawati sehari-hari termasuk membaca, menghafal, dan membaca kitab suci Buddha dan teks agama. Yang lain adalah meditasi kerana ia dilihat sebagai "jantung kehidupan biara Buddha." Ada ahli biografi yang menjelaskan ketika para biarawati bermeditasi mereka memasuki keadaan di mana badan mereka menjadi keras, kaku, dan seperti batu di mana mereka sering disalah anggap sebagai tidak bernyawa. [22]

Dinasti Selatan dan Utara (420-589) dan Dinasti Sui (589-618 M) Edit

Chán: menunjuk langsung ke minda Edit

Pada abad ke-5, ajaran Chán (Zen) bermula di China, secara tradisional dikaitkan dengan biksu Buddha Bodhidharma, seorang tokoh legenda. [Catatan 1] Sekolah menggunakan prinsip yang terdapat di Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, sūtra yang menggunakan ajaran Yogacāra dan ajaran Tathāgatagarbha, dan yang mengajarkan Satu Kendaraan (Skt. Ekayāna) kepada buddhahood. Pada tahun-tahun awal, ajaran Chán disebut sebagai "Sekolah Satu Kenderaan." [34] Sarjana terawal di sekolah Chán dipanggil "Laṅkāvatāra Masters", kerana penguasaan praktik mereka sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.

Ajaran utama Chán kemudiannya sering terkenal dengan penggunaan yang disebut temui cerita dan koans, dan kaedah pengajaran yang digunakan di dalamnya. Nan Huai-Chin mengenal pasti Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra dan juga Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) sebagai teks prinsip sekolah Chán, dan merangkum prinsip-prinsipnya secara ringkas:

Ajaran Zen adalah penyebaran yang terpisah di luar ajaran kitab suci yang tidak menganggap teks bertulis sebagai suci. Zen menunjuk langsung ke minda manusia untuk membolehkan orang melihat sifat sebenar mereka dan menjadi buddha. [35]

Dinasti Tang (618–907 CE) Sunting

Perjalanan Xuanzang ke barat Edit

Semasa dinasti Tang awal, antara tahun 629 dan 645, biksu Xuanzang melakukan perjalanan ke India dan mengunjungi lebih dari seratus kerajaan, dan menulis laporan yang luas dan terperinci mengenai penemuannya, yang kemudian menjadi penting untuk kajian India selama periode ini. Sepanjang perjalanannya, dia mengunjungi tempat-tempat suci, mempelajari pengetahuan imannya, dan belajar dengan banyak guru Buddha terkenal, terutama di pusat pembelajaran Buddha yang terkenal di Universiti Nālanda. Ketika kembali, dia membawa sebilangan 657 teks Sanskrit. Xuanzang juga kembali dengan peninggalan, patung, dan perlengkapan Buddha yang dimuat pada dua puluh dua ekor kuda. [36] Dengan sokongan maharaja, dia menubuhkan biro terjemahan besar di Chang'an (Xi'an sekarang), menarik pelajar dan kolaborator dari seluruh Asia Timur. Dia dikreditkan dengan terjemahan 1.330 fasik tulisan suci ke dalam bahasa Cina. Minat peribadinya yang paling kuat dalam agama Buddha adalah bidang Yogacāra, atau "Hanya kesadaran".

Kekuatan kajiannya sendiri, terjemahan dan ulasan teks-teks tradisi ini memulakan pengembangan sekolah Faxiang di Asia Timur. Walaupun sekolah itu sendiri tidak berkembang lama, teorinya mengenai persepsi, kesedaran, karma, kelahiran semula, dan lain-lain menemukan jalan masuk ke dalam doktrin sekolah lain yang lebih berjaya. Pelajar Xuanzang yang paling dekat dan paling terkenal adalah Kuiji yang mula dikenali sebagai bapa pertama sekolah Faxiang. Logik Xuanzang, seperti yang dijelaskan oleh Kuiji, sering disalahpahami oleh para sarjana agama Buddha Cina kerana mereka tidak memiliki latar belakang yang diperlukan dalam logika India. [37] Murid penting lain adalah rahib Korea Woncheuk.

Terjemahan Xuanzang sangat penting untuk penghantaran teks India yang berkaitan dengan sekolah Yogacāra. Dia menerjemahkan teks Yogacāra pusat seperti Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra dan juga Yogacārabhūmi Śāstra, serta teks penting seperti Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra dan juga Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra (Perubatan Buddha Sūtra). Dia dikreditkan dengan menulis atau menyusun Cheng Weishi Lun (Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi Śāstra) seperti yang disusun dari pelbagai ulasan mengenai Vasubandhu Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā. Terjemahannya mengenai Sūtra Hati menjadi dan tetap menjadi standard dalam semua mazhab Buddha Asia Timur. Penyebaran teks-teks ini memperluas kanon Buddha Cina dengan ketara dengan terjemahan berkualiti tinggi dari beberapa teks Buddha India yang paling penting.

Gua, seni, dan teknologi Edit

Kepopularan Buddhisme pada zaman ini terbukti di banyak gua dan struktur yang penuh dengan kitab suci yang masih bertahan dari zaman ini. Gua Mogao berhampiran Dunhuang di provinsi Gansu, Longmen Grottoes dekat Luoyang di Henan dan Yungang Grottoes berhampiran Datong di Shanxi adalah contoh yang paling terkenal dari Dinasti Wei, Sui dan Tang Utara. Buddha Raksasa Leshan, diukir dari lereng bukit pada abad ke-8 selama dinasti Tang dan memandang ke bawah pertemuan tiga sungai, masih merupakan patung Buddha batu terbesar di dunia.

