Pengepungan Benteng Washington, 15-16 November 1776

Pengepungan Benteng Washington, 15-16 November 1776


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Pengepungan Benteng Washington, 15-16 November 1776

Salah satu daripada beberapa pengepungan semasa Perang Kemerdekaan Amerika. Fort Washington adalah salah satu dari sepasang benteng di tebing sungai Hudson yang bertentangan, yang dibina untuk mengelakkan kapal perang Inggeris mendapat akses ke hulu sungai. Kubu ini dibina di Heights of Washington, kedudukan yang kuat 230 kaki di atas Hudson, tetapi garis pertahanan luarnya terlalu panjang (lima batu) dan terlalu jauh dari Benteng. Senjata Fort tidak dapat menyokong para pembela garis luar, sementara garis luar memerlukan pasukan pengawal yang sangat besar untuk bertahan. Pada bulan November 1776, pasukan pengawal Amerika adalah tiga ribu orang yang kuat dan termasuk pasukan yang kuat dari Benua Benua yang berharga.

Pada akhir Oktober, Fort Washington adalah satu-satunya kepunyaan Amerika yang tersisa di Pulau Manhatten, Washington telah menarik diri ke White Plains di daratan. British di bawah Jeneral Howe dapat mengatasi pasukan pengawal sekurang-kurangnya tiga hingga satu. Lebih buruk lagi, kapal perang Inggeris tidak lama lagi membuktikan bahawa mereka mampu melintas di antara Forts Washington dan Lee tanpa mengalami kerosakan serius. Washington kini dihadapkan dengan dua pertanyaan - mungkinkah orang-orangnya mempertahankan Fort Washington, dan jika demikian, apakah mereka seharusnya?

Peristiwa-peristiwa yang membawa kepada kehilangan kubu memberi perhatian yang menarik kepada gaya kepemimpinan Washington. Pada 8 November, dia menulis surat kepada Nathanael Greene, komandan setempat, menyatakan keraguannya bahawa kubu itu dapat ditahan, tetapi dia gagal memberikan perintah tegas untuk menarik diri, hanya menunjukkan bahawa dia tidak mahu mengambil risiko kehilangan lelaki atau barang di kubu. Baik Greene, dan komandan kubu - Kolonel Robert Magaw - yakin bahawa ia dapat dipertahankan terhadap serangan Inggeris. Washington selalu ingin melihat sendiri keadaan sebelum membuat keputusan, dan pada 14 November dia berkunjung ke Fort Washington. Pemeriksaan ini nampaknya mengesahkan pesimisnya tentang kebijaksanaan berusaha mempertahankan kubu itu, tetapi dia membiarkan dirinya diyakinkan oleh Greene dan Magaw. Fort Washington akan diadakan.

Sehari selepas lawatan Washington, British bergerak. Howe memindahkan anak buahnya ke posisi di sekitar garis Amerika yang rentan dan bersiap untuk menyerang ketiga-tiga pihak sekaligus. Howe memberi Magaw kesempatan untuk menyerah, tetapi dia menyatakan bahawa dia bersedia untuk mempertahankan kubu hingga 'ekstremitas terakhir'.

Serangan dilancarkan pada 16 November. Dari utara Jenderal Wilhelm von Knyphausen memimpin orang-orang Hessi melawan rejim Maryland dan Virginian yang diperintahkan oleh Letnan Kolonel Moses Rawlings. Mereka harus menghadapi pembangkang yang paling tekun, dan mengalami korban yang berat. Dari barat Jenderal Edward Mathews, dengan Cornwallis dalam simpanan menghadapi milisi, sementara di selatan Jenderal Percy, yang telah menyelamatkan sehari setelah Lexington dan Concord, menghadapi orang-orang Pennsylvan yang diperintahkan oleh Letnan Kolonel Lambert Cadwalader.

British mengalami korban berat, dengan 300 mati, tetapi setelah tiga jam bertempur, ketiga-tiga serangan berjaya. Pasukan Amerika yang tersisa dipaksa kembali ke kubu, di mana semangat mereka runtuh. Setelah mencapai tahap terakhir, Magaw menyerah pada petang itu. Kekalahan Amerika adalah 54 terbunuh, 100 cedera dan 2858 ditangkap untuk lebih 3000 lelaki hilang dalam satu hari pertempuran. Washington segera merasakan kehilangan mereka dengan pahit kerana dia dipaksa untuk berundur yang baru berakhir di Sungai Delaware pada awal Disember. Secara ringkas tujuan Amerika nampaknya sangat berisiko ketika Cornwallis berulang kali hampir mengejar Washington dalam mengejar New Jersey. Hanya kemenangan yang tidak dijangka di Trenton dan Princeton yang menghidupkan kembali harapan Amerika pada akhir tahun ini.


Pertempuran Fort Washington

Tempur dalam Pertempuran Fort Washington: Tentera Inggeris dan Jerman menentang Tentera Benua Amerika.

Jeneral di Pertempuran Fort Washington: LeftenanJeneral William Howe memerintahkan tentera Inggeris.

Sementara Jenderal George Washington secara keseluruhan memerintah tentera Amerika yang menentang pencerobohan New York Colony oleh British, Jeneral Nathan Greene memerintahkan tentera Amerika di Fort Lee dan Fort Washington. Greene menjalankan perintahnya dari Benteng Lee, di seberang Sungai Hudson dari Benteng Washington, dengan Kolonel McGaw memimpin pasukan di sekitar Benteng Washington.

Pegawai resimen dataran tinggi: Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: patung oleh Pilkington Jackson

Ukuran tentera di Battle of Fort Washington: 8.000 tentera Britain dan Jerman menyerang sekitar 2,900 tentera Amerika.

Pakaian seragam, senjata dan peralatan di Battle of Fort Washington: Orang Inggeris mengenakan mantel merah, dengan topi kulit beruang untuk grenadier, topi tricorne untuk syarikat batalion dan topi untuk infanteri ringan.

Dua rejimen naga ringan yang berkhidmat di Amerika, yang ke-16 dan ke-17, memakai mantel merah dan topi keledar kulit.

Infantri Jerman memakai jaket biru dan mengekalkan topi miter grenadier gaya Prusia dengan plat depan tembaga.

Orang Amerika berpakaian dengan sebaik mungkin. Semakin meningkat ketika perang berlangsung, rejimen infanteri biasa dari Tentera Kontinental mengenakan jaket seragam biru, tetapi milisi terus berpakaian kasar.

Kedua-dua belah pihak dipersenjatai dengan senapan, bayonet dan meriam, yang kebanyakannya berkaliber kecil. Rejimen Pennsylvania dan orang-orang lain dari hutan membawa senjata panjang, berkaliber kecil dan senapang.

Pemenang Pertempuran Fort Washington: British dan Jerman. Setelah orang Amerika didorong kembali ke Fort Washington, mereka terpaksa menyerah.

Major Murray dan Black Watch Highlanders pada Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Rejimen British di Pertempuran Fort Washington:
Batalion komposit granat, infanteri ringan dan Pengawal Kaki (Pengawal 1, 2 dan 3)
4 th, 10 th, 15 th, 23 rd (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 27 th, 28 th, 33 rd, 38 th, 42 nd (Black Watch), 43 rd, 52 nd Foot dan Fraser's Highlanders.

Rejimen Amerika di Pertempuran Fort Washington:
Rejimen Pennsylvania ke-3 Colonel Shee, Rejimen Pennsylvania ke-5 Kolonel Magaw, Kolonel Moses Rawling & Maryland and Virginia Riflemen & Militan Bucks County Bonter, Pennsylvania.

Peta Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika: peta oleh John Fawkes

Akaun Pertempuran Fort Washington:
Pada bulan November 1776, posisi terakhir yang dipegang orang Amerika di Pulau Manhattan adalah kawasan di sekitar Fort Washington di hujung utara, yang dikenal sebagai Harlem Heights. Jeneral Nathan Greene memerintahkan kedudukan Amerika dengan budi bicara untuk menarik diri jika dia menganggapnya perlu.

