Portugal

Portugal


Portugal adalah kuasa maritim pertama di dunia dan tempat kelahiran beberapa penjelajah pertama dunia

Portugal berada di barisan hadapan penerokaan Eropah pada abad ke-15 dan ke-16. Semasa Zaman Penemuan, Ferdinand Magellan menjadi orang pertama yang mengelilingi dunia. Vasco de Gama menemui jalan laut ke India, dan Bartholomew Diaz adalah yang pertama berlayar di hujung selatan Afrika yang disebutnya sebagai Cape of Good Hope. Akhirnya, Álvares Cabral dan yang lain menemui tanah baru, termasuk Brazil, bahagian Afrika, dan Timur Jauh - dan menuntut mereka untuk Portugal.

Monumen Vasco da Gama, Lagos, Portugal

Empayar penjajah Portugal merangkumi 600 tahun, yang paling lama hidup dari kerajaan Eropah moden

Pada kemuncaknya, kerajaan Portugal & # 8217 terbentang di 53 negara yang kini berbeza. Brazil mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun 1822, sementara semua jajahan Afrika Portugal merdeka pada akhir tahun 1975. Portugal memindahkan jajahan terakhirnya, Macau, ke China pada tahun 1999 setelah 442 tahun pendudukan.

Portugal adalah negara Eropah pertama yang mengambil bahagian dalam perdagangan hamba transatlantik

Sebagai kuasa penjajah utama, Portugal merupakan pemain utama dalam perdagangan hamba global, membawa hamba dari Afrika barat ke Amerika. Itu juga merupakan kuasa penjajah pertama yang menghapuskan perbudakan, sekitar 50 tahun sebelum Britain, Sepanyol, Perancis, dan Amerika Syarikat.

Lisbon lebih tua dari Rom dan antara bandar tertua di Eropah

Lisbon telah menjadi kota Portugis sejak 1147, tetapi sejarahnya mendahului Portugal beberapa ribu tahun. Penemuan arkeologi sejak tahun 1200 SM mengungkapkan bahawa orang Phoenician mempunyai penempatan di seberang sekarang Lisbon, yang bermaksud Lisbon telah didiami secara berterusan selama lebih dari 3.000 tahun.

Alfama, Lisbon, Portugal

Portugal adalah Eropah & # 8217; titik paling barat

Di daratan benua Eropah, titik paling barat adalah Cabo da Roca sebuah tanjung yang terletak di bandar Sintra. Sekiranya anda merangkumi pulau benua Eropah & # 8217, Portugal masih merupakan negara paling barat tempat paling barat di Plat Eurasia adalah Capelinhos, gunung berapi di Azores.

Walaupun Portugal adalah tempat paling barat di Eropah, ia bukan tempat paling barat di Kesatuan Eropah. Penghormatan itu terletak pada Perancis, yang mana koleksi Saint-Martin di luar negara terletak di Caribbean.


Negara Portugal muncul pada abad kesepuluh semasa penaklukan semula Kristen di Semenanjung Iberia: pertama sebagai wilayah di bawah kendali Counts of Portugal dan kemudian, pada pertengahan abad kedua belas, sebagai kerajaan di bawah Raja Afonso I. takhta kemudian melalui masa yang bergolak, dengan beberapa pemberontakan. Semasa penjelajahan dan penaklukan luar negeri di abad kelima belas dan keenam belas di Afrika, Amerika Selatan dan India memenangkan negara itu sebagai kerajaan yang kaya.

Pada tahun 1580 krisis berturut-turut menyebabkan pencerobohan yang berjaya oleh Raja Sepanyol dan pemerintahan Sepanyol, memulai era yang dikenali oleh penentang sebagai Penawanan Sepanyol, tetapi pemberontakan yang berjaya pada tahun 1640 menyebabkan kemerdekaan sekali lagi. Portugal berperang bersama Britain dalam Perang Napoleon, yang kejatuhan politiknya menyebabkan seorang putera Raja Portugal menjadi Maharaja Brazil penurunan kuasa imperialis diikuti. Abad kesembilan belas menyaksikan perang saudara, sebelum Republik diisytiharkan pada tahun 1910. Namun, pada tahun 1926 kudeta tentera menyebabkan jeneral memerintah hingga tahun 1933, ketika seorang Profesor bernama Salazar mengambil alih, memerintah secara autoritarian. Pengunduran dirinya kerana sakit disusuli beberapa tahun kemudian oleh rampasan kuasa selanjutnya, pengisytiharan Republik Ketiga dan kemerdekaan bagi jajahan Afrika.


Kejatuhan Empayar

1807: Napoleon menyerang Portugal. Untuk melindungi keluarga kerajaan, istana Portugis dipindahkan ke Brazil.

1815: Kerajaan Portugal dan Algarves menjadi Kerajaan Portugal, Brazil, dan Algarves. Ini memungkinkan Raja memindahkan ibu kota Portugal ke Rio de Janeiro. Menariknya, ini adalah satu-satunya waktu dalam sejarah dimana kerajaan diperintah dari salah satu wilayahnya.

1820: Pemberontak Brazil memaksa kembalinya ibu negara Portugis ke Lisbon.

1821: Akhir rasmi Inkuisisi Portugis.

1822: Portugal mengesahkan perlembagaan pertamanya. Pada tahun itu, Brazil juga mengisytiharkan kemerdekaan, menandakan permulaan perang dua tahun untuk kebebasan.

1824: Portugal menyerah kepada Brazil.

1825: Portugal secara rasmi mengiktiraf Empayar Brazil.


  • NAMA RASMI: Republik Portugis
  • BORANG KERAJAAN: Republik, demokrasi berparlimen
  • MODAL: Lisbon
  • PENDUDUK: 10,355,493
  • BAHASA RASMI: Portugis, Mirandese
  • WANG: Euro
  • KAWASAN: 35,516 batu persegi (91,985 kilometer persegi)

GEOGRAFI

Portugal adalah titik paling barat di Eropah dan terletak di pantai barat Semenanjung Iberia. Pesisir Atlantik yang panjang popular di kalangan pengunjung dan penduduk tempatan. Surfers ditarik ke ombak yang kuat di barat, dan pantai berpasir yang hangat di selatan adalah surga bagi pelancong.

Sebilangan besar penduduk tinggal di sepanjang pantai, dengan sepertiga penduduk tinggal di kawasan metropolitan Lisbon dan Porto yang besar.

Peta dibuat oleh Peta Geografi Nasional

ORANG & BUDAYA

Bandar-bandar Portugis masih mengekalkan watak bersejarah mereka dan banyak bangunan lama tetap utuh. Lisbon tidak banyak berubah sejak akhir abad ke-18. Persekitaran semula jadi terpelihara dengan baik dan tidak ada pencemaran yang serius.