Di kompleks gua Longmen, Wu Zetian (r. 690-705) –– penyokong agama Buddha yang terkenal selama dinasti Tang (memerintah sebagai Zhou) –– mengarahkan patung batu raksasa Buddha Vaircōcana dengan Bodhisattva. [38] [39] Sebagai maharaja wanita yang duduk sendiri, patung-patung ini melayani pelbagai tujuan, termasuk unjuran idea-idea Buddha yang akan mengesahkan mandat kekuasaannya. [38]

Para bhikkhu dan orang awam yang saleh menyebarkan konsep Buddha melalui penceritaan dan khotbah dari teks sutra. Persembahan lisan ini ditulis sebagai bianwen (kisah transformasi) yang mempengaruhi penulisan fiksyen dengan cara baru mereka bercerita yang menggabungkan prosa dan puisi. Legenda popular dalam gaya ini termasuk Mulian Menyelamatkan Ibunya, di mana seorang bhikkhu turun ke neraka dalam pertunjukan ketakwaan berbakti.

Membuat duplikasi teks Buddha dianggap membawa karma berjasa. Mencetak dari bongkah kayu yang diukir secara individu dan dari tanah liat atau logam yang boleh dipindahkan terbukti jauh lebih cekap daripada menyalin tangan dan akhirnya melipatnya. The Diamond Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) tahun 868 CE, sebuah kitab Buddha yang ditemui pada tahun 1907 di dalam Gua Mogao, adalah contoh percetakan blok bertarikh pertama. [40]

Ketibaan Sunting Buddha Esoterik

Tiga Guru Besar yang Tercerahkan di Kaiyuan, Śubhakarasiṃha, Vajrabodhi, dan Amoghavajra, mendirikan Buddhisme Esoterik di China dari tahun 716 hingga 720 M semasa pemerintahan maharaja Xuanzong. Mereka datang ke Daxing Shansi (大興 善 寺, Kuil Kebaikan Besar), yang merupakan pendahulu Temple of the Great Enlightener Mahavairocana. Daxing Shansi didirikan di ibu kota kuno Chang'an, Xi'an hari ini, dan menjadi salah satu daripada empat pusat terjemahan tulisan suci yang hebat yang didukung oleh istana kekaisaran. Mereka telah menerjemahkan banyak kitab suci Buddha, sutra dan tantra, dari bahasa Sanskrit ke bahasa Cina. Mereka juga telah mengasimilasikan ajaran-ajaran China yang berlaku: Taoisme dan Konfusianisme, dengan Buddhisme, dan selanjutnya mengembangkan praktik tradisi Buddha Esoteris Cina.

Mereka membawa kepada orang-orang Tionghoa sebuah ajaran misterius, dinamis, dan ajaib, yang merangkumi formula mantra dan ritual terperinci untuk melindungi seseorang atau sebuah kerajaan, untuk mempengaruhi nasib seseorang setelah mati, dan, yang sangat popular, membawa hujan pada musim kemarau. Oleh itu, tidak mengherankan bahawa ketiga-tiga tuan diterima dengan baik oleh maharaja Tang Xuanzong, dan ajaran mereka dengan cepat diterapkan di istana Tang dan di kalangan golongan elit. Mezbah Mantrayana dipasang di kuil-kuil di ibu kota, dan pada masa maharaja Tang Daizong (r. 762–779) pengaruhnya di kalangan kelas atas melebihi pengaruh Daoisme. Namun, hubungan antara Amoghavajra dan Daizong sangat baik. Dalam hidupnya, maharaja memilih Amoghavajra dengan gelaran dan hadiah, dan ketika tuannya meninggal pada tahun 774, dia menghormati ingatannya dengan stupa, atau monumen pemakaman. Tuan Huiguo, seorang murid Amoghavajra, menyampaikan beberapa ajaran Buddha yang esoterik kepada Kūkai, salah satu dari banyak bhikkhu Jepun yang datang ke Tang China untuk belajar Buddhisme, termasuk Mandala dari Dua Alam, Alam Womb dan Alam Berlian. Master Kukai kembali ke Jepun untuk menubuhkan sekolah agama Buddha Esoterik Jepun, yang kemudian dikenali sebagai agama Buddha Shingon. Keturunan Buddha Esoteris yang disebarkan ke Jepun di bawah naungan para bhikkhu Kūkai dan Saicho, kemudian merumuskan ajaran yang disampaikan kepada mereka untuk mewujudkan mazhab Shingon dan mazhab Tendai.

Tidak seperti di Jepun, Buddhisme Esoterik di China tidak dipandang sebagai "sekolah" agama Buddha yang terpisah dan berbeza, melainkan dipahami sebagai satu set amalan dan ajaran yang berkaitan yang dapat disatukan bersama dengan tradisi Buddha Cina yang lain seperti Chan. [41]

Penindasan keadaan Tang 845 Edit

Penentangan terhadap agama Buddha terkumpul dari masa ke masa selama dinasti Tang, terkumpul dalam Penganiayaan Anti-Buddha Besar di bawah Maharaja Tang Wuzong.