Pegawai dan musketeer Hessian: Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Jeneral Howe merancang tiga serangan. Brigadier Lord Percy akan menyerang dari selatan pulau itu. Brigadier Matthews dengan infanteri ringan dan Pengawal hendak menyeberangi Sungai Harlem dan menyerang Milisi Bucks County yang diperintahkan oleh Kolonel Baxter di sebelah timur, disokong oleh Jenderal Cornwallis bersama para granat dan Kaki ke-33.

Serangan utama adalah pada posisi Rawlings oleh pasukan Hessian yang diperintah oleh Jeneral von Knyphausen. Serangan tambahan akan dilakukan di pihak yang sama dengan Kolonel Sterling ke-42.

Pada awal 15 November 1776, Howe meminta Fort Washington menyerah. Ini ditolak. Bateri Inggeris yang berada di seberang Sungai Harlem dan frigat Pearl memulakan pengeboman kedudukan Amerika.

Pada pukul 10 pagi 16 November 1776, Lord Percy melancarkan serangan. Pada siang hari Brigadier Matthews mendarat di Manhattan dan memulakan serangannya.

Kolonel Baxter terbunuh dan milisi Pennsylvania melarikan diri ke kubu.

Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Knyphausen menyeberang ke Manhattan di Kingsbridge dan pada pukul 10 pagi memulakan pergerakannya ke selatan. Kedua tiang Hessian menyerang kedudukan Amerika dan, setelah bertempur keras, senapang Rawlings jatuh kembali ke kubu.

Mendarat di Bahagian Timur: Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Percy menyerang Cadwallader di Selatan dan yang ke-42 mendarat di sebelah timur dan mendorong ke arah belakang kedudukan Cadwallader, memaksa orang Amerika jatuh kembali ke kubu.

Dengan semua pasukan Amerika yang disematkan di Fort Washington di bawah tembakan hebat, Magaw terpaksa menyerah kepada jeneral Hessian, Knyphausen.

Korban di Pertempuran Fort Washington: Pihak Britain mengalami 450 korban di mana 320 daripadanya adalah orang Hessian. Orang Amerika menderita 2.900 korban di antaranya yang utama adalah tahanan.

Susulan hingga Pertempuran Fort Washington: Selepas pertempuran, Fort Lee di tebing barat Hudson ditinggalkan dan Washington dan Continental Arm berundur ke Delaware.

Margaret Corbin pada Pertempuran Fort Washington pada 17 November 1776 dalam Perang Revolusi Amerika

Anekdot dari Pertempuran Fort Washington:

  • Dari pasukan tentera Inggeris, batalion gabungan granat, infanteri ringan dan Pengawal Kaki dan Kaki ke-33 dan 42 (Black Watch) adalah pasukan yang selalu digunakan untuk menuntut tugas. Dari rejimen garis, yang ke-33 memiliki reputasi tinggi secara konsisten sepanjang 1740-an dan 1750-an dan dikenali sebagai & # 8216corak itu‘.
  • Seorang wanita Amerika, Margaret Corbin, seorang jururawat, menemani suaminya John Corbin ketika dia mengambil kedudukan sebagai penembak, menghadapi serangan oleh Hessians Jeneral von Knyphausen di Kingsbridge. Setelah kematian John Corbin, Margaret mengambil tempat di kru senjata, hingga dia terluka. Setelah pertempuran, Margaret ditukar sebagai pejuang yang cedera, terus berkhidmat di Tentera Kontinental Amerika dan diberi pencen setelah perang.

Rujukan untuk Pertempuran Fort Washington:

Sejarah Tentera Inggeris oleh Sir John Fortescue

Perang Revolusi oleh Christopher Ward

Revolusi Amerika oleh Brendan Morrissey

Pertempuran sebelumnya dari Perang Revolusi Amerika adalah Pertempuran Dataran Putih

Pertempuran berikutnya dari Perang Revolusi Amerika adalah Pertempuran Trenton


Pertempuran Fort Washington

Fort Washington menempati kedudukan puncak bukit sekitar 230 kaki di atas Sungai Hudson di barat laut Manhattan. Dianggap oleh beberapa orang sebagai "Gibraltar Amerika," kubu dan pemasangan saudaranya, Fort Lee, menawarkan prospek untuk menolak penguasaan Hudson kepada Angkatan Laut Inggeris yang sombong. Benteng Washington tidak dapat dicapai dari barat, tetapi kurang menarik dari tiga arah yang lain. Ia dibina sebagai struktur tanah lima sisi dengan beberapa keraguan tersendiri, yang paling terkenal ialah Fort Tryon. Fort Washington cacat oleh ukurannya yang agak kecil dan kekurangan bekalan air dalaman. Semasa pembinaan Fort Lee yang berdekatan pada musim panas tahun 1776, Jeneral Israel Putnam mencadangkan agar kapal-kapal lama tenggelam di sungai di sekitar kubu-kubu untuk memberikan halangan tambahan kepada Tentera Laut Inggeris. Langkah berjaga-jaga itu diambil dan itu meningkatkan kepercayaan Nathanael Greene, komandan kedua kubu, bahawa posisinya pada dasarnya aman. Setelah kekalahan Amerika di White Plains pada akhir Oktober, Mejar Jeneral William Howe memilih untuk melepaskan serangan langsung terhadap Continental Army dan sebaliknya mengalihkan perhatiannya ke Fort Washington. Pada awal November, William Demont, seorang deserter Amerika, menyerahkan gambar kubu itu kepada pegawai-pegawai Britain, yang memungkinkan mereka menyempurnakan rancangan serangan mereka untuk mendapatkan hasil maksimum. Pada 5 November, tiga kapal Inggeris berlayar ke Hudson, tergelincir oleh benteng dan menghindari bangkai kapal yang tenggelam. Peristiwa itu sangat mengganggu George Washington, yang telah banyak menimbulkan keraguan tentang usaha untuk menahan Fort Washington. Cadangan Washington agar kubu itu ditinggalkan ditolak oleh Greene yang yakin, yang meninggalkan Kolonel Robert Mcgaw dari Pennsylvania yang mengetuai pemasangan, dan bergabung dengan kakitangan di ibu pejabat di New Jersey. Pada 15 November, seorang pegawai Britain dihantar ke Fort Washington dengan bendera gencatan senjata. Dia menuntut penyerahan kemudahan itu segera, lalu mengancam bahawa jika tawarannya ditolak, tidak ada suku yang akan diberikan kepada para pembela dalam pertempuran yang akan datang. Mcgaw menolak tawaran itu. Pada keesokan harinya, pasukan Inggeris di bukit-bukit di sekitarnya melepaskan tembakan meriam di kubu dan pemasangannya yang jauh. Washington, Putnam dan Greene menyeberangi Hudson dari Fort Lee untuk memeriksa keadaan di Fort Washington, tetapi menyimpulkan bahawa mereka tidak dapat menawarkan bantuan dan kembali ke New Jersey. British kemudian melancarkan serangan tiga serangkai yang diselaraskan dan diserang dengan tentangan yang kuat. Askar Amerika di Fort Tryon, termasuk Margaret Cochran Corbin, bertempur dengan tekun sebelum jatuh atau ditawan. Begitu banyak tentera dari posisi luar mencari perlindungan di Fort Washington sehingga keberkesanannya terganggu oleh kesesakan. Sumbangan penting diberikan kepada tentera Jerman oleh tentera Jerman di bawah Kolonel Johann Rall ketika mereka berjaya menembusi tembok utara benteng. Menjelang tengah hari, jelas bagi Kolonel Mcgaw bahawa pertempuran telah kalah dan dia menerima tawaran untuk menyerah. Pembunuhan yang diancam pembela Amerika tidak berlaku, keputusan yang dikritik bulat di beberapa pihak. Sejumlah pegawai Britain percaya bahawa sekiranya tentera di Fort Washington dibantai, maka tekad Amerika akan dilemahkan dan perang akan berakhir dengan cepat. British menyenaraikan 67 terbunuh, 335 cedera dan enam hilang. Orang Amerika kehilangan 54 terbunuh dan lebih dari 2,800 ditangkap - satu tamparan hebat bagi perjuangan Patriot. Selanjutnya, 43 meriam dan pelbagai bekalan penting berakhir di tangan Britain. Banyak pegawai Amerika yang ditangkap kemudian dibebaskan, tetapi tentera biasa tidak begitu bernasib baik. Beratus-ratus orang dipenjara di kapal-kapal penjara Britain yang sangat miskin di mana mereka mati dalam jumlah besar kerana kekurangan zat makanan dan penyakit. Kehilangan Fort Washington memberi kesan mendalam kepada panglima besar. Washington menyesal membiarkan Greene mempunyai kata terakhir mengenai pembelaan kubu itu. Pada masa akan datang jeneral kurang bergantung pada cadangan orang lain dan lebih banyak lagi pada intuisi sendiri. Hasil lain dari kerugian tersebut adalah sikap kritikal yang diambil oleh Charles Lee. Tidak pernah ada orang yang menyembunyikan cahayanya di bawah gantang, Lee berkomunikasi langsung dengan anggota Kongres, menyarankan agar Washington yang tidak layak diganti dan tanpa malu-malu menawarkan dirinya sebagai pengganti.