Seni melukis jubin dan kaca, yang dikenali sebagai azulejos, adalah salah satu bentuk seni yang paling popular di Portugal. Teknik ini pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh orang Moor dan diadopsi oleh raja pada tahun 1500-an dan penggunaan jubin biru dan putih tersebar di seluruh negara dan dipraktikkan oleh para perajin hari ini.

Lapan daripada sepuluh orang Portugis adalah Katolik Roma. Hari-hari suci dan perayaan keagamaan adalah acara yang sangat popular. Walaupun negara ini dimodenkan berkat wang yang diterima dari negara-negara Eropah yang lebih kaya, rakyatnya masih miskin berbanding dengan negara-negara lain.

SIFAT

Sebahagian besar Portugal pernah diliputi oleh hutan. Hari ini, hanya satu perempat dari negara yang masih berhutan. Walaupun beberapa spesies asli, seperti pohon gabus masih umum, banyak tumbuhan adalah spesies asing dan diperkenalkan oleh manusia.

Pertanian dan pemburuan telah mengurangkan bilangan haiwan liar yang tinggal di Portugal. Haiwan biasa adalah babi hutan, kambing liar, rusa fallow, rubah, dan kelinci Iberia. Iberian lynx adalah spesies kucing yang paling terancam di dunia. Portugal dan Sepanyol bekerjasama untuk mewujudkan ruang terbuka untuk membolehkan beberapa ratus lynx yang tersisa bebas berkeliaran.

Garis pantai adalah habitat yang kaya untuk kepiting, kerang, dan tiram, dan tuna, bonito, dan sardin adalah tangkapan yang biasa dilakukan oleh nelayan Portugis.

Banyak burung berhijrah berhenti di Portugal ketika dalam perjalanan ke dan dari Eropah tengah ke Afrika dan seterusnya.


Sejarah Portugal


P ortugal adalah negara bangsa tertua di Eropah. Ini kisahnya.

Penduduk Pertama

Homo Sapiens muncul di zaman sekarang Portugal semasa Zaman Batu Lama. Dipercayai mereka sampai di sana dari sekarang Perancis Selatan sebelum 10.000 SM, dengan memasuki jalan rendah antara pantai dan ujung barat Pyrenees. Mereka menetap di utara, dan kemudian pada tahun 2000 SM. , kumpulan lain (yang kemudian dikenali sebagai "orang Iberia") menetap di selatan. Asal orang Iberia ini tidak diketahui, tetapi kemungkinannya adalah Afrika Utara.

Tempat untuk melihat Portugal Prasejarah: Tapak prasejarah yang tidak dapat dilupakan adalah di luar bandar Evora. Itulah Almendres Cromlech, lingkaran sekitar 95 monolit yang merupakan yang terbaik di Iberia. Juga berhampiran Evora adalah Dolmen Besar Zambujeiro, yang terbesar di Eropah, dengan enam batu, masing-masing setinggi 6 meter, membentuk ruang besar. Di sekitarnya juga terdapat monumen phallic 7 tan, berdiri sebagai pusat di Xerez Cromlech, sekumpulan sekitar 50 menhir.
Galeri luaran seni batu prasejarah terbesar di dunia dijumpai berhampiran dengan Lamego di C & ocirca Valley.

Celtic Portugal

Orang Celt tiba ribuan tahun kemudian, dan membawa sekumpulan kecil orang Jerman bersama mereka. Mereka menetap kebanyakannya di utara Semenanjung Iberia, terutama di wilayah yang sekarang terletak di utara Portugal dan wilayah Galicia di Sepanyol. Bahasa Celtic tersebar dari Perancis Selatan di sebahagian besar utara Iberia, dan meluas ke selatan hingga meliputi Portugal tengah. Celts ini adalah ahli pertanian dan pastoral, dan memperkenalkan jenis gerabak Eropah Tengah yang masih digunakan di Galicia dan Portugal utara. Di hutan utara Iberia, mereka mendapati semua yang diperlukan untuk haiwan mereka, dan bukti pentingnya penggembalaan itu terdapat dalam sebilangan besar patung granit haiwan tertentu, terutama babi, yang terdapat di kawasan itu. Babi ini dikatakan mempunyai kaitan dengan kesuburan, kewibawaan dan kekuatan. Pemujaan haiwan tidaklah unik bagi orang Iberian Celts, kerana orang-orang Celts Irlandia juga memelihara lembu suci, dan lembu, babi dan domba "kerajaan". Mereka tinggal di kampung-kampung rumah batu bulat yang masih dapat dilihat di utara Portugal, dan akhirnya mereka menjalin hubungan dengan kerabat mereka di Brittany dan Kepulauan Inggeris untuk perdagangan timah.
Orang-orang Celt ini, yang kemudian dikenal sebagai "Lusitanians," memiliki budaya yang serupa dengan kelompok-kelompok yang sudah ada di Iberia, yang memungkinkan mereka menetap dalam persahabatan dan kerjasama. Di daerah-daerah tertentu, orang-orang Celt ini bercampur dengan penduduk lain, dan membentuk kumpulan yang diberi nama "Celtiberians." Kira-kira pada masa yang sama, orang Phoenician mendirikan sedikit penempatan ikan dan masin di seluruh selatan Portugal, dan diikuti oleh orang Yunani dan Carthaginians.

Di mana untuk melihat Celtic Portugal: Contoh terbaik penempatan Celtic (disebut "Castros") terdapat di wilayah Minho utara, terutamanya Citania de Briteiros yang berdekatan dengan bandar Guimar & atildees. Berikut adalah runtuhan terpelihara dan beberapa bangunan (pondok tempat tinggal batu yang dibina dalam bentuk bulat atau elips) yang telah dipulihkan. Salah satu artifak yang paling menarik yang ditemui dari Briteiros adalah sebidang batu berukir yang dianggap sebagai bahagian depan monumen pemakaman, dan dapat dilihat, bersama-sama dengan tinggalan arca yang lain, di Muzium Martins Sarmento Guimar & atildees. Closeby adalah wilayah Terras de Basto, di mana terdapat patung-patung yang dipercayai mewakili pahlawan Celtic. Laman web lain adalah Sanfins de Ferreira, dekat dengan kota Porto, di mana terdapat jejak tiga tembok pertahanan sekitar 100 pondok dan sebuah muzium kecil. Di kota Viana do Castelo juga terdapat jejak penempatan Celtiberian di Bukit Bukit Santa Luzia, dengan sisa-sisa dinding dan pondok batu bulat. Nama-nama bandar yang berakhir dengan "briga" (seperti Conimbriga atau Mirobriga) juga berasal dari zaman ini, serta lebih daripada 200 babi atau babi hutan granit (panjangnya sekitar 6 kaki / 2 meter), terdapat di seluruh Tras-os-Montes wilayah.