Terdapat beberapa komponen yang menyebabkan penentangan agama Buddha. Salah satu faktornya adalah asal usul agama Buddha, tidak seperti Taoisme dan Konfusianisme. Han Yu menulis, "Buddha adalah orang barbar yang tidak dapat berbahasa Cina dan mengenakan pakaian dengan cara yang berbeda. Kata-katanya tidak menyangkut cara raja-raja kuno kita, dan juga cara berpakaiannya sesuai dengan undang-undang mereka. Dia juga tidak memahami tugas yang mengikat kedaulatan dan tunduk, dan juga kasih sayang ayah dan anak. "

Komponen lain termasuk pengunduran umat Buddha dari masyarakat, kerana orang Cina percaya bahawa orang Cina harus terlibat dengan kehidupan keluarga. Kekayaan, status pengecualian cukai dan kuasa kuil dan biara Buddha juga mengganggu banyak pengkritik. [45]

Seperti disebutkan sebelumnya, penganiayaan terjadi pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Wuzong di dinasti Tang. Wuzong dikatakan membenci pandangan para sami Buddha, yang menurutnya adalah penghindar cukai. Pada tahun 845, dia memerintahkan penghancuran 4.600 biara Buddha dan 40,000 kuil. Lebih daripada 400,000 sami dan biarawati Buddha kemudian menjadi petani yang bertanggungjawab terhadap Dua Pajak (gandum dan kain). [46] Wuzong menyebut bahawa agama Buddha adalah agama asing, itulah sebabnya dia juga menganiaya orang Kristian di China. David Graeber berpendapat bahawa institusi Buddha telah mengumpulkan banyak logam berharga yang diperlukan oleh pemerintah untuk menjamin bekalan wang. [47]

Lima Zaman Dinasti dan Sepuluh Kerajaan (907–960 / 979) Sunting

Tempoh Lima Dinasti dan Sepuluh Kerajaan (五代 十 国 五代 十 國 Wǔdài Shíguó ) adalah era pergolakan politik di China, antara jatuhnya dinasti Tang dan berdirinya dinasti Song. Dalam tempoh ini, lima dinasti dengan cepat berjaya satu sama lain di utara, dan lebih dari 12 negara merdeka ditubuhkan, terutama di selatan. Namun, hanya sepuluh yang tersenarai secara tradisional, oleh itu nama era, "Sepuluh Kerajaan". Sebilangan sejarawan, seperti Bo Yang, menghitung sebelas, termasuk Yan dan Qi, tetapi bukan Han Utara, melihatnya sebagai kesinambungan dari Han Kemudian. Era ini juga membawa kepada penubuhan dinasti Liao.

Setelah kejatuhan dinasti Tang, China tanpa kawalan pusat yang efektif selama periode Lima Dinasti dan Sepuluh Kerajaan. China dibahagikan kepada beberapa wilayah autonomi. Sokongan untuk agama Buddha terhad kepada beberapa kawasan. Sekolah Hua-yen dan T'ien-t'ai menderita dari perubahan keadaan, karena mereka bergantung pada dukungan kekaisaran. Keruntuhan masyarakat T'ang juga melucutkan kekayaan dan pengaruh kelas bangsawan, yang bermaksud kelemahan lebih lanjut bagi agama Buddha. Sekolah Shenxiu Utara Chán dan Sekolah Selatan Chán Henshui tidak bertahan dalam keadaan yang berubah-ubah. Walaupun begitu, Chán muncul sebagai aliran dominan dalam Buddhisme Cina, tetapi dengan berbagai sekolah mengembangkan berbagai penekanan dalam ajaran mereka, kerana orientasi wilayah pada masa itu. Sekolah Fayan, dinamai Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958) menjadi sekolah yang dominan di kerajaan selatan Nan-T'ang (Jiangxi, Chiang-hsi) dan Wuyue (Che-chiang). [48]

Dinasti Song (960–1279) Sunting

Dinasti Song terbahagi kepada dua periode yang berbeza: Lagu Utara dan Lagu Selatan. Semasa Song Utara (北宋, 960-1127), ibu kota Song berada di kota utara Bianjing (sekarang Kaifeng) dan dinasti menguasai sebahagian besar wilayah China. Lagu Selatan (南宋, 1127–1279) merujuk pada periode setelah Song kehilangan penguasaan China utara oleh dinasti Jin. Selama ini, pengadilan Song mundur ke selatan Sungai Yangtze dan mendirikan ibu kota mereka di Lin'an (sekarang Hangzhou). Walaupun Dinasti Song telah kehilangan kawalan tempat kelahiran tradisional peradaban Cina di sepanjang Sungai Kuning, ekonomi Song tidak hancur, kerana Kerajaan Song Selatan mengandungi 60 peratus penduduk China dan sebahagian besar tanah pertanian yang paling produktif. [49]

Semasa dinasti Song, Chán (禪) digunakan oleh pemerintah untuk memperkuat penguasaannya terhadap negara ini, dan Chán tumbuh menjadi mazhab terbesar dalam agama Buddha Cina. Gambaran ideal mengenai Chán pada zaman Tang dihasilkan, yang memberikan warisan status yang baru diperoleh ini. [50]

Pada dinasti Song awal "sinkretisme Chán-Pure Land menjadi gerakan yang dominan." [51] Ideologi Buddha mula bergabung dengan Konfusianisme dan Taoisme, sebahagiannya disebabkan oleh penggunaan istilah falsafah Cina yang ada dalam terjemahan kitab suci Buddha. Berbagai sarjana Confucian dari dinasti Song, termasuk Zhu Xi (wg: Chu Hsi), berusaha untuk mentakrifkan semula Confucianisme sebagai Neo-Confucianisme.