Pertempuran Fort Washington

Pertempuran Fort Washington adalah kemenangan Inggeris, dan kekalahan brutal kepada orang Amerika yang jumlah korbannya lebih dari 6 kali korban Britain.

Pada bulan November 1776, Fort Washington adalah satu-satunya titik di Pulau Manhattan yang masih dipegang oleh orang Amerika. Tentera Continental ditempatkan di Harlem Heights berhampiran Fort Washington, yang diketuai oleh Jeneral Nathanael Greene. Mereka & # 8217d mundur ke sini selepas Pertempuran Dataran Putih. Jeneral Nathan Greene bertugas mengawasi kedudukan mereka terhadap British, dan jika dia menganggap perlu, dia harus memberikan perintah untuk menarik diri.

British, yang dipimpin oleh Jenderal William Howe, merancang tiga strategi serangan: Jeneral Lord Percy adalah menyerang dari Selatan, Jenderal Mathews dan Lord Cornwallis seharusnya menyeberangi Sungai Harlem dan menyerang dari Timur, sementara serangan utama akan terjadi Jeneral Von Knyphausen dan pasukan Hessian di bahagian depan kedudukan Amerika & # 8217. Jenderal Howe memutuskan bahawa dia akan mengirim pesan kepada orang Amerika, memberi mereka kesempatan untuk menyerah sebelum dia mengirim serangan itu.

Pemandangan serangan terhadap Fort Washington dan pemberontakan di New York pada 16 November 1776 oleh brigade British dan Hessian. Oleh Thomas Davies sekitar tahun 1776. | Gambar domain awam, milik Perpustakaan Awam New York di Wikimedia Commons.

Pada awal pagi 15 November 1776 seorang utusan dihantar ke kubu Amerika & # 8217 meminta mereka menyerah. Orang Amerika, tidak mengetahui apa yang ditunggu di luar kubu kecil mereka, menolak. Kemudian semua neraka terlepas. Pada pukul 10 pagi, lelaki Percy & # 8217 menyerang, diikuti oleh Mathews dan Cornwallis pada tengah hari. Mereka mendapat lubang di kubu, dan milisi Britain masuk.

Pada saat itu, orang Hessia menyeberangi sungai dan mula menyerang para patriot dari kepala. Orang Amerika benar-benar kewalahan, dan terpaksa melarikan diri ke dalam kubu. Dengan semua orang Amerika terpendam di dalam Fort Washington, dan British menembak mereka tanpa henti, Patriot terpaksa menyerah Fort Washington dan menyerahkan penahanan terakhir mereka di Pulau Manhattan.

Ini adalah kerugian yang menyedihkan bagi tentera Amerika. Mereka kehilangan 2,900 tentera dalam pertempuran untuk mempertahankan Fort Washington. British hanya kehilangan 450 orang sebelum Amerika menyerahkan kedudukan mereka.


Benteng Washington

Berjuang pada 16 November 1776 di pulau Manhattan, Battle of Fort Washington adalah bab terakhir yang menghancurkan dalam Kempen New York yang mengancam New York.

Setelah memperoleh kemenangan besar di Long Island pada bulan Ogos, Jeneral Britain William Howe mula bergerak menentang New York City pada pertengahan September. Tidak mahu meninggalkan Manhattan sepenuhnya, Washington memerintahkan Jeneral Nathanael Greene untuk mempertahankan kubu kuat. Meski terburu-buru dibina, Fort Washington membuat kapal perang Inggeris merusak kapal layar Hudson. Ia juga berjaya menangkis serangan Hessian pada awal November. Kejayaan awal ini memberi Greene dan Kolonel Robert Magaw, komandan pengawal benteng, rasa aman yang salah.

Setelah menimbulkan kekalahan lain pada tentera Amerika pada Pertempuran White Plains pada 28 Oktober, Howe memilih untuk memusatkan perhatiannya ke Fort Washington. Dengan Jeneral Washington tersekat di seberang Hudson, kubu kuat Amerika terakhir di Manhattan benar-benar bersendirian.

Melihat betapa tidak stabilnya kedudukan Amerika, Howe melancarkan serangan tiga cabang di Fort Washington dan karya pertahanan luarnya. Gabungan pasukan serangan Inggeris-Hessian yang terdiri daripada 8,000 lelaki melebihi jumlah 3,000 orang benteng. Walaupun begitu, orang Amerika menikmati kejayaan awal, menyebabkan korban jiwa dan menangkis dua tuduhan Hessian.

Kejayaan itu tidak kekal. Gelombang mula berubah ketika 3.000 orang di bawah Jeneral Britain Hugh Percy menembusi garis pertahanan luar ke selatan kubu. Hampir serentak, Jeneral Edward Mathew dan Jeneral Charles Lord Cornwallis mengalahkan pertahanan timur kubu, sehingga Benua-Benua bergegas ke belakang. Dengan kerja-kerja luar dilanggar dan diserang oleh semua pihak oleh kekuatan yang lebih tinggi, Magaw menyedari keadaan itu tidak ada harapan.


Titik Pell

Battle of Pell's Point berdiri sebagai satu daripada siri pertunangan dalam kempen New York antara bulan Ogos dan Oktober 1776. Pasukan Britain mengalahkan Patriots dalam pertempuran berturut-turut di Brooklyn dan Manhattan. Namun, Tentera Kontinental menghindari kehancuran sepenuhnya dengan mengatur masa pengunduran mereka dan memanfaatkan keengganan British untuk maju. Menjelang Oktober 1776, Jeneral Britain William Howe merancang untuk menjatuhkan pasukan Washington di Harlem Heights, New York.

Pada awal pagi 12 Oktober 1776, lapan puluh tongkang yang mengangkut tentera Inggeris muncul dari kabut lebat yang melayang di atas perairan Long Island Sound. Ketika tongkang mendarat, sebuah kapal fregat di luar pantai menghujani api kanon di semenanjung Throg's Neck di Manhattan. Jeneral Britain William Howe telah melancarkan serangan amfibinya di New York.