Roman Portugal

Bangsa Romawi menguasai Gaul (Perancis sekarang) dalam tujuh tahun, tetapi mereka memerlukan hampir dua abad untuk mengambil alih sepenuhnya Iberia. Pemimpin Lusitan, Viriathus, memimpin orang-orangnya dalam kempen kemenangan melawan Rom, yang menyebabkan kematiannya di tangan pembunuh upahan. Setelah kematian Viriathus, orang-orang Rom dapat mengambil alih, dan orang-orang Lusitan menarik diri ke desa-desa di puncak bukit di barat laut pedesaan dan mempertahankan penentangan selama beberapa generasi, dengan serangan sekali-sekala di wilayah yang diselesaikan. Orang Rom menetap di mana-mana, tetapi jumlah mereka di utara agak kecil. Selatan lebih sesuai dengan keinginan mereka, yang lebih baik untuk menanam gandum, zaitun, dan anggur. Mereka akhirnya memaksakan bahasa mereka ke seluruh semenanjung, dan kod undang-undang mereka diterapkan, yang juga akhirnya menjadi dasar kod undang-undang Portugis. Forum, kuil dan pengadilan dibangun di kota-kota, pertanian berskala besar dilakukan, dan bajak diperkenalkan. Jalan dan jambatan (masih dalam bukti di seluruh Portugal) telah dibuat, serta sistem ladang pertanian besar yang disebut Latifundios masih dapat dilihat di kawasan Alentejo. Di bawah Decimus Junius Brutus dan Julius Caesar, sebuah ibu kota didirikan di Olisipo (Lisbon), dan sekitar 25 SM, Augustus membahagi semenanjung menjadi beberapa provinsi, menamakan banyak kawasan yang akhirnya menjadi Portugal "Lusitania."

Tempat untuk melihat Roman Portugal: Di kota Evora terdapat tinggalan yang mengagumkan dari Kuil Diana abad ke-2, dengan 14 tiang Korintus. Bandar Rom Conimbriga, yang didirikan pada abad ke-2 SM, mempunyai beberapa reruntuhan Rom yang terpelihara di Iberia, dengan sisa-sisa dinding, tiang yang digunakan untuk tujuan struktur atau hiasan, hiasan klasik, saluran air, air pancut dan mandi dengan mosaik yang megah, sebahagiannya juga dapat dilihat di muzium laman web ini. Terdapat juga tinggalan Rom di Estoi di pusat Algarve, dengan beberapa potongan mosaik ikan di bekas bilik mandi, serta vila Rom di Pis & otildees berhampiran bandar Beja yang menunjukkan mosaik lantai yang luas dan serpihan dinding yang dihiasi, mandi, kolam mandi, dan hypocaust. Terdapat juga tinggalan bangunan Rom di Beja, dan jambatan Rom di bandar Chaves.

Germanic Portugal

Kelemahan Empayar Rom membolehkan pelbagai bangsa Teutonik menyerang Gaul. Mereka akhirnya menyeberangi Pyrenees dan memasuki Iberia. Suevi (atau orang Swab), yang kebanyakan tinggal di barat laut, menjadikan Bracara Augusta (sekarang kota Braga Portugis) sebagai ibu kota mereka. Penguasa-penguasa Jerman yang baru ini sama sekali tidak menyapu peradaban Rom, yang mereka pelajari untuk dikagumi, dan gaya berpakaian tetap berbeda. Kumpulan-kumpulan Jerman memakai rambut mereka panjang, sementara orang-orang Rom memangkas rambut mereka. Namun, mereka berbaur dengan mudah dengan orang Rom, juga dengan orang Celt, yang budayanya tidak terlalu berbeda dari mereka. Sumbangan besar orang Swab adalah dalam penggunaan tanah, dan pengenalan bajak segi empat. Mereka lebih suka menetap di utara dan barat laut Iberia, yang merupakan kawasan yang mempunyai iklim yang lebih sesuai dengan tanaman mereka. Kumpulan Jerman lain seperti Vandal dan Alans juga menyeberangi Pyrennes, dan merebak ke pinggir barat semenanjung. Orang Alans, pada masa yang paling kuat dari suku, mengambil wilayah besar di tengah dan selatan, kira-kira kawasan Rom Lusitania. Kaum Luso-Rom tidak memberikan penentangan yang efektif terhadap penyelesaiannya.

Di mana untuk melihat Portugal Jermanik: Visigoth membina beberapa kuil, beberapa di antaranya telah dipulihkan selama berabad-abad. Contohnya termasuk Gereja S & atildeo Gi & atildeo berhampiran Nazare, Kapel S & atildeo Pedro de Balsem & atildeo di Lamego, Gereja Santa Amaro (juga berfungsi sebagai sebahagian dari Muzium Visigothic) di Beja, dan kapel S & atildeo Frutuoso bergaya Byzantine dekat Braga. Orang Visigoth juga membina semula bandar Rom Idanha-a-Velha berhampiran Castelo Branco dan beberapa bahagian katedralnya bermula dari masa ini. Juga, banyak dari 92 kampung Taman Alam Montesinho di provinsi Tras-Os-Montes masih mempunyai nama khas Jerman seperti Fresulfe atau Sernande, peringatan bagi orang-orang Visigoth yang mendirikannya.

Moorish Portugal

Nabi Muhammad memberitakan agama barunya, Islam, di Arabia, dan ketika wafat pada tahun 632, penggantinya melakukan program penaklukan dunia dengan nama Allah dan Islam. Menjelang tahun 700, pasukan mereka menyapu Afrika Utara dan menundukkan Maghribi. Mereka melintasi apa yang sekarang menjadi Sepanyol pada tahun 711, dan selama bertahun-tahun menaklukkan hampir seluruh semenanjung dengan kepantasan yang luar biasa. Namun, berbanding dengan penjajah Iberia sebelumnya, orang-orang Islam ini (yang diberi nama "Orang Moor" oleh orang-orang Kristian), memilih untuk menetap kebanyakan di selatan. Di wilayah Portugal sekarang, kehadiran mereka lebih kuat di wilayah Alentejo dan Algarve sekarang. Orang Moor dari Mesir kebanyakannya menetap di Beja dan Faro hari ini, sementara orang Syria menetap di antara Faro dan kota Seville di Sepanyol. Orang Moor membentengi beberapa kota, kerja-kerja pengairan dari zaman Rom dipulihkan dan disempurnakan, dan penggunaan kertas linen menjadikan pendaraban buku lebih mudah daripada pada zaman gulungan perkamen. Akibatnya, literasi semakin meluas.

Tempat untuk melihat Moorish Portugal: Tidak seperti Sepanyol, Portugal tidak memiliki bangunan lengkap yang tersisa dari zaman Moor, tetapi di selatan negara ini masih ada pengaruh Moor yang agak kuat. Gaya cerobong khas di Algarve sering dikaitkan dengan pengaruh Moor, seperti rumah-rumah putih dengan karya besi tempa Alentejo. Terdapat juga beberapa istana Moor, dengan yang paling terkenal adalah Castelo dos Mouros di Sintra. Terdapat juga sisa-sisa kawasan Moor, terutama di Alentejo di bandar Moura dan Mertola, tempat gereja yang menyimpan banyak ciri orang Moor. Mertola juga mempunyai muzium kecil yang menempatkan koleksi seni Islam terbaik di negara ini, termasuk seramik, syiling, dan perhiasan.
Istana Nasional Sintra juga menampilkan hiasan Moor, walaupun itu berasal dari abad ke-16, lama setelah orang Moor diusir dari negara itu.