Semasa dinasti Song, pada tahun 1021 CE, tercatat bahawa terdapat 458.855 biksu dan biarawati Buddha yang aktif tinggal di biara. [46] Jumlah bhikkhu adalah 397,615, sementara jumlah biarawati dicatat sebagai 61.240. [46]

Peraturan Yuan Mongol (1279–1368) Edit

Semasa penguasaan Mongol Yuan, maharaja Mongol menjadikan Buddhisme Esoterik sebagai agama rasmi kerajaan mereka yang merupakan sebahagian dari China, dan lam Tibet diberi perlindungan di istana. [52] Persepsi umum adalah bahawa perlindungan lamas ini menyebabkan bentuk tantra yang rosak menjadi tersebar luas. [52] Ketika dinasti Yuan Mongol digulingkan dan dinasti Ming ditubuhkan, lam Tibet diusir dari istana, dan bentuk Buddhisme ini dikecam sebagai bukan jalan ortodoks. [52]

Dinasti Ming (1368–1644) Sunting

Semasa dinasti Ming, pelbagai tradisi Buddha Cina, seperti Chan, Tiantai, Tanah Murni dan Buddhisme Esoterik Cina, bergabung bersama pada tahap yang lebih besar daripada sebelumnya. Menurut Weinstein, oleh dinasti Ming, sekolah Chan didirikan dengan begitu kuat sehingga semua bhikkhu berafiliasi dengan sekolah Linji atau sekolah Caodong. [53]

Sami rahsia

Semasa dinasti Ming, Hanshan Deqing adalah salah satu pembaharu besar Buddhisme Cina. [54] Seperti banyak orang sezamannya, dia menganjurkan praktik ganda kaedah Chán dan Tanah Murni, dan menganjurkan penggunaan nianfo ("Kesadaran Buddha") teknik untuk menyucikan pikiran untuk mencapai kesadaran diri. [54] Dia juga mengarahkan para praktisi dalam penggunaan mantera dan juga membaca tulisan suci. Dia juga terkenal sebagai pensyarah dan komentator dan mengagumi kepatuhannya terhadap ajaran tersebut. [54]

Menurut Jiang Wu, bagi master Chan pada periode ini seperti Hanshan Deqing, latihan melalui pemupukan diri digalakkan, dan petunjuk klise atau formula dibenci. [55] Para bhikkhu terkemuka yang mengamalkan meditasi dan pertapa tanpa penyampaian Dharma yang tepat diakui kerana telah memperoleh "kebijaksanaan tanpa seorang guru." [55]

Biarawati Terkenal

Semasa Dinasti Ming, wanita dari pelbagai usia dapat memasuki kehidupan biara sejak dari usia lima atau enam tahun hingga tujuh puluh tahun. [56] Terdapat pelbagai alasan mengapa seorang wanita Ming memasuki kehidupan beragama menjadi biarawati. Beberapa wanita jatuh sakit dan percaya dengan memasuki kehidupan beragama mereka dapat meringankan penderitaan mereka. [57] Ada wanita lain, yang telah menjadi janda kerana kematian suaminya atau bertunang sehingga tidak memilih untuk bergabung dengan biara. [58] Banyak wanita yang ditinggalkan janda terjejas dari segi kewangan kerana mereka sering terpaksa menolong keluarga mertuanya, dan oleh itu ibu bapa, menyertai biara bukanlah pilihan yang buruk. By devoting themselves to religion, they received less social criticism from society because during the Ming time women were expected to remain faithful to their husband. An example of this is Xia Shuji. Xia's husband Hou Xun, (1591-1645), had led a resistance in Jiading which arrested the Qing troops who later on beheaded him. [59] Xia Shuji who secluded herself from the outside life to devote herself to religion and took on the religious name of Shengyin. [60]

During the time of late Ming, a period of social upheaval, the monastery or convent provided shelter for these women who no longer had protection from a male in their family: husband, son or father due to death, financial constraint and other situations. [56] However, in most circumstances, a woman who wanted to join a nunnery was because they wanted to escape a marriage or they felt isolated as her husband has died- she also had to overcome many difficulties that arose socially from this decision. For most of these women, a convent was seen as a haven to escape their family or an unwanted marriage. Such difficulties were due to the social expectation of the women as it was considered unfilial to leave their duty as a wife, daughter, mother or daughter in law. [61] There were also some cases where some individuals were sold by their family to earn money in a convent by reciting sutras, and performing Buddhist services because they weren't able to financially support them. [62] Jixing entered into a religious life as a young girl due to the fact that her family had no money to raise her. [63]

Lastly, there were some who became part of the Buddhist convent because of a spiritual calling where they found comfort to the religious life, an example would be Zhang Ruyu. [64] Zhang took the religious name, Miaohui, and just before she entered the religious life she wrote the poem below:

Through her poetry, Miaohui (Zhang Ruyu) she conveys the emotions of fully understanding and concluding the difference in the life outside without devotion to religion and the life in a monastery, known as the Buddhist terms between “form and emptiness.” [66] Women like Miaohui, Zhang, had found happiness and fulfillment in the convent that they could not seek in the outside world. Despite the many reasons for entering the religious life, most women had to obtain permission from a male in their life (father, husband, or son). [67] Most of the nuns who have entered the religious life seclude themselves from the outside life away from their family and relatives.

Worshipped Edit

Most nuns participated in religious practices with devotions to many different bodhisattva and Buddha. Some examples of bodhisattvas are Guan Yin, Amitabha Buddha, Maitreya, and Pindola.