Howe berharap dapat mengepung dan menjebak bahagian utama tentera Continental dan ketua komandernya, George Washington, di pulau itu. Hanya dua puluh lima tentera Patriot di bawah Kolonel Edward Hand di Pennsylvania yang bersedia untuk memenuhi pasukan Howe yang terdiri daripada 4,000 tentera, kebanyakannya orang Hessian, ketika mereka turun di Throg's Neck. Lelaki tangan bergerak dengan pantas, membakar jambatan di atas anak sungai kecil semenanjung dan meletakkan diri mereka di belakang timbunan kayu. Dari sudut pandang ini, senapang Amerika memilih corong Redcoats ke dalam hambatan dan berjaya menahan tentera yang besar sehingga bala bantuan tiba. Howe akhirnya memerintahkan mundur dan bukannya terus menyerang. British berkhemah di pulau itu selama tiga malam, memberi Washington masa tambahan untuk melakukan pembaharuan dan persiapan.

Orang-orang Howe turun, mendarat lagi di tempat tiga batu di utara Throg's Neck yang disebut Pell's Point (sekarang Pelham Bay Park). Setelah pencerobohan Inggeris, panglima benua John Glover menempatkan pasukannya seramai 750 orang tentera, yang kebanyakannya terdiri dari orang-orang Massachusetts, dalam posisi terhuyung-huyung di belakang formasi dinding batu semula jadi yang mengotori pemandangan. Ketika Redcoats maju, seniman Patriot bangkit, melepaskan tembakan, dan mundur di belakang tembok berikutnya. The Redcoats menyerang di depan dengan percaya bahawa mereka memiliki kelebihan, hanya untuk menghadapi tembakan dari jarak dekat dari tiang kedua Patriots yang tersembunyi di belakang setiap dinding. Walaupun bukan kemenangan Amerika secara terang-terangan, taktik yang digunakan oleh Patriots di Battle of Pell's Point berjaya menunda pencerobohan Inggeris, menimbulkan kerugian besar kepada pihak Inggeris, dan membeli masa Washington.

Selepas pertunangan itu, Washington, atas desakan Jeneral Charles Lee, yang menjadi komandan kedua, memindahkan pasukannya ke White Plains, yang menyelamatkan tentera dari gelombang serangan amfibi berikutnya, tetapi tidak mencegah mereka menderita kerugian di Pertempuran Dataran Putih berikutnya pada 28 Oktober 1776.


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Bersejarah Penerbitan

1835 Petikan dari Surat ke Henslow, kumpulan surat yang ditulis oleh Charles Darwin semasa pelayarannya di Beagle, diterbitkan

    New Zealand secara rasmi menjadi tanah jajahan Britain Penyelamat nyawa yang diperbuat daripada gabus dipatenkan oleh Napoleon Guerin (NYC) mahkamah Rusia menjatuhkan hukuman mati terhadap Fyodor Dostoevsky kerana kegiatan anti-kerajaan yang dikaitkan dengan kumpulan intelektual radikal, hukumannya kemudiannya diganti menjadi pekerja keras Amsterdam di pejabat pos Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal membuka tayangan perdana Aleksandr Ostrovsky & quotGroza & quot (The Storm) di Moscow Battle of Campbell's Station TN, 492 sebab-sebab Retret Gabungan di Lovejoy, Parlimen Sepanyol Georgia, & quot the Cortes & quot secara rasmi memilih Putera Itali Amedeo Ferdinando Maria sebagai Raja Amadeo I dari Persatuan Nasional Sepanyol pertama kali disewa di State of New York Battle of Gundet: maharaja Ethiopia mengalahkan rakyat Mesir William Bonwill, mempatenkan paluan gigi untuk menyerang emas ke dalam rongga Perahu gunting Inggeris HMS Flirt menembak di & memusnahkan kampung Abari di Niger 6.000 orang Armenia yang dibantai oleh orang Turki di kapten Perancis Kurdistan Henri Pasukan decoeurs sampai di Nikki, Afr Barat ica

Kejadian dari Minat

1916 Eugene O'Neill's & quotBound East for Cardiff & quot perdana di NYC

    I. Berlin, V. Herbert, H. Blossoms perdana muzikal di NYC kilang peluru La Satannaya Rusia meletup, membunuh 1.000 penjajah Britain di Tel Aviv dan Jaffa Republik Rakyat Hungary yang diisytiharkan sebagai Laksamana Miklós Horthy, ketua Tentera Nasional Hungaria, merebut Budapest dan kemudiannya menjadi bupati jalan raya Qantas Kerajaan Hungary Australia yang telah dipulihkan yang ditubuhkan di Winton, Queensland kerana meter setem pos 1 Queensland dan Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited terletak di Stamford Conn

Kejadian dari Minat

1922 Paus Pius XI menyeru rakyat Belgia untuk bersatu

Akhir Empayar Uthmaniyyah

1922 Khalifah Uthmaniyyah, Sultan Mehmed VI meminta bantuan tentera Inggeris

Sultan Uthmaniyyah terakhir, Mehmed VI, meninggalkan istananya di Istanbul setelah penghapusan monarki
    Cleveland Bulldogs (dahulunya Canton) tewas kepada Frankford Yellowjackets, mengakhiri 31 perlawanan tanpa kalah (NFL & amp; rekod bola sepak liga utama) Persatuan Amerika untuk Kemajuan bentuk Atheisme (NY)

Kejadian dari Minat

1933 Presiden Brazil, Getulio Vargas mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai diktator

Muzik Tayangan Perdana

1935 Tayangan perdana muzikal & quotJumbo & quot karya Richard Rodgers dan Lorenz Hart di NYC

Kejadian dari Minat

Muzik 1935 Cole Porter & quotAthingthing Goes & quot ditutup di 46th Street Theatre, NYC, selepas persembahan 420

    Tentera udara Jerman mula mengebom Madrid K B Regiment menolak persidangan meja bulat di East-India LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide) pertama kali disintesis oleh ahli kimia Switzerland Dr Albert Hofmann di Sandoz Laboratories di Basel, Switzerland

Kejadian dari Minat

    Kapal tangki torpedo U-boat Jerman, Sliedrecht berhampiran Perang Dunia II Ireland: Sebagai tindak balas terhadap pemeringkatan Jerman di Coventry, England dua hari sebelumnya, Tentera Udara Diraja mengebom Hamburg. Tentera Jerman menakluki Kertsh (mungkin) Serangan Benteng Terbang AS B-17 di lapangan terbang di Perang Dunia II Sidi Ahmed: Pengebom Amerika menyerang sebuah kilang tenaga hidro-elektrik dan kilang air berat di Vemork, Norway yang dikendalikan Jerman. AS bahagian ke-9 & serangan Tentera Darat ke-1 di Geilenkirchen Yeshiva College (University), disewa di NY, 1st US Jewish College Founding of UNESCO, Organisasi Pendidikan, Ilmiah dan Kebudayaan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu Dua elemen baru yang ditemui oleh Glenn Seaborg, James, Morgan dan Albert Ghiorso diumumkan: americium (nombor atom 95) dan curium (nombor atom 96) 15,000 menunjukkan di Brussels menentang hukuman ringan Nazi

NBA Rekodkan

1957 Celtic Bill Russell menetapkan rekod NBA 49 rebound mengalahkan Philadelphia 111-89

Pembunuhan dari Minat

1957 pembunuh Amerika dan pengawal peribadi Ed Gein membunuh mangsa terakhirnya

Semua Mata di Tempat Kelahiran British Rock 'n' Roll

Pertunjukan muzik pop pertama BBC 1957, & quotSix-Five Special & quot, disiarkan dari Coffee Bar 2i kecil di London

    Muzik & quot Muzik Muzik & quot oleh Richard Rodgers dan Oscar Hammerstein II, dibuka di Lunt Fontanne Theatre, NYC, untuk persembahan 1443 juara pemukul NL Dick Groat memenangi MVP United Kingdom menghadkan imigrasi dari negara-negara Komanwel

Kejadian dari Minat

1961 Presiden AS JFK memutuskan untuk meningkatkan bantuan ketenteraan ke Vietnam Selatan tanpa memberikan tentera tempur AS