Christian Reconquest dan Kemunculan Portugal

Orang Kristian terus berusaha untuk menyingkirkan orang Moor, dan percubaan pertama dikatakan telah dilakukan seawal sepuluh tahun setelah pencerobohan mereka. Ini adalah ketika seorang lelaki bernama Pelagio memperoleh kemenangan Kristian pertama melawan penjajah yang dibenci di utara Iberia. Walaupun kepentingan ketenteraan kecil pada masa itu, itu mengangkat semangat Kristian. Selama bertahun-tahun, orang-orang Kristian menakluki beberapa kawasan dari utara ke selatan semenanjung (utara ditakluk semula sebelumnya, dengan bandar-bandar Portugis Oporto kembali di tangan Kristian pada tahun 868 dan Coimbra pada tahun 1064).
Beberapa Kerajaan Kristian dibentuk. Pada tahun 1095, Alfonso VI, penguasa kerajaan Leon dan Castile mendirikan County Portucale antara sungai Douro dan Mondego. Pada tahun 1139, penguasa daerah ini, Afonso Henriques memenangkan pertempuran melawan orang Moor, dan menyatakan Portucale sebagai kerajaan yang terpisah, dengan dirinya sebagai raja. Empat tahun kemudian, Alfonso VII dari Leon-Castile mengiktiraf Portucale sebagai kerajaan yang terpisah dan bebas, seperti yang dilakukan oleh Paus Alexander III pada tahun 1179. Afonso Henriques terus merebut tanah dari orang Moor, dan pada tahun 1147 dia menakluki Lisbon dengan bantuan bahasa Inggeris, Flemish , Tentera salib Jerman, dan Perancis. Evora diambil semula pada tahun 1166, dan Algarve pada tahun 1249. Pada ketika ini, penaklukan Portugal selesai, dan Portugal menjadi negara pertama di Eropah yang mencapai batas pengembangan wilayahnya, yang masih tidak berubah hingga hari ini.

Tempat untuk melihat Portugal Abad Pertengahan: Dari sekian banyak istana yang dibina atau dibina semula setelah Reconquest, yang paling mengagumkan adalah di Guimar & atildees, Almourol, Bragan & ccedila, Leiria, dan Obidos. Katedral di Porto, Lisbon, Evora, Braga dan Coimbra juga berasal dari masa ini, serta banyak gereja kecil di seluruh negara. Ini juga terjadi ketika biara-biara Alcoba & ccedila dan Batalha dan Istana Templar di Tomar, yang merupakan tiga monumen paling mengagumkan di negara itu, dibina.

Zaman Penemuan

Setelah Portugal berjaya mengusir orang Moors, Castile (Sepanyol) yang berjiran berusaha untuk melakukan hal yang sama, mencapai tujuan itu pada tahun 1492. Tetapi selama bertahun-tahun ia juga berusaha untuk mengambil alih Portugal. Terdapat beberapa percubaan pencerobohan, berakhir dengan kemenangan Portugis dalam Pertempuran Aljubarrota pada tahun 1385, semasa pemerintahan Raja Jo & atildeo. Penguasaannya kemudian menyaksikan permulaan pengembangan kolonial Portugal di Afrika dan pelayaran penemuan yang menjadikan Portugal meningkat sebagai kekuatan maritim dan penjajah terkemuka di Eropah barat, dan Lisbon berkembang menjadi kota komersial utama. Pada tahun 1415 pos perdagangan Ceuta di Maghribi ditawan. Bertahun-tahun kemudian, anak lelaki Jo & atildeo, Putera Henry the Navigator mempromosikan perjalanan penemuan, dan "sekolah pelayaran" di Sagres didirikan. Pada ketika ini, "karavel Portugis" diciptakan. Kapal ini lebih bulat dan lebih sesuai untuk Atlantik, digerakkan sepenuhnya oleh layar berlambat atau persegi, dan memerlukan kru yang lebih kecil daripada kapal sebelumnya. Akibatnya, Portugis adalah orang Eropah pertama yang membuka jalan ke Atlantik (menjumpai pulau-pulau Madeira, Azores, dan Tanjung Verde), untuk berlayar ke Afrika barat (sampai ke muara Kongo pada tahun 1482), untuk menyeberangi Khatulistiwa, untuk membulatkan dan menamakan Cape of Good Hope (Bartolomeu Dias), untuk mencapai India melalui laut dari barat (Vasco da Gama), untuk menjejakkan kaki di Amerika Selatan (dengan penemuan Brazil oleh Pedro Alvares Cabral), dan adalah orang barat pertama di Ceylon, Sumatera, Melaka, Timor dan kepulauan rempah-rempah Maluku, orang Eropah pertama yang berdagang dengan China dan Jepun (mendirikan pos perdagangan di Makau, yang merupakan penempatan Eropah pertama di China dan sebahagian Portugal hingga 1999), dan melihat Australia dua ratus tahun sebelum Kapten Cook. Saudara-saudara Corte-Real juga sampai di Newfoundland pada tahun 1500, dan berlayar ke Sepanyol, penjelajah Portugis Magellan (Magalh & atildees dalam bahasa Portugis) adalah orang pertama yang mengelilingi dunia, dan Cabrilho adalah yang pertama menjelajah pantai California. Berkat perdagangan di seluruh dunia, Portugal menikmati kemakmuran yang meningkat, menjadikannya negara terkaya di Eropah. Dalam tempoh ini, Raja Manuel I menandakan kegembiraan pada zaman itu dengan gaya seni bina Manueline yang mewah (masih kelihatan hingga kini di seluruh Portugal, terutama di Menara Belem Lisbon dan Biara Jeronimos).

Di mana untuk melihat Zaman Emas Portugal: Senibina Gaya Manuelin yang unik dikembangkan pada zaman Zaman Emas Portugal. Bangunan yang paling mengagumkan adalah Menara Belem dan Biara Jeronimos (tempat penjelajah Vasco da Gama dikebumikan) di kawasan Belem di Lisbon, yang terkenal sebagai tempat kapal berangkat dan kembali setelah perjalanan mereka. Trotoar di hadapan Monumen Discoveries menunjukkan peta dengan laluan penemu pada abad ke-15 dan ke-16. Muzium Maritim oleh biara menggambarkan kemajuan pesat dalam pembuatan kapal dengan instrumen navigasi, astrolab, peta abad ke-16, replika karavel, dll. Kawasan lain yang terkenal dengan peranannya semasa Penemuan adalah bandar Sagres di wilayah Algarve, di mana terdapat adalah kompas angin kerikil raksasa berdiameter 43m (141 kaki), yang dikatakan telah digunakan oleh Putera Henry the Navigator.