One of the most prominent bodhisattvas in Chinese Buddhism is Guanyin, known as Goddess of Compassion, Mercy and Love is also a protector and savior for those who worship and needs Guanyin's aid. [68]

Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Edit

The Qing court endorsed the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism. [69] Early in the Taiping rebellion, the Taiping rebels targeted Buddhism. In the Battle of Nanjing (1853), the Taiping army butchered thousands of monks in Nanjing [ rujukan diperlukan ]. But from the middle of the Taiping rebellion, Taiping leaders took a more moderate approach, demanding that monks should have licences. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Around 1900, Buddhists from other Asian countries showed a growing interest in Chinese Buddhism. Anagarika Dharmapala visited Shanghai in 1893, [70] intending "to make a tour of China, to arouse the Chinese Buddhists to send missionaries to India to restore Buddhism there, and then to start a propaganda throughout the whole world", but eventually limiting his stay to Shanghai. [70] Japanese Buddhist missionaries were active in China in the beginning of the 20th century. [70]

Republic of China (established 1912) Edit

The modernisation of China led to the end of the Chinese Empire, and the installation of the Republic of China, which lasted on the mainland until the Communist Revolution and the installation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 which also led to the ROC government's exodus to Taiwan.

Under influence of the western culture, attempts were being made to revitalize Chinese Buddhism. [71] Most notable were the Humanistic Buddhism of Taixu, and the revival of Chinese Chán by Hsu Yun. [71] Hsu Yun is generally regarded as one of the most influential Buddhist teachers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Other influential teachers in the early 20th century included Pure land Buddhist Yin Guang ( 印光 ) [72] and artist Hong Yi. Layman Zhao Puchu worked much on the revival.

Until 1949, monasteries were built in the Southeast Asian countries, for example by monks of Guanghua Monastery, to spread Chinese Buddhism. Presently, Guanghua Monastery has seven branches in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia. [73] Several Chinese Buddhist teachers left mainland China during the Communist Revolution, and settled in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Master Hsing Yun (1927–present) is the founder of Fo Guang Shan monastery and lay organization the Buddha's Light International Association. Born in Jiangsu Province in mainland China, he entered the Sangha at the age of 12, and came to Taiwan in 1949. He founded Fo Guang Shan monastery in 1967, and the Buddha's Light International Association in 1992. These are among the largest monastic and lay Buddhist organizations in Taiwan from the late 20th to early 21st centuries. He advocates Humanistic Buddhism, which the broad modern Chinese Buddhist progressive attitude towards the religion.

Master Sheng Yen (1930–2009) was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain, a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan. During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world.

Master Wei Chueh was born in 1928 in Sichuan, mainland China, and ordained in Taiwan. In 1982, he founded Lin Quan Temple in Taipei County and became known for his teaching on Ch'an practices by offering many lectures and seven-day Ch'an retreats.

People's Republic of China (established 1949) Edit

Chinese Buddhist Association Edit

Unlike Catholicism and other branches of Christianity, there was no organization in China that embraced all monastics in China, nor even all monastics within the same sect. Traditionally each monastery was autonomous, with authority resting on each respective abbot. In 1953, the Chinese Buddhist Association was established at a meeting with 121 delegates in Beijing. The meeting also elected a chairman, 4 honorary chairmen, 7 vice-chairmen, a secretary general, 3 deputy secretaries-general, 18 members of a standing committee, and 93 directors. The 4 elected honorary chairmen were the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama, the Grand Lama of Inner Mongolia, and Venerable Master Hsu Yun. [74]

Reform and opening up – Second Buddhist Revival Edit

Since the reform and opening up period in the 1970s, a new revival of Chinese Buddhism has been taking place. [75] [76] [77] [78] Ancient Buddhist temples are being restored and new Buddhist temples are being built.

Chinese Buddhist temples, administrated by local governments, have become increasingly commercialized by sales of tickets, incense, or other religious items soliciting donations and even the listing of temples on the stock market and local governments obtain large incomes. In October 2012, the State Administration for Religious Affairs announced a crackdown on religious profiteering. [79] Many sites have done enough repairs and have already cancelled ticket fares and are receiving voluntary donation instead. [80] [81]

The 108-metre-high Guan Yin of the South Sea of Sanya statue was enshrined on April 24, 2005 with the participation of 108 eminent monks from various Buddhist groups from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and tens of thousands of pilgrims. The delegation also included monks from the Theravada and Tibetan Buddhist traditions. [82] [83] China is one of the countries with the most of the world's highest statues, many of which are Buddhist statues.

In April 2006 China organized the World Buddhist Forum, an event now held every two years, and in March 2007 the government banned mining on Buddhist sacred mountains. [84] In May of the same year, in Changzhou, the world's tallest pagoda was built and opened. [85] [86] [87] In March 2008 the Taiwan-based organizations Tzu Chi Foundation and Fo Guang Shan were approved to open a branch in mainland China. [88] [89]

Currently, there are about 1.3 billion Chinese living in the People's Republic. Surveys have found that around 18.2% to 20% of this population adheres to Buddhism. [90] Furthermore, PEW found that another 21% of the Chinese population followed Chinese folk religions that incorporated elements of Buddhism. [91]

Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia Edit

Chinese Buddhism is mainly practiced by ethnic Han-Chinese in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Buddhism in the West Edit

The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua, who taught Chán and other traditions of Chinese Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, a monastery and retreat center located on a 237-acre (959,000 m 2 ) property near Ukiah, California. Chuang Yen Monastery and Hsi Lai Temple are also large centers.

Sheng Yen also founded dharma centers in the USA.

With the rapid increase of immigrants from mainland China to Western countries in the 1980s, the landscape of the Chinese Buddhism in local societies has also changed over time. Based on fieldwork research conducted in France, some scholars categorize three patterns in the collective Buddhism practice among Chinese Buddhists in France: An ethnolinguistic immigrant group, a transnational organizational system, and information technology. These distinctions are made according to the linkages of globalization.

In the first pattern, religious globalization is a product of immigrants’ transplantation of local cultural traditions. For example, people of similar immigration experiences establish a Buddha hall (佛堂) within the framework of their associations for collective religious activities.