Kejadian dari Minat

1962 Wilt Chamberlain dari NBA SF Warriors menjaringkan 73 mata berbanding NY Knicks

    Toledo, mogok akhbar OH bermula Radio CJCX Sydney Nova Scotia (Kanada) memulakan transmisi gelombang pendek USSR melakukan ujian nuklear di Eastern Kazakh / Semipalitinsk USSR

Kejadian dari Minat

1966 pemain luar Pirates Roberto Clemente dinamakan NL MVP

    Album & quotGestest Hits & quot oleh The Temptations dilancarkan (Billboard Album of the Year 1967) Jawatankuasa Tindakan Derry Citizens menentang larangan perarakan di Derry, Ireland Utara, dengan berarak dengan kira-kira 15,000 orang 1968 Mỹ Lai pembantaian antara 347 dan 504 Selatan yang tidak bersenjata Orang awam Vietnam oleh askar AS pertama kali dilaporkan Presiden AS Nixon menjadi presiden pertama yang menghadiri pertandingan NFL musim semasa berada di pejabat: Dallas Cowboys menewaskan Washington Redskins 41-28 Dua lelaki ditembak mati oleh Tentera Republik Ireland (IRA) Wakil Vietnam Selatan Presiden Nguyen Cao Ky mempertahankan operasi di Kemboja kerana pasukan komunis dapat menguasai Vietnam Selatan & quot; dalam masa 24 jam & quot; jika tentera yang beroperasi di sana ditarik, siasatan Compton diterbitkan, yang mengakui bahawa ada perlakuan buruk terhadap para tahanan, tetapi menolak tuntutan kekejaman atau penyiksaan yang sistematik (Utara Ireland) AS meningkatkan aktiviti udara untuk menyokong pemerintah Kemboja ketika pertempuran menghampiri Phnom Penh & quo tDear Oscar & quot dibuka di Playhouse Theatre NYC untuk 5 persembahan

Kejadian dari Minat

Perdana Menteri Britain 1972 Edward Heath memberi amaran terhadap Deklarasi Kemerdekaan Unilateral


Legenda Amerika

George Washington dalam Revolusi Amerika oleh Junius B. Stearns, 1854.

Selama lebih dari satu abad, Inggeris telah memiliki 13 jajahan yang terbentang di sepanjang pantai antara Kanada dan Florida. Parlimen Britain membuat undang-undang yang menguntungkan pedagang Inggeris, dan pada tahun 1750 telah mengeluarkan banyak undang-undang untuk mendorong perdagangan dengan jajahannya. Sebilangan undang-undang melarang mereka berdagang dengan negara lain atau bahkan, dalam beberapa kes, antara satu sama lain. Sekiranya semua undang-undang ini dilaksanakan dengan ketat, Revolusi besar mungkin akan datang sebelum ia berlaku. Ini adalah garis masa peristiwa melalui Perang Revolusi yang akan menyaksikan Nation & # 8217s kelahiran dan dunia & # 8217s beacon of Freedom.

Pembaharuan British dan Penentangan Kolonial:

1764

Tanpa Percukaian tanpa Perwakilan

Februari 1764 & # 8211 James Otis mendesak tindak balas bersatu terhadap tindakan baru-baru ini yang dikenakan oleh England. Frasa & # 8220Taksiran Tanpa Perwakilan adalah Kezaliman & # 8221 biasanya dikaitkan dengan James Otis

1764 Julai & # 8211 James Otis menerbitkan & # 8220 Hak-hak Jajahan British Dikukuhkan dan Dibuktikan. & # 8221

Ogos 1764 & # 8211 Boston, pedagang Massachusetts memulakan boikot barangan mewah Britain.

1765

22 Mac 1765 & # 8211 Akta Setem diluluskan oleh Parlimen Britain.

24 Mac 1765 & # 8211 Akta Quartering menghendaki penjajah Amerika menempatkan tentera Inggeris dan membekalkan mereka makanan.

Julai 1765 & # 8211 The Sons of Liberty, sebuah organisasi rahsia yang menentang Akta Cap, dibentuk.

Disember 1765 & # 8211 Lebih 200 pedagang Boston enggan membayar Cukai Setem.

1766

Januari 1766 & # 8211 Perhimpunan New York enggan menguatkuasakan sepenuhnya Quartering Act.

18 Mac 1766 & # 8211 Akta Setem dimansuhkan.

Ogos 1766 & # 8211 Keganasan meletus di New York antara tentera Britain dan anggota Sons of Liberty.

1768

Julai 1768 & # 8211 Pedagang di Boston dan New York memboikot barangan Britain

September 1768 & # 8211 kapal perang Inggeris berlayar ke Boston Harbour meninggalkan dua rejimen tentera Inggeris untuk menjaga ketenteraman.

1770

Mac 1770 & # 8211 Pembunuhan Boston berlaku dan empat pekerja ditembak oleh tentera Britain di Boston, Massachusetts.

1773

16 Disember 1773 & # 8211 Pesta Teh Boston berlaku ketika orang-orang patriot Massachusetts berpakaian sebagai orang India Mohawk memprotes tindakan British Tea dengan membuang peti teh ke Boston Harbor.

1774

1774 – The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

March 1774 – The Coercive Acts, called Intolerable Acts by Americans, are implemented.

The American Revolution Begins:

1775

February 9, 1775 – The English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion.

April 14, 1775 – Massachusetts Governor Thomas Gage is ordered by the British to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress any rebellion among colonists by using all necessary force.

April 18, 1775 – General Thomas Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists’ weapons depot. Paul Revere and William Dawes are sent from Boston to warn the colonists. Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were hiding in Lexington, Massachusetts were able to escape.

April 19, 1775 – The first shots are fired at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts where the weapons depot is destroyed. “Minute Men” force British troops back to Boston. George Washington takes command of the Continental Army.

April 19, 1775 – American Militia defeated British regulars at Concord, Massachusetts.

April 23, 1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston and begin a year-long siege of the city.

May 10, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with John Hancock elected as its president.

May 10, 1775 – American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga and its artillery in New York.

May 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress places the colonies in a state of defense.

Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775. illustration by John H. Daniels & Son, 1903.

June 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress unanimously votes to appoint George Washington general and commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.

June 17, 1775 – The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston, Massachusetts in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

July 3, 1775 – General George Washington assumes command of Continental Army, about 17,000 men, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

July 5, 1775 – The Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition which appeals directly to King George III for reconciliation.

July 6, 1775 – The Continental Congress issues a Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. It details the colonists’ reasons for fighting the British and states the Americans are “resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves.”

The American Revolution, the American War of Independence, led by George Washington begins between Great Britain and the 13 British colonies in North America.

July 26, 1775 – An American Post Office is established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with Benjamin as Postmaster General.

August 1775 – King George III refuses even to look at the petition submitted by the Continental Congress and instead issues a proclamation declaring the Americans to be in a state of open rebellion.

November 10-21, 1775 – Patriots are sieged by the British at Ninety-Six, South Carolina. The battle ended in a truce.

November 28, 1775 – The American Navy is established by Congress.

November 29, 1775- Congress appoints a secret committee to seek help from European nations.

December 1775 – Congress is informed that France may offer support in the war against Britain.

December 11, 1775 – Virginia and North Carolina patriots routed Loyalist troops and burned Norfolk.

December 22, 1775 – At Great Canebrake, South Carolina Colonel William Thomson with 1,500 rangers and militia captured a force of Loyalists.

December 23, 1775 – King George III issues a royal proclamation closing the American colonies to all commerce and trade, to take effect in March of 1776.

December 23-30, 1775 – During the Snow Campaign in South Carolina against Loyalists, the Patriot militia is impeded by 15″ of snow.

1776

February 27, 1776 – North Carolina militia defeated South Carolina Loyalists at Moore’s Creek, North Carolina inflicting heavy casualties.

View of Boston from Dorchester Heights, by Robert Havell, 1841.