60 Tahun Kesatuan Iberia

Pada akhir abad ke-16, Raja Sebasti & atildeo bertekad untuk membawa agama Kristian ke Maghribi. Dia mengumpulkan kekuatan 18,000 tetapi terbunuh dalam pertempuran bersama dengan 8000 yang lain. Penggantinya, Kardinal Henrique mengambil alih takhta. Pada tahun 1580, ketika Henrique meninggal, paman Sebasti & atildeo, Phillip II dari Sepanyol, merebut takhta Portugis. Phillip menjanjikan kesatuan yang semata-mata peribadi yang akan meninggalkan kerajaan barunya sebagai bebas seperti sebelumnya, menjamin pemisahan kedua pemerintah, dan berjanji bahawa bahasa dan undang-undang Portugis harus digunakan dalam pemerintahan negara itu. Penguasaan Phillip menepati janjinya, tetapi di bawah anak dan cucunya, Sepanyol membiarkan Inggeris dan Belanda melucutkan Portugal harta benda asing yang berharga, dan Lisbon menolak sebagai pusat komersial dengan persaingan dari pelabuhan di England dan Belanda. Ini menandakan berakhirnya zaman kegemilangan Portugal. Pada tahun 1640, tokoh-tokoh terkemuka mengadakan kenaikan yang terancang di Lisbon dan dengan mudah mengalahkan penjaga yang menjaga bangunan awam. Sekiranya tidak ada kekuatan yang mampu menekan kebangkitan, penguasa baru diakui dan "Kesatuan Iberia" berakhir. Kemudian, perjanjian persahabatan dan kerjasama komersial dengan Britain memastikan mahkota Portugal dikembalikan, tetapi juga menjamin dominasi Inggeris di Portugal. Dua tahun selepas perjanjian itu, Catherine of Braganza dari Portugal (Bragan & ccedila), berkahwin dengan Charles II dari England.

Penjajahan Perancis

Pada tahun 1755, gempa bumi yang dahsyat menghancurkan Lisbon, membunuh ribuan orang dan memusnahkan kebanyakan bangunan. Perdana menteri pada masa itu, Marquis of Pombal, mengarahkan pembangunan semula kota itu. Menjelang pergantian abad, negara mengalami masa yang lebih baik. Sebilangan besar Lisbon telah dibangun kembali, kelas petani stabil, kelas menengah makmur, semuanya dipimpin oleh pemerintah Ratu Maria I. yang agak bertimbang rasa. Pada waktu ini, peristiwa di negara-negara Eropah lain mengancam Portugal. Di Perancis, Napoleon mengisytiharkan sekatan perdagangan Inggeris, dan orang Inggeris bertindak balas dengan blokade benua. Orang Perancis menegaskan bahawa Portugis menutup pelabuhan mereka ke Inggeris, membukanya ke kapal Sepanyol dan Perancis dan menangkap semua orang Inggeris di negara itu dan merampas harta benda mereka. Tidak memenuhi tuntutan ini akan mengakibatkan pencerobohan. Portugal selalu menjalin hubungan persahabatan dengan England, sehingga pemerintah menunda-nunda. Perancis dan Sepanyol kemudian menandatangani Perjanjian Fountainebleau, yang memberi Napoleon hak untuk menyerang Portugal melalui Sepanyol. Mereka bersetuju bahawa selepas pencerobohan itu, Portugal akan berpecah antara Perancis dan Sepanyol. Perancis menduduki negara ini pada tahun 1807, dan keluarga kerajaan Portugis melarikan diri ke Brazil. Kira-kira 50,000 tentera Perancis dan Sepanyol mengemudi di luar bandar untuk menangkap, membunuh, menjarah dan merogol sesuka hati. Pada tahun 1808 Portugal mendapat bantuan daripada Inggeris, sekutu tertua mereka. Dengan bantuan mereka (diketuai oleh Jeneral Sir Arthur Wellesley), garis pertahanan dibina di sekitar Lisbon. Ketika Napoleon sampai di kubu, dia mundur. Selepas perang, perlembagaan baru diisytiharkan dan Brazil diberi kemerdekaan. Tahun-tahun berikutnya ditandai dengan kekeliruan politik.

Tempat untuk melihat Portugal abad ke-17, ke-18, dan ke-19: Contoh bangunan dari abad ke-17 adalah Gereja S & atildeo Vicente de Fora Lisbon dan Istana Fronteira, Nova S & eacute di Coimbra, dan Istana Dukes di Vila Vi & ccedilosa. Dari abad ke-18 terdapat beberapa gereja Baroque yang terdapat di seluruh negara, banyak dengan hiasan dalaman dari kayu berlapis emas seperti S & atildeo Francisco dan Santa Clara di Porto. Istana Mafra dan Queluz dan Menara Clerigos Porto juga bermula dari masa ini, serta banyak rumah desa yang elegan seperti Palacio de Mateus. Daerah Baixa di Lisbon juga banyak dibina semula selama ini, berikutan gempa bumi pada tahun 1755. Abad ke-19 dikuasai oleh Neo-Classicisme, seperti yang dapat dilihat di Istana Ajuda Lisbon dan di beberapa bangunan lain di ibu kota. Bangunan-bangunan lain yang mengagumkan dari masa ini adalah Sintra's Pena dan Monserrate Palaces. Stesen S & atildeo Bento Lisio's Rossio dan Porto, Lift Santa Justa Lisbon, dan jambatan Porto juga bermula dari abad ini.

Abad ke-20

Permulaan abad ke-20 ditandai oleh gerakan republik nasionalis yang radikal. Pada tahun 1908, raja dan putera mahkota dibunuh, dan pada tahun 1910, setelah pemberontakan oleh perwira tentera, Portugal diisytiharkan sebagai republik. Semasa WWI Portugal bergabung dengan Sekutu, dan pada tahun-tahun selepas perang, kekacauan politik semakin mendalam. Antara tahun 1910 dan 1945 terdapat 45 perubahan pemerintahan, yang sering dilakukan melalui campur tangan ketenteraan. Pada tahun 1932 Antonio Salazar menjadi perdana menteri, dan semasa Perang Dunia II, Portugal dinyatakan berkecuali. Salazar memerintah negara ini selama 36 tahun, melarang parti politik dan mogok pekerja. Penapisan, propaganda dan paksa menjadikan masyarakat sentiasa teratur. Pasukan polis rahsia menggunakan penjara dan penyeksaan untuk menekan pembangkang. Salazar juga menolak untuk menyerahkan tanah jajahan Portugal tetapi India menduduki Portugis Goa pada tahun 1961, dan nasionalis tempatan bangkit di Angola. Pergerakan serupa berlaku di Guinea Portugis dan Mozambik. Akibatnya, terdapat ekspedisi tentera yang mahal. Pada tahun 1968, Salazar mengalami strok dan Marcelo Caetano adalah penggantinya. Pegawai tentera menjadi enggan untuk berkhidmat dalam perang kolonial, dan beberapa ratus dari mereka melakukan rampasan kuasa tanpa darah pada 25 April 1974. Jajahan Afrika kemudian diberi kemerdekaan, dan perlembagaan baru mengikat Portugal untuk gabungan sosialisme dan demokrasi. Terdapat beberapa kerajaan setelah itu, dan negara itu hanya dianggap stabil secara rasmi pada pertengahan 1980-an. Pada tahun 1986 Portugal bergabung dengan Komuniti Ekonomi Eropah (kemudian dinamakan Kesatuan Eropah pada tahun 1992). Dengan dana EU, Portugal mengalami perubahan dramatik - ia menjadi negara berkembang pesat di EU (mencatat kadar pertumbuhan ekonomi tahunan 4.5% hingga 5% yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya).