The second pattern features the transnational expansion of a large institutionalized organization centered on a charismatic leader, such as Fo Guang Shan (佛光山), Tzu Chi (慈濟) and Amitabha Buddhist Society (淨宗學會).

In the third pattern, religious globalization features the use of information technology such as websites, blogs, Emails and social media to ensure direct interaction between members in different places and between members and their leader. The Buddhist organization led by Jun Hong Lu is a typical example of this kind of group. [92]

Esoteric Buddhism Edit

In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore, Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mìzōng ( 密宗 ), or "Esoteric School." Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as Tángmì ( 唐密 ), "Tang Dynasty Esoterica," or Hànchuán Mìzōng ( 漢傳密宗 ), "Han Transmission Esoteric School" (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì ( 東密 ), "Eastern Esoterica," separating itself from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, and in some cases, Chinese monks have traveled to Japan to train and to be given esoteric transmission at Mount Kōya and Mount Hiei.

Unrecognised sects Edit

There are many sects and organisations proclaiming a Buddhist identity and pursuit (fo atau fu: "awakening", "enlightenment") that are not recognised as legitimate Buddhism by the Chinese Buddhist Association and the government of the People's Republic of China. This group includes:

    Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] ( 观音佛教 Guānyīn Fójiào) or Guanyin Church ( 观音会 Guānyīn Huì) [93] ( 真佛宗 Zhēnfó Zōng)
  • Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] of the Lord of Heaven of Infinite Thriving of the Mountain of Longevity ( 寿山万隆天主佛教 Shòushān Wànlóng Tiānzhǔ Fójiào)
  • Wulian Jingang Dadao ("Great Way of the Innumerable Attendants of Awakening")

Basic concepts Edit

Chinese Buddhism incorporates elements of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism.

  • paying homage to Triple Gems
  • veneration of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
  • through offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.
  • offerings to Devas who reside in the heavenly realm
  • paying respect to one's own ancestors during Qingming and Zhong Yuan Festival
  • conducting or participate religious services to pray for one's own ancestors and the souls of deceased to attain peace and liberation ( 超渡 )
  • creating positive affinities with other people, through gifts of Dharma books and acts of charity or social service ( 結緣 ) : monastics are required to be vegetarian, devout laity are also often vegetarian on certain sacred days or festivals.
  • compassion towards all living beings through activities such as "life release"
  • existence of gods, ghosts and hell realm
  • reincarnation ( 超生 ), or more technically, rebirth, according to one's karma
  • karmic retribution ( 報應 ), ethically cause and effect

Incense burning Edit

Burning incense, translated to “shaoxiang” in Chinese, is a traditional and ubiquitous religious practice for almost all prayers, and other forms of worship. During the Zhou dynasty, Chinese believed that smoke resulting from burning of sandalwood would act as a bridge between the human world and the spirits. [94]

The philosophy behind incense burning is to sacrifice oneself for the benefit of others, the true spirit of Buddhism. The specific knowledge of incense as a healing tool was assimilated into the religious practices of the time from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

It can be seen that incense burning as it is known today is a merger between Chinese folk religious, Taoist, Confucian, ancestral worship and Chinese Buddhist practice and traditions.

Laypeople in Chinese Buddhism Edit

In Chinese Buddhism, lay practitioners have traditionally played an important role, and lay practice of Buddhism has had similar tendencies to those of monastic Buddhism in China. [95] Many historical biographies of lay Buddhists are available, which give a clear picture of their practices and role in Chinese Buddhism. In addition to these numerous biographies, there are accounts from Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci which provide extensive and revealing accounts to the degree Buddhism penetrated elite and popular culture in China. [95]

Traditional practices such as meditation, mantra recitation, mindfulness of Amitābha Buddha, asceticism, and vegetarianism were all integrated into the belief systems of ordinary people. [95] It is known from accounts in the Ming Dynasty that lay practitioners often engaged in practices from both the Pure Land and Chán traditions, as well as the study of the Buddhist sūtras. The Sūtra Hati dan juga Diamond Sūtra were the most popular, followed by the Lotus Sūtra dan juga Avataṃsaka Sūtra. [95]

Laypeople are also commonly devoted to the practice of mantras, and mantras such as the Mahā Karuṇā Dhāraṇī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī are very popular. [95] Robert Gimello has also observed that in Chinese Buddhist communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī enjoyed popularity among both the populace and the elite. [96]

Mahāyāna figures such as Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva, Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva, Amitābha Buddha, and the Medicine Buddha, are all widely known and revered. Beliefs in karma and rebirth are held at all levels of Chinese society, and pilgrimages to well-known monasteries and the four holy mountains of China are undertaken by monastics and lay practitioners alike. [95]

Perayaan Edit

These are the holy days that Chinese Buddhists celebrate by visiting temples to make offerings of prayers, incense, fruits, flowers and donations. On such days they observe the moral precepts very strictly as well as a full day's vegetarian diet, a practice originally from China.

The dates given are based on the Chinese calendar system so that 8.4 means the Eighth day of the fourth month in Chinese calendar dan sebagainya. [97]


Welcome

James Miller is the inaugural Professor of Humanities, Co-Director of the Humanities Research Center, and Associate Dean for Interdisciplinary Strategy at Duke Kunshan University. He is also Editor-in-chief of Worldviews: Global Religions, Cultures, and Ecology.

Duke Kunshan University is a new joint venture university created by Duke University (USA) and Wuhan University (China) with an innovative, interdisciplinary liberal arts and science curriculum. Its first undergraduates will graduate in 2022.