March 4-17, 1776 – At Dorchester Heights, Massachusetts, American forces capture Dorchester Heights which overlooks Boston harbor. The British evacuate Boston and set sail for Halifax.

March 17, 1776 – British Navy evacuated Boston, Massachusetts and moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Washington’s Army then occupies Boston.

April 6, 1776 – The Continental Congress declares colonial shipping ports open to all traffic except the British

April 12, 1776 – The North Carolina assembly is the first to empower its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain.

May 2, 1776 – The Continental Congress gets the much needed foreign support they had been hoping for. King Louis XVI of France commits one million dollars in arms and munitions. Spain then also promises support.

May 10, 1776 – The Continental Congress authorizes each of the 13 colonies to form provincial governments.

Leaders of the Continental Congress, John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson, by A. Tholey

June 7, 1776 – Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, presents a formal resolution calling for America to declare its independence from Britain. Congress decides to postpone its decision on this until July.

June 8, 1776 – Patriot attempt to take British position in Three Rivers, Canada failed.

June 11, 1776 – Congress appoints a committee to draft a declaration of independence. Committee members are Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson is chosen by the committee to prepare the first draft of the declaration, which he completes in one day.

June 28, 1776 – Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence is ready and is presented to Congress, with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

June 28, 1776 – At Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, British naval attack failed when the palmetto logs held against the bombardment.

June-July, 1776 – A massive British war fleet arrives in New York Harbor consisting of 30 battleships with 1200 cannon, 30,000 soldiers, 10,000 sailors, and 300 supply ships, under the command of General William Howe and his brother Admiral Lord Richard Howe.

July 1, 1776 – Incited by British royal agents, the Cherokee attacked along the entire southern frontier.

July 2, 1776 – Twelve of 13 colonial delegations (New York abstains) vote in support of Richard Henry Lee’s resolution for independence.

Declaration of Independence by Arthur Szyk

July 4, 1776 – The Congress formally endorses Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence, with copies to be sent to all of the colonies.

July 12, 1776 – As a show of force, two British frigates sail up the Hudson River blasting their guns. Peace feelers are then extended to the Americans. At the request of the British, General George Washington meets with General William Howe’s representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of clemency for the American rebels. Washington politely declines before he leaves.

July 15, 1776 – At Lyndley’s Fort, South Carolina, Patriots defended against attack by Indians and the British dressed as Indians.

August 1, 1776 – At Seneca, South Carolina, Americans are ambushed by Cherokee Indians. Patriot forces saved by a mounted charge.

August 10, 1776 – Cherokee Indians defeated by Andrew Pickens at Tugaloo River, South Carolina.

August 1776 – In the Ring Fight in South Carolina, 200 Cherokee Indians attacked Andrew Pickens and 25 militia. From a circle, firing in turn, the Patriots held off attackers until a rescue force arrived.

August 12, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson and Andrew Pickens defeated a large Cherokee war party and burned the Indian town near Tamassee, South Carolina.

August 27, 1776 – George Washington’s army defeated is defeated but, escaped by night in the fog at Long Island, New York.

The Battle of Long Island, New York by Virtue and Co. Click for prints & products.

August 27-29, 1776 – General William Howe leads 15,000 soldiers against Washington’s army in the Battle of Long Island, New York. Washington, outnumbered two to one, suffers a severe defeat as his army is outflanked and scatters. The Americans retreat to Brooklyn Heights, facing possible capture by the British or even total surrender.

September 11, 1776 – A peace conference is held on Staten Island, New York with British Admiral, Lord Richard Howe, meeting American representatives including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. The conference fails, however, as Howe demands the colonists revoke the Declaration of Independence.

September 16, 1776 – After evacuating New York City, Washington’s army repulses a British attack during the Battle of Harlem Heights in upper Manhattan, New York. Several days later, fire engulfs New York City and destroys over 300 buildings.

September 19, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson’s patriots were attacked by Cherokee south of Franklin, North Carolina in a gorge known as the Black Hole. Americans eventually cleared the pass.

September 22, 1776 – After he is caught spying on British troops on Long Island, New York, Nathan Hale is executed without a trial, his last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

September 26, 1776 – Congress appoints Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane to negotiate treaties with European governments. Franklin and Deane then travel to France seeking financial and military aid.

October 11, 1776 – With makeshift boats on Lake Champlain, Benedict Arnold engaged a British squadron. Arnold was defeated but delayed the British until it was too close to winter to continue their campaign.

Yankee Doodle, A.M. Williard, 1776.

October 28, 1776 – After evacuating his main forces from Manhattan, George Washington’s army suffers heavy casualties in the Battle of White Plains, New York from General William Howe’s forces. General George Washington then retreats westward.

November 16, 1776 – American commander surrendered Fort Washington, New York to the Hessians.

November 20, 1776 – Lord Charles Cornwallis captured Fort Lee, New Jersey. Nathanael Greene abandoned the position.

December 6, 1776 – The naval base at Newport, Rhode Island is captured by the British.

December 11, 1776 – General George Washington takes his troops across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania.

December 12, 1776 – With concerns of a possible British attack, the Continental Congress abandons Philadelphia for Baltimore, Maryland.

December 26, 1776 – General George Washington re-crosses the Delaware River and conducts a surprise raid on a Hessian brigade and defeated it. Known as the Battle of Trenton.

1777

George Washington in military uniform, by Rembrandt Peale.

January 3, 1777 – A second victory for General George Washington as his troops defeat the British at Princeton and drive them back toward New Brunswick.

Winter, 1777 – General George Washington establishes winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. During the harsh winter, Washington’s army shrinks to about a thousand men as enlistments die and deserters flee the hardships. By spring, with the arrival of recruits, Washington will have 9,000 men.

March 12, 1777 – The Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia from Baltimore after Washington’s successes against the British in New Jersey.

April 27, 1777 – American troops under Benedict Arnold defeat the British at Ridgefield, Connecticut.

May 20, 1777 – The Cherokee sued for peace and lost most of their land east of the mountains in the Treaty of DeWitt’s Corner, South Carolina.

June 14, 1777 – The flag of the United States consisting of 13 stars and 13 white and red stripes is mandated by Congress.

June 14, 1777 – John Paul Jones is chosen by Congress to captain the 18 gun vessel Renjer with a mission to raid coastal towns of England.

June 17, 1777 – A British force of 7,700 men under General John Burgoyne invades from Canada, sailing down Lake Champlain toward Albany, planning to link up with General William Howe who will come north from New York City, thus cutting off New England from the rest of the colonies.

July 6, 1777 – General John Burgoyne’s troops surprise the Americans with the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, New York on Lake Champlain. Its military supplies are greatly needed by Washington’s forces. The loss of the fort is a tremendous blow to American morale.

July 23, 1777 – British General William Howe, with 15,000 men, sets sail from New York for the Chesapeake Bay to capture Philadelphia, instead of sailing north to meet up with General John Burgoyne.

July 27, 1777 – Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French aristocrat, arrives in Philadelphia and volunteers to serve without pay. Congress appoints him as a major general in the Continental Army. Lafayette will become one of General Washington’s most trusted aides.

Continental Army by Henry Ogden

August 1, 1777 – General John Burgoyne reaches the Hudson River after a grueling month spent crossing 23 miles of wilderness separating the southern tip of Lake Champlain from the northern tip of the Hudson River.

August 6, 1777 – British column with Iroquois warriors attack Oriskany, New York from Oswego. rescue troops ambushed.

August 16, 1777 – British General John Burgoyne detached Hessians, British regulars, Loyalists and Iroquois against Bennington, Vermont. American militia attacked and defeated the British. Known as the Battle of Bennington.

August 23, 1777 – Benedict Arnold intended to siege Fort Stanwix, New York but the Indians and Loyalists deserted and the British retired.

August 25, 1777 – British General William Howe disembarks at Chesapeake Bay with his troops.

September 9-11, 1777 – At Brandywine, Pennsylvania, General George Washington and the main American Army of 10,500 men are driven back toward Philadelphia by General William Howe’s British troops. Both sides suffer heavy losses.