Portugal Hari Ini

Hari ini Portugal adalah negara yang stabil yang terintegrasi dengan Kesatuan Eropah. Ini termasuk dalam senarai negara dengan "Pembangunan Manusia yang Sangat Tinggi" dan perhatian pada tahun-tahun mendatang akan memberi tumpuan untuk membawa tahap pekerjaan mahir dan pencapaian pendidikan negara ini lebih dekat dengan purata Eropah.
Pada tahun 1998 Lisbon menjadi tuan rumah World Fair Expo 98, yang membawa kepada projek infrastruktur dan pertumbuhan semula bandar. Setahun kemudian, negara itu mengadopsi Euro sebagai mata wang rasmi bersama dengan sepuluh negara lain di Kesatuan Eropah, dan pada tahun 2004 ia menjadi tuan rumah kejuaraan Euro2004. Pada bulan Julai 2007, ia mengambil alih jawatan presiden Kesatuan Eropah ketika anggota EU menandatangani Perjanjian Lisbon yang menyemak semula kerangka perlembagaan EU. Walaupun krisis ekonomi dan kewangan semasa zon Euro telah memberi kesan besar kepada negara ini, Portugal kini menjadi negara yang memandang ke masa depan, dan tidak pernah melupakan masa lalunya yang luar biasa.

Tempat untuk melihat abad ke-20 dan Portugal moden: Salah satu monumen Portugal yang paling banyak difoto, Monumen Discoveries di Lisbon, dibina pada abad yang lalu (pada tahun 1960) untuk memperingati ulang tahun ke-500 kematian Putera Henry the Navigator. Jambatan 25 de Abril Lisbon dibina tidak lama kemudian. Jambatan lain di atas Sungai Tagus (Jambatan Vasco da Gama) dibina kemudian pada tahun 1998 tepat pada waktunya untuk Expo98, kawasan yang (sekarang dipanggil Parque das Na & ccedil & otildees) kini menjadi contoh terbaik Portugal yang moden dan masa depan. Bangunan yang pertama kali mewakili Portugal moden, adalah bangunan Amoreiras di Lisbon, yang dibina antara tahun 1980 dan 1987.
Porto's Casa da Musica adalah contoh seni bina abad ke-21 yang terbaik dan terkini.


Sejarah di Portugal

PERMULAAN ANCIENT - Mulai tahun 210 SM, orang Rom menjajah sebahagian besar Iberia. Mereka mendapat tentangan hebat dari orang-orang pedalaman Celtiberia. Pemimpin Lusitan (Portugal kuno dikenali sebagai Lusitania), Viriatus, sangat terkenal dalam sejarah Portugis sebagai pejuang kemerdekaan yang memegang kemajuan Romawi, dia meninggal sekitar 139 SM. Orang Rom akhirnya tidak dapat dihentikan, dan pada masa Julius Caesar, Portugal telah disatukan ke dalam Kerajaan Rom. Jajahan Rom merangkumi Olisipo (sekarang Lisbon).

Kekristianan tiba di Portugal menjelang akhir abad ke-1 M. Menjelang abad ke-3, keuskupan telah didirikan di Lisbon, Braga, dan di tempat lain. Setelah kejatuhan Empayar Rom, penjajah menyeberangi Pyrenees ke Sepanyol pada tahun 409 dan akhirnya menuju ke Portugal. Empayar Visigothic menguasai semenanjung selama 2 abad.

PELABURAN DARI UTARA & SELATAN - Ketika kuasa Rom semakin berkurang, Semenanjung Iberia dipenuhi dengan orang Jerman. Suevi memerintah Portugal utara selama 150 tahun. They were ousted in 588 by the Visigoths, who built a Christian kingdom covering Spain and Portugal, and made Braga a major religious center.

In 711, a force of Moors arrived in Iberia and quickly advanced to Portugal. They erected settlements in the south. The Christian Reconquest -- known as the Reconquista -- to seize the land from Moorish control is believed to have begun in 718.

In the 11th century, Ferdinand the Great, king of León and Castile, took much of northern Portugal from the Moors. Before his death in 1065, Ferdinand set about reorganizing his western territories into Portucale.

Portuguese, a Romance language, evolved mainly from a dialect spoken when Portugal was a province of the Spanish kingdom of León and Castile. The language developed separately from other Romance dialects.

Portugal is Born -- Ferdinand handed over Portugal to his illegitimate daughter, Teresa. (At that time, the Moors still held the land south of the Tagus.) Unknowingly, the king of Spain had launched a course of events that was to lead to Portugal's development into a distinct nation.

Teresa was firmly bound in marriage to Henry, a count of Burgundy. Henry accepted his father-in-law's gift of Portugal as his wife's dowry, but upon the king's death, he coveted Spanish territory as well. His death cut short his dreams of expansion.

Following Henry's death, Teresa ruled Portugal she cast a disdainful eye on, and an interfering nose into, her legitimate sister's kingdom in Spain. Teresa lost no time mourning Henry and took a Galician count, Fernão Peres, as her lover. Teresa's refusal to conceal her affair with Peres and stay out of everyone else's affairs led to open strife with León.

Teresa's son, Afonso Henríques, was incensed by his mother's actions. Their armies met at São Mamede in 1128. Teresa lost, and she and her lover were banished.

Afonso Henríques went on to become Portugal's founding father. In 1143, he was proclaimed its first king, and official recognition eventually came from the Vatican in 1178. Once his enemies in Spain were temporarily quieted, Afonso turned his eye toward the Moorish territory in the south of Portugal. Supported by crusaders from the north, the Portuguese conquered Santarém and Lisbon in 1147. Afonso died in 1185. His son and heir, Sancho I, continued his father's work of consolidating the new nation.

Successive generations waged war against the Moors until Afonso III, who ruled from 1248 to 1279, wrested the Algarve from Moorish control. The country's capital moved from Coimbra to Lisbon. After Portugal became independent in the 11th century, its borders expanded southward to the sea.

The Moors left a permanent impression on Portugal. The language called Mozarabic, spoken by Christians living as Moorish subjects, was integrated into the Portuguese dialect. The basic language of today, both oral and written, was later solidified and perfected in Lisbon and Coimbra.