Professor Miller’s academic career began with the study of Chinese language and culture at Durham University in the UK. He has become a leading interpreter of Daoist religion, through his study of the medieval Chinese religious movement known as The Way of Highest Clarity. Over the past eighteen years, he has published six books on Chinese religions, including most recently China’s Green Religion (May 2017). Professor Miller’s has given lectures around the world in English, Chinese and Spanish, and his work has been translated into Italian, Chinese and Farsi.

Professor Miller is widely known as a key scholar of religion and ecology in China. China is now the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and will eclipse the US as the world’s leading economy within a decade. China is experiencing massive economic change and unprecedent environmental devastation. Professor Miller’s research illuminates how China’s religious and cultural traditions, especially Daoism, continue to influence Chinese social imagination about nature and environment and can help develop a Chinese ethic of ecological sustainability.

In addition to scholarly publishing, Professor Miller regularly speaks at academic conferences, and gives public lectures and media interviews on a wide variety of topics related to religion and culture in China. Media outlets have included the Washington Post, CTV Newsworld, CTV Canada AM, and the Christian Science Monitor. He has given guest lectures all over the world, in multiple languages, from China’s Fudan University, to the Australian National University and even the United States Naval War College. He has also consulted on legal matters related to Chinese religions in North American society, including preparing expert witness testimony for civil court proceedings.

As well as conducting research and teaching, Professor Miller is respected as a senior academic administrator with professional competencies related to curriculum design, program development, recruitment, and vision for higher education. He has consulted for senior administration in issues related to international education and imagining new strategies for higher education.

Prior to joining Duke Kunshan University he served as director of Queen’s interdisciplinary graduate program in Cultural Studies, co-chair of the Religion and Ecology group at the American Academy of Religion, and director of Queen’s School of Religion.


Kesenian

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich spiritual and mystical history. Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual figures of Buddhism, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture, including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is the birthplace of kung fu. This fighting technique is based on animal movements and was created in the mid-1600s, according to Black Belt Magazine.

Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers — especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.

Recently, archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb in China. "The murals of this tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot be found in other tombs of the same period," a team of archaeologists wrote in an article recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese Archaeology. [Ancient Tomb with 'Blue Monster' Mural Discovered in China]


Aspect 5: Goal — Harmony or Truth

Orang Cina have a strong system of respect. Much of this comes from the Confucian system of hierarchy. Harmony is considered more important than pointing out faults, so, when a fault must be mentioned, great care is taken to avoid giving offense.

Westerners have a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and want to know what the "truth" of a situation is. While in the East respect is taken for granted, in the West respect is earned, and criticism is typically direct and unveiled.

I n China, b e more generous with respect and tactful with criticism.


5. Impact of the School of Names

One stark difference between the two main texts of Daoism is the relation to the School of Names. The Laozi, though clearly having a theory of the pragmatics of naming, betrays neither exposure to the doctrines nor the analytical terminology developed by the dialectical Mohists for dealing with theory of language. The Zhuangzi clearly does reveal that exposure. To understand this phase in the development of Daoism, we note briefly what the outstanding linguistic issues were and how they were formulated, then we will look at the implications of Daoist responses&mdashparticularly those found in the Zhuangzi.

The focus on ming words:names grows from recognizing the interpretive problem concerning acting on some guide. The disputes about dao are intimately tied to issues about words&mdashin particular, what is to count as a correct use and what action or objects count as following the guidance.

The early Mohists advocated using a utilitarian standard to determine both the correct application of words to actions and the choice of word order in social guiding discourse. &ldquoWhich dao should we follow&rdquo became &ldquowhich words shall we use to socialize people and how should we interpret the words of social guiding discourse in guiding our behavior?&rdquo In effect, the early Mohist answer to both questions is settled by making allegedly &ldquonatural&rdquo distinctions between benefit and harm. Thus language content and conventions of interpretation should be governed by the utility principle.

Later Mohists formulated a more &ldquorealistic&rdquo theory of what counts as the normatively correct way to use names. We should mark the distinctions that underlie names in ways that trace patterns of objective similarity and difference in things. This realism governs the correct ways both to use terms and to interpret them. We rely on utility to determine how we structure terms into strings in guidance&mdashin discourse dao . So, for example, a thief is a man&mdashis governed by the rules of similarity. Still, we allow guidance that includes both the guiding strings &ldquodon&rsquot kill men&rdquo and &ldquoyou may kill thieves.&rdquo

This realism led the later Mohists to linguistic conclusions that challenged any anti-language attitude&mdashincluding those expressed by early Daoists. First, the later Mohists argued that in any disagreement about how to distinguish realities with names, there was a right answer. It may, however, be hard to know or prove. So, for example, if we are disputing about whether to use &ldquoox&rdquo or &ldquonon-ox&rdquo of some obscure object, one of the answers will be correct. This undermines both the nihilistic and the anti-language options to understanding Laozi. Second, Mohists argued that any attempt to formulate the anti-language position was self condemning. &ldquoAll language is bad&rdquo must be a &ldquobad&rdquo thing to say.

Other figures classified in the School of Names responded to the Mohist realists. Gongsun Long (mentioned sporadically in the Zhuangzi) took himself to be defending Confucian accounts of rectifying names and Hui Shi constructs what looks like a relativist challenge to Later Mohist accounts. We will look only at Hui Shi&rsquos account here because he plays such a significant role in the text of the Zhuangzi .