September 11, 1777 – Once again worried about an attack, Congress leaves Philadelphia and resettles in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

September 26, 1777- British forces under General William Howe occupied Philadelphia. Congress relocates again to York, Pennsylvania.

Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga New York

October 17, 1777 – General John Burgoyne surrendered his British Army to American Major General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York. It is the first major American victory of the Revolutionary War.

September 21, 1777 – British troops attack with bayonets and surprised Americans at Paoli, Pennsylvania. Americans called it the “Paoli Massacre.”

October 4, 1777 – At Germantown, Pennsylvania, an American attack on British positions failed.

November 15, 1777 – Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation as the government of the new United States of America. Conditions are terrible for the soldiers.

December 17, 1777 – At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, the Continental Army led by General George Washington sets up winter quarters.

1778

February 6, 1778 – France signed a treaty with the Continental Congress which would provide troops, ships, and supplies to America.

George Washington at Valley Forge in 1777 by P. Haas

February 23, 1778 – Baron von Steuben of Prussia arrives at Valley Forge to join the Continental Army. He then begins much-needed training and drilling of Washington’s troops, now suffering from poor morale resulting from cold, hunger, disease, low supplies, and desertions over the long, harsh winter.

March 16, 1778 – A Peace Commission is created by the British Parliament to negotiate with the Americans. The commission then travels to Philadelphia where its offers granting all of the American demands, except independence, are rejected by Congress.

May 8, 1778 – British General Henry Clinton replaces General William Howe as commander of all British forces in the American colonies.

May 30, 1778 – A campaign of terror against American frontier settlements, instigated by the British, begins as 300 Iroquois Indians burn Cobleskill, New York.

June 18, 1778 – Fearing a blockade by French ships, British General Henry Clinton withdraws his troops from Philadelphia and marches across New Jersey toward New York City. Americans then re-occupy Philadelphia.

June 19, 1778 – General George Washington sends troops from Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to intercept General Henry Clinton.

June 27-28, 1778 – The Battle of Monmouth occurs in New Jersey as Washington’s troops and General Henry Clinton’s troops fight to a standoff.

July 2, 1778 – Congress returns once again to Philadelphia.

July 3, 1778 – British Loyalists and Indians massacre American settlers in the Wyoming Valley of northern Pennsylvania.

Illinois Campaign during the American Revolution.

July 4, 1778 – Kaskaskia, Illinois is captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark.

July 8, 1778 – General George Washington sets up headquarters at West Point, New York.

July 10, 1778 – France declares war against Britain.

September 14, 1778 – Benjamin Franklin is appointed to be the American diplomatic representative in France.

August 8, 1778 – American land forces and French ships attempt to conduct a combined siege against Newport, Rhode Island. But bad weather and delays of the land troops result in failure. The weather-damaged French fleet then sails to Boston for repairs.

December 29, 1778 – The British begin a major southern campaign with the capture of Savannah, Georgia, followed a month later with the capture of Augusta.

1779

Major General William Moultrie

February 3, 1779 – Major General Moultrie defeated a British detachment at Port Royal Island, South Carolina.

February 14, 1779 – At Kettle Creek, Georgia, Andrew Pickens and Elijah Clarke and their Georgia and Carolina militia defeated North Carolina Loyalist militia who were traveling to Augusta to join the British forces.

February 24, 1779 – Loyalists and Indians recaptured Vincennes, Indiana but, George Rogers Clark forced them to retreat.

March 3, 1779 – British Lieutenant Colonel Augustine Prevost defeated Americans under General John Ashe at Brier Creek, Georgia.

April 1-30, 1779 – In retaliation for Indian raids on colonial settlements, American troops from North Carolina and Virginia attack Chickamauga Indian villages in Tennessee.

May 10, 1779 – British troops burn Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia.

May 11-13, 1779 – In Charleston, South Carolina Major General Augustine Prevost had to break his siege as American forces under Major General Benjamin Lincoln approached.

British General Henry Clinton

June 1, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton takes 6,000 men up the Hudson River toward West Point, New York.

June 16, 1779 – Spain declares war on England, but does not make an alliance with the American Revolutionary forces.

June 20, 1779 – At Stono River, South Carolina Major General Benjamin Lincoln engaged a British rear guard. The indecisive battle resulted in many casualties.

July 10, 1779 – Naval ships from Massachusetts are destroyed by the British while attempting to take the Loyalist stronghold of Castine, Maine.

July 5-11, 1779 – Loyalists raid coastal towns in Connecticut, burning Fairfield, Norwalk, and ships in New Haven harbor.

July 16, 1779 – At Stony Point, New York, Americans attacked with bayonets only resulting in extensive British casualties.

July-August 1779 – American attempt to dislodge British along the Penobscot River in Maine failed.

August 13, 1779 – At Paulus Hook, New Jersey, the Americans make a successful surprise attack on British outposts.

August 14, 1779 – A peace plan is approved by Congress which stipulates independence, complete British evacuation of America and free navigation on the Mississippi River.

August 28, 1779 – After two terrible massacres, American forces moved into the Indian territory of New York and burned villages. Iroquois and Seneca power was diminished although they remained hostile.

August 29, 1779 – At Elmira, New York American forces defeat the combined Indian and Loyalist forces at Elmira, New York. Following the victory, American troops head northwest and destroy nearly 40 Cayuga and Seneca Indian villages in retaliation for the campaign of terror against American settlers.

September 16-Oct 19, 1779 – American Army under Major General Benjamin Lincoln failed to dislodge British from Savannah, Georgia.

“I have not yet begun to fight!” – John Paul Jones, painting by Charles J. Andres.

September 23, 1779 – Off the coast of England, John Paul Jones fights a desperate battle with a British frigate. When the British demand his surrender, Jones responds, “I have not yet begun to fight!” Jones then captures the frigate before his own ship sinks.

September 27, 1779 – John Adams is appointed by Congress to negotiate peace with England.

November 11, 1778 – At Cherry Valley, New York, Loyalists and Indians massacre over 40 American settlers.

December 26, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton sets sail from New York with 8,000 men and heads for Charleston, South Carolina, arriving there on February 1, 1780.

Winter 1779-1780 – Morristown, New Jersey sheltered the main encampments of the American Continental Army and served as the winter quarters of its commander-in-chief, General George Washington.


REVOLUTIONARY WAR SITES IN FORT LEE, NEW JERSEY

George Washington was named the head of the Continental (American) Army by Congress on June 15, 1775. His first task was to travel to Philadelphia from Boston, where a successful siege which drove British forces from the city was an early victory. The next chapter would prove to be much more difficult, and nearly disastrous to the Continental Army.

After British forces were driven from Boston in March 1776, General Washington headed to New York City, where he arrived on April 13, 1776. The task for him and his army was to protect New York from British invasion. The city was of great strategic importance, and New York harbor offered control of the Hudson River. The British had a large and powerful navy, and their strategy was to use their ships to gain control of the Hudson River in order to split the thirteen colonies in two.

On June 29, British ships began arriving in the New York harbor. Over the next two months, a steady stream of additional ships would arrive, carrying more and more British and Hessian troops. (Hessians were German mercenary soldiers hired by the British to fight in the war.)

While the main body of Washington's army was on Manhattan and Long Island, work began on a fort here in July 1776, which was originally called &ldquoFort Constitution.&rdquo It would later be renamed &ldquoFort Lee&rdquo in honor of General Charles Lee. Across the Hudson River, another fort called Fort Washington had already been constructed. The idea was that these two forts on opposite sides of the river could be used to stop British ships from sailing up the Hudson River.

On July 4, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, raising the stakes of the war. British ships continued to sail into New York harbor throughout the summer, bringing a total of more than 31,000 British and Hessian troops. This was the largest invading force in history up to that time. As the British and Hessian forces continued to grow on Staten Island, General Washington was uncertain as to where they would attack first. He therefore kept some of his troops on Manhattan Island and some in Brooklyn on Long Island.