Castile did not recognize Portugal's borders until the reign of Pedro Dinis (1279-1325). Known as the Poet King or the Farmer King (because of his interest in agriculture), he founded a university in Lisbon in about 1290 it later moved to Coimbra. Dinis married Isabella, a princess of Aragon who was later canonized. Isabella was especially interested in the poor. Legend has it that she was once smuggling bread out of the palace to feed them when her husband spotted her and asked what she was concealing. When she showed him, the bread miraculously turned into roses.

Their son, Afonso IV, is remembered today for ordering the murder of his son Pedro's mistress. During Pedro's reign (1357-67), an influential representative body called the Cortes (an assembly of clergy, nobility, and commoners) began to gain ascendancy. The majority of the clergy, greedy for power, fought the sovereign's reform measures, which worked to ally the people more strongly with the crown. During the reign of Pedro's son, Ferdinand I (1367-73), Castilian forces invaded Portugal, Lisbon was besieged, and the dynasty faced demise.

In 1383, rather than submit to Spanish rule, the Portuguese people chose the illegitimate son of Pedro as regent. That established the house of Avis. João de Avis (reigned 1383-1433) secured Portuguese independence by defeating Castilian forces at Aljubarrota in 1385. His union with Philippa of Lancaster, the granddaughter of Edward III of England, produced a son who oversaw the emergence of Portugal as an empire -- Prince Henry the Navigator.

Henry Builds a Maritime Empire -- Henry's demand for geographical accuracy and his hunger for the East's legendary gold, ivory, slaves, and spices drove him to exploration. To promote Christianity, he joined the fabled Christian kingdom of Prester John to drive the Muslims out of North Africa.

To develop navigational and cartographic techniques, Henry established a community of scholars at Sagres, on the south coast of Portugal. He was responsible for the discovery of Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde, Senegal, and Sierra Leone, and he provided the blueprint for continued exploration during the rest of the century. In 1482, Portuguese ships explored the mouth of the Congo, and in 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope. In 1497, Vasco da Gama reached Calicut (Kozhikode), on India's west coast, clearing the way for trade in spices, porcelain, silk, ivory, and slaves.

The Treaty of Tordesillas, negotiated by João II in 1494, ensured Portugal's possession of Brazil. Using the wealth of the whole empire, Manuel I (the Fortunate reigned 1495-1521) inspired great monuments of art and architecture whose style now bears his name. His reign inspired Portugal's Golden Age. By 1521, the country had begun to tap into Brazil's natural resources and had broken Venice's spice-trade monopoly. As the first of the great maritime world empires, Portugal dominated access to the Indian Ocean.

João III (reigned 1521-57) ushered in the Jesuits and the Inquisition. His son, Sebastião, disappeared in battle in Morocco in 1578, leaving Portugal without an heir. Philip II of Spain claimed the Portuguese throne and began 60 years of Spanish domination. In the East, Dutch and English traders undermined Portugal's strength.

The House of Bragança -- A nationalist revolution in 1640 brought a descendant of João I to the throne as João IV. That began the House of Bragança, which lasted into the 20th century. João IV forged an English alliance by arranging his daughter's marriage to Charles II. For her dowry, he "threw in" Bombay and Tangier. In 1668, Spain recognized Portugal's independence with the Treaty of Lisbon.

On All Saints' Day in 1755, a great earthquake destroyed virtually all of Lisbon. In 6 minutes, 15,000 people were killed. The Marquês de Pombal, adviser to King José (reigned 1750-77), later reconstructed Lisbon as a safer and more beautiful city. Pombal was an exponent of absolutism, and his expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759 earned him powerful enemies throughout Europe. He curbed the power of the Inquisition and reorganized and expanded industry, agriculture, education, and the military. Upon the death of his patron, King José, he was exiled from court.

In 1793, Portugal joined a coalition with England and Spain against Napoleon. An insane queen, Maria I (reigned 1777-1816), and an exiled royal family facilitated an overthrow by a military junta. A constitution was drawn up, and Maria's son, João VI (reigned 1816-26), accepted the position of constitutional monarch in 1821. João's son, Pedro, declared independence for Brazil in 1822 and became a champion of liberalism in Portugal.

From Republic to Dictatorship -- Between 1853 and 1908, republican movements assaulted the very existence of the monarchists. In 1908, Carlos I (reigned 1889-1908), the Painter King, and the crown prince were assassinated at Praça do Comércio in Lisbon. Carlos's successor was overthrown in an outright revolution on October 5, 1910, ending the Portuguese monarchy and making the country a republic.

Instability was the watchword of the newly proclaimed republic, and revolutions and uprisings were a regular occurrence. Portugal's attempt to remain neutral in World War I failed when -- influenced by its old ally, England -- Portugal commandeered German ships in the Lisbon harbor. This action promptly brought a declaration of war from Germany, and Portugal entered World War I on the side of the Allies.

The republic's precarious foundations collapsed in 1926, when a military revolt established a dictatorship, headed by Gomes da Costa. His successor, António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, remained president until 1951, but only as a figurehead. António de Oliveira Salazar became finance minister in 1928 and rescued the country from a morass of economic difficulties. He went on to become the first minister, acting as (but never officially becoming) head of state. He was declared premier of Portugal in 1932, and he rewrote the Portuguese constitution along Fascist lines in 1933.

In World War II, Salazar asserted his country's neutrality, although he allowed British and American troops to establish bases in the Azores in 1943. After Carmona's death in 1951, Salazar became dictator, living more or less ascetically and suppressing all opposition. He worked in cooperation with his contemporary, the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco.

In 1955, Portugal joined the United Nations. Salazar suffered a stroke in 1968 and died in 1970. He is buried in the Panteão Nacional in Lisbon.

Modern Portugal Wrestles with Democracy -- Dr. Marcelo Caetano replaced Salazar. Six years later, following discontent in the African colonies of Mozambique and Angola, revolution broke out. The dictatorship was overthrown on April 25, 1974, in a military coup dubbed the "flower revolution" because the soldiers wore red carnations instead of carrying guns. After the revolution, Portugal drifted into near anarchy. Finally, after several years of turmoil and the failures of 16 provisional governments from 1976 to 1983, a revised constitution came into force in the 1980s.

In 1976, Portugal loosened its grasp on its once-extensive territorial possessions. The Azores and Madeira gained partial autonomy. All the Portuguese territories in Africa -- Angola, Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe (islands in the Gulf of Guinea) -- became independent countries. Portugal also released the colony of East Timor, which Indonesia immediately seized.

From the time of the revolution until 1987, Portuguese governments rose and fell much too quickly for the country to maintain political stability. Moderates elected Gen. Ramalho Eanes as president in the wake of the revolution, and he was reelected in 1980. He brought the military under control, allaying fears of a right-wing coup to prevent a Socialist takeover. However, Eanes appointed a Socialist, Mário Soares, prime minister three times.

In the 1985 elections, the left-wing vote was divided three ways, and the Socialists lost their vanguard position to the Social Democratic Party. Their leader, Dr. Aníbal Cavaco Silva, was elected prime minister. In January 1986, Eanes was forced to resign the presidency. He was replaced by Soares, the former Socialist prime minister, who became the first civilian president in 60 years.

Although his administration had its share of political scandal, President Soares won a landslide victory in the January 1991 elections. With the elections of 1995, constitutional limitations forced Soares to step down. He was replaced by Jorge Sampaio, the former Socialist mayor of Lisbon.

As president, Sampaio didn't make great waves, focusing on moderation. He did oversee the return of the Portuguese island of Macau to China in December 1999, and he also championed the cause of independence for East Timor, another former Portuguese colony. Most editorial writers in Lisbon called the presidency of Sampaio "remarkably uneventful."

That said, Portugal took a major leap in 1999 when it became part of the euro community, adopting a single currency, along with other European nations such as Spain, Italy, Germany, and France. On February 28, 2002, the nation of Portugal formally assigned its longtime currency, the escudo, to permanent mothballs and started trading in euros. This officially launched Portugal, along with 11 other European nations, into the European Monetary Union.

Portugal Today -- In 2006, Sampaio was succeeded in office by Aníbal Cavaco Silva, the politician he defeated in 1996. In office, the eco-friendly Silva has stressed the environment, not only protecting it in his own country but in all E.U. countries as well. In 2006, Portugal's sleepy southwestern shore became Europe's latest coastal preserve, as 200,000 unspoiled acres were set aside for the enjoyment of future generations. Southwest Alentejo and Costa Vicentina Natural Park, farmland since Roman times, is now under severe building restrictions which will maintain its pristine beauty. The area begins in the town of Sines, a 2-hour drive south of Lisbon, and stretches for 60 miles (91km) of dunes, beaches, and black basalt cliffs.

Since taking office in 2006, Silva has also positioned himself as a firm believer in globalization and counterterrorism and has worked to promote economic growth and to deal with unemployment in Portugal.

Although elected as a center Right candidate, Silva has disappointed many of his backers. He is a practicing Roman Catholic and a self-described believer in the Fátima apparitions, yet, critics claim, he has not vetoed legislation proposed by the Left. For example, he signed into law a bill legalizing abortion within the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. With low voter turnout in 2008 -- 58% did not vote -- abortion was legalized.

In other developments, however, Portugal, unlike Spain, has upheld the country's ban on gay marriage. Even so, Portugal's constitution forbids discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Pedro & Inês: A Medieval Love Story

Centuries before Shakespeare gave us Romeo and Juliet, Portugal was gripped by its own tale of star-crossed lovers.

Seeking Spanish alliances, King Afonso IV in 1339 married off his son and heir, Pedro, to Constance, a Castilian princess. Nineteen-year-old Pedro promptly fell in love with one of his new wife’s ladies-in-waiting, a noblewoman named Inês de Castro. They began a very public affair and Inês bore Pedro three children.

King Afonso was outraged, frightened of offending the Castilians and worried about the influence of Inês’ ambitious brothers. He pleaded with Pedro to break it off, then banished Inês to the Santa Clara Monastery in Coimbra. When all that failed to cool Pedro’s passion, Afonso had Inês murdered. In Coimbra today, beneath the clear spring water that bubbles to the surface at the spot where she was decapitated, there’s a red rock, supposedly forever stained by her blood.

Grief-stricken, Pedro revolted against his father. He captured two of the killers and personally ripped out their hearts. Pedro became king when Afonso died in 1357 and announced that he’d secretly married Inês before her death. On the day of his coronation, Pedro ordered Inês’ corpse removed from its tomb, dressed in a regal gown, and crowned queen beside him. Portugal’s nobles lined up to kiss the hand of the woman slain 2 years before.

The story has inspired poets, painters, and musicians from Camões to Ezra Pound. Today, Pedro and Inês lie side by side in ornate tombs within the great medieval monastery at Alcobaça.

THE AGE OF DISCOVERY With its frontiers secured, Portugal started looking overseas. In 1415, João I opened the era of maritime expansion when he captured the city of Ceuta on the coast of North Africa. João’s son, Henry, fought at the battle to win Ceuta from the Moroccans. He never voyaged farther, but would change the face of world history and be forever known as Henry the Navigator.

Henry gathered sailors and scholars on the windswept southwestern tip of Europe at Sagres to brainstorm on what may lay beyond. Using new navigational technology and more maneuverable boats, the Portuguese sent out probing voyages that reached Madeira Island off the coast of Africa around 1420 and the mid-Atlantic Azores 8 years later.

A breakthrough came in 1434, when captain Gil Eanes sailed around Cape Bojador, a remote Saharan promontory that had marked the limits of European knowledge of the African coast. Eanes showed the sea beyond was not boiling and monster-filled, as was believed. The way was opened to Africa and beyond.

Four Navigators Who Changed World Maps

From 1415 to 1580, Portuguese explorers opened up the world for Europe, discovering new routes to Africa, Asia, and the Americas. They created a global empire and redrew world maps.

Bartolomeo Dias (ca. 1450–1500) was 38 and from a family of navigators when he led an expedition of three boats down the coast of West Africa in 1487. He failed in his mission to find the mythical Christian kingdom of Prester John, but became the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa into the Indian Ocean. Dias was killed in a shipwreck off the Cape of Good Hope in 1500, while serving with Pedro Álvares Cabral on the expedition that reached Brazil.

Vasco da Gama (ca. 1460–1524) wasn’t the first European to explore India— wealthy Europeans had been spicing their food with its cinnamon, pepper, and nutmeg for centuries—but the trade was controlled by price-hiking Venetian, Turkish, and Arab middlemen. By discovering the sea route in 1498, da Gama opened up direct trade between Europe and Asia. His adventures are celebrated in Portugal’s national epic, Os Lusíadas, by swashbuckling 16th-century poet Luís de Camões. The two men are buried near each other in Lisbon’s Jerónimos monastery. Da Gama died of malaria in 1524 in Kochi on his third voyage to India. Western Europe’s longest bridge, an Indian seaport, and a leading Brazilian soccer club bear his name.

Brazil was first reached by accident in 1500, when the fleet of 13 ships commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral (ca. 1467–1520) sailed too far west while heading down the coast of Africa on the new route opened by da Gama. At least that’s the official story. Some believe the Portuguese already knew about Brazil but kept it quiet until they had concluded the 1492 Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain to divide the world along a line halfway between Portugal’s Cape Verde outpost and the newly discovered Spanish territories in the Caribbean. Brazil was clearly in the Portuguese sphere. Cabral didn’t stay long, but sailed on to Africa and India, becoming the first man to visit four continents. His birthplace in the pretty village of Belmonte and tomb in Santarém are much visited by Brazilian travelers.

In 1519, Fernão de Magalhães