Hui Shi implicitly addressed the claim that the correct use of words depends on objective patterns of similarity and difference. What we know of his writings (which the Zhuangzi history suggests were prodigious) is mainly a sequence of theses cited at the end of the Zhuangzi history. These focused on propositions about comparative &ldquonames&rdquo&mdashe.g., large and small. Clearly some things properly termed &lsquolarge&rsquo are objectively smaller than other things properly called &lsquosmall&rsquo. A small elephant is considerably larger than a huge ant! So correct naming must not be based on objective distinctions in the world, but on our projections from a point of view or purpose in using them. Similarly, &lsquotall&rsquo, &lsquoshort&rsquo, and time words (e.g., &lsquobefore&rsquo and &lsquoafter&rsquo, &lsquotoday&rsquo and &lsquotomorrow&rsquo) are implausibly attributed to objective distinctions

From this, according to the list of propositions in the Zhuangzi history, Hui Shi apparently concluded that we can cluster things in arbitrary ways. This insight is not taken to be about sets and members, but about divisions into parts and wholes. So we can speak of a great &ldquoone&rdquo that is a kind of everything concept&mdashnothing lies outside it and of a small &ldquoone&rdquo which cannot be further distinguished or divided. Objectively there are no distinctions&mdashthe cosmos is one, and we should direct the same guiding attitudes toward the whole&mdash&ldquolove all things equally.&rdquo


China's Grand Strategy in the Western Hemisphere

The importance of Latin America and the Caribbean to China is multifold, but two issues predominate: Taiwan and access to raw materials, especially energy.

Taiwan

The PRC will not feel its rise to power is complete without returning Taiwan to the Mainland's political control. Taiwan and China have been separated since the 1949 civil war, and it is Beijing's view that Taiwan is a "renegade province" that must be "reunified" with the PRC.

To the tremendous frustration of the PRC, the Chinese view of Taiwan's sovereignty is increasingly in the minority of public opinion on Taiwan. As a result, China is employing every instrument of its national power to effect unification with Taiwan, including an unwillingness to renounce the use of force to resolve Taiwan's future.

One of China's tactics is an effort to politically isolate Taiwan internationally by enticing countries that currently diplomatically recognize Taiwan to shift allegiances to the PRC. The majority of the countries that recognize Taiwan are in Latin America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.

At present, six nations in Central America--Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala--retain full diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Beginning with Chile in 1970, all but one South American state--Paraguay--have moved to recognize Beijing. In the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines have relations with Taiwan. Dominica switched allegiances to the PRC last year.

For Taiwan, the states of Central America and the Caribbean, and Paraguay, represent a relatively solid regional commitment to its status as a state separate from China. These states represent nearly half of Taiwan's diplomatic recognition around the world, now totaling 25 nations.

Taiwan pays dearly to retain this diplomatic recognition, and if these states were to switch recognition from Taipei to Beijing, the damage to Taiwan's political confidence and its claims of legitimacy as a state would be seriously undermined in Taipei's estimation.

Sumber

China's other interest, not surprisingly, is access to natural resources, especially energy. China is scouring the planet for resources to feed its economy's insatiable appetite for raw materials. Since China's government is not popularly elected, its claim to legitimacy has been its ability to improve the standard of living of the 1.3 billion Chinese people.

Stoking the economic furnaces also allows China to continue its unprecedented military buildup, supported primarily by Russian arms sales, and to provide overseas aid--often without conditions--to countries of interest in an effort to spread its influence.

China is broadly diversifying its energy sources. It is trying to reduce its reliance on coal, which has made China the world's second largest polluter. In its effort to ensure consistent energy supplies, China is expected to divert its overseas investments outside the Middle East to Russia Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia, Burma) Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) Africa (e.g., Angola, Sudan) and Latin America (e.g., Colombia, Venezuela).

Petroleum leads the list of resources South American states have to offer China. Venezuela is the world's fifth largest producer of petroleum that produces 2.5 million barrels per day, providing the United States with 13-15 percent of its oil imports. China has invested over $1 billion in petroleum projects in Venezuela and is positioning itself to invest nearly $350 million to extract oil from eastern Venezuelan oil fields, as well as an additional $60 million in natural gas wells. China is also seeking to purchase petroleum from Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico.

Latin America is an important source of a variety of minerals and food items as well. Aluminum, copper, iron, and soybeans constitute a large part of China's imports from Latin America. For commercial purposes, China also obviously has a strong interest in the Panama Canal and access to good port facilities in the Caribbean.

During his visits to Brazil and Argentina in November 2004, Chinese President Hu Jintao announced plans to invest $100 billion in Latin America over the next decade, primarily for infrastructure and energy projects. These investments made by the Chinese government will undoubtedly bring political influence as well.


The Revolution Spins out of Control

By February of 1967, China had descended into chaos. The purges had reached the level of army generals who dared to speak out against the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, and Red Guards were turning against one another and fighting in the streets. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, encouraged the Red Guards to raid arms from the People's Liberation Army (PLA), and even to replace the army entirely if necessary.

By December of 1968, even Mao realized that the Cultural Revolution was spinning out of control. China's economy, already weakened by the Great Leap Forward, was faltering badly. Industrial production fell by 12% in just two years. In reaction, Mao issued a call for the "Down to the Countryside Movement," in which young cadres from the city were sent to live on farms and learn from the peasants. Although he spun this idea as a tool for leveling society, in fact, Mao sought to disperse the Red Guards across the country, so that they could not cause so much trouble anymore.


The religion of ancient Egypt was polytheistic and centered around the divinity of the ruler and the eternity of the soul. The Chinese were polytheistic with the addition of ancestor worship. Over time, these beliefs were sometimes blended with Taoism, Buddhism or Confucianism.

In Egypt, people were buried with thought to preservation, as they believed that the dead would be able to use their bodies in the afterlife. Chinese burial style depended on the province as well as the main religion of the person. People would be buried in the ground, in water, put in a hanging coffin or cremated.


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