The first test for the effectiveness of Fort Washington came when two British ships, the Mawar dan juga Phoenix, sailed up the Hudson River on July 12. Cannon fire from Fort Washington made little impact the two ships suffered no serious damage, and no casualties. Despite these poor results, General Washington stuck to the plan of defending the river with the forts, and so work continued to complete Fort Lee.

The initial attack by British and Hessians came on Long Island on August 22, in which the Americans were forced to evacuate defenses they had spent months building. Over the following weeks, the Continental Army suffered a series of defeats and retreated north across Manhattan. By the end of September, British were in control of all of Manhattan, except Fort Washington.

The decision was made to defend Fort Washington, even though its effectiveness had been shown to be ineffective in its purpose of stopping British ships from sailing past it on the Hudson River.

On November 16, British and Hessian troops attacked Fort Washington, easily and quickly overrunning its defenses and capturing 2,800 American troops. Washington ordered General Nathanael Greene to manage an evacuation of Fort Lee, while Washington himself was headquartered ten miles away at the Zabriskie house in Hackensack. [2] A surprise invasion several days later would keep the evacuation from being an orderly one.

On the night of November 19-20, 5000 British and Hessian forces under General Cornwallis crossed over the Hudson River, disembarking about six miles north of Fort Lee at Lower Closter Landing. Upon learning of the invasion, the American troops at Fort Lee made a hasty evacuation, leaving behind such important items as tents, entrenching tools, heavy artillery, and a large amount of food. This began a twelve-day retreat across New Jersey, arriving on December 2 in Trenton, where they spent five days moving all the troops and supplies across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. (See the Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs entry lower on this page.)

This was a desperate time for General Washington and his army, what Thomas Paine would describe as "These are the times that try men's souls." [3] Washington himself wrote in a letter to his brother John after the fall of Fort Washington, "I am wearied almost to death with the retrograde motion of things." [4]

More bad news followed. The army's second ranked General, Charles Lee, for whom Fort Lee was named, was captured by the British in Basking Ridge on the night of December 12 - 13. [5]

However, within weeks Washington and his army would turn the tide. On Christmas night, Washington's forces crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey and win a small but important victory the next morning at Trenton, followed a week later by another victory at Princeton. Having revived their chances and morale, Washington's army headed to Morristown where they spent the winter.

From this point on, New Jersey would play a major role in the Revolutionary War, and Washington would spend more time in this state than any other. Important events in New Jersey over the next six years include encampments in Morristown and Middlebrook the Battles of Monmouth, Connecticut Farms, and Springfield as well as many other major and minor events. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war. When the news of the signing reached America, Congress was meeting in Nassau Hall in Princeton, and General Washington was headquartered in Kingston. Given New Jersey's significant role in the Revolutionary War, it was fitting that both General Washington and Congress were in New Jersey at the time they received this momentous news. [6]

The Visitor Center contains two floors of exhibits which explain and interpret the historic events which occurred at Fort Lee in 1776.There is also a small gift/book shop.

One of the most helpful exhibits is a large three-dimensional map of the New York/Fort Lee area titled "The New York Campaign." The exhibit combines narration with lights on the map which represent the movement of troops across the terrain of the area. When visiting Fort Lee, I highly recommend using this exhibit to understand the geography and troop movements of events in New York and Fort Lee in 1776.

In addition to the information and exhibits available at the Visitor Center, there are signs placed throughout the park grounds to describe the history of this site. There are also soldier hut recreations, and cannons. The view from the park of the Hudson River, New York City, and the George Washington Bridge are outstanding.


Monument Park was created by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1908. At the park's dedication ceremony, the keynote speaker was General John "Black Jack" Pershing, who would go on to lead the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I . [7]

The centerpiece of Monument Park is the majestic Rebelmen statue shown above. In addition to this statue, there are historic plaques located throughout the park. Two plaques describe the use of surrounding Fort Lee roads by the troops in 1776. Others are dedicated to individual Revolutionary War Generals who played a role in the events in Fort Lee.


Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs
Running from Fort Lee Historic Park
to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington

Washington's Army 1776 Retreat Route signs are posted throughout Bergen County along the retreat route taken by the army after abandoning Fort Lee on November 20, 1776. These signs can be followed through Bergen County from Main Street in Fort Lee to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington.

Washington's Army reached the Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington on November 21. They continued their retreat across New Jersey, through Newark, New Brunswick, and Princeton, finally reaching Trenton on December 2. The next five days were spent moving all of the troops and supplies in small boats over the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. They made their famous Crossing of the Delaware back into New Jersey several weeks later on Christmas night.


Source Notes:

1. ^ A variety of sources were consulted in preparing this entry, including:

&bull David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005)

&bull David Hackett Fischer, Washington's Crossing (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

&bull Markers, signs, brochures and exhibits at Fort Lee Historic Park

&bull George Washington Edited by Jared Sparks, The Writings of George Washington Volume 4 (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and
Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) Available to be read at Google Books here

2. ^ Note that using modern roads, the distance is only eight miles from the Fort Lee encampment to Zabriskie's house site in Hackensack. However, in 1776 the journey was longer because it was necessary to use the New Bridge to cross the Hackensack River.

3. ^ "These are the times that try men's souls" is the opening sentence of Thomas Paine's The Crisis.

4. ^ George Washington to John Augustine Washington, sent from "Hackinsac" [Hackensack] on November 19, 1776 , reprinted in:
George Washington Edited by Jared Sparks, The Writings of George Washington Volume 4 (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) pages 182 - 185 Available to be read at Google Books here

5. ^ General Charles Lee was captured at Widow White's Tavern in Basking Ridge by a group of British dragoons (cavalry) under the command of twenty-two-year-old officer Banastre Tarleton.
▸ For more information, see the Basking Ridge page of this website.

6. ^ For more information and accompanying source notes about the events mentioned in these two paragraphs, see the pages linked to within the text.

7. ^ Official Website of the Borough of Fort Lee dan juga General John 'Black Jack' Pershing plaque in the park.

The ultimate field guide to New Jersey's Revolutionary War historic sites!
Fort Lee New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites & lembu Fort Lee New Jersey Historic Sites
Fort Lee Historic Park & lembu Monument Park & lembu Washington's Army Retreat Route 1776

Website Researched, Written, Photographed and Designed by Al Frazza
This website, its text and photographs are © 2009 - 2021 AL Frazza. Hak cipta terpelihara.


8. Battles of Trenton and Princeton (Winter of 1776-1777)

General George Washington crossed the icy Delaware River on the night of Christmas and into the morning of December 26th in 1776, leading his Continental Army against the British forces stationed at Trenton, having with him around 1,400 men. General Washington captured more than 900 men and occupied Trenton four days later. On January 3, he led a daring night match to capture Princeton after luring the British forces south. These two victories were pivotal in boosting the morale of the American troops and reassuring their cause in independence.


Demont, William

DEMONT, WILLIAM. American traitor. Pennsylvania. Born in England, Demont settled in Pennsylvania before the Revolution. Commissioned ensign in the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion on 6 January 1776, he became regimental adjunct to Colonel Robert Magaw, commander of Fort Washington, on 29 September. He deserted on the night of 2-3 November 1776 to the camp of Earl Percy at McGown's Pass in Manhattan, taking with him complete information on Fort Washington's defenses. Shortly after the fall of fort to the British, Magaw and other American officers learned of Demont's treason Washington, however, kept the incident quiet for fear of its impact on morale. Dement traveled with General William Howe's army until 1780, when he went to England to press his claims for some sort of reward. Though he had done the British great service in turning over the plans to Fort Washington, as late as 1792 Dement was still attempting to gain recompense for his losses during the Revolution. The government awarded him sixty pounds.

disemak oleh Michael Bellesiles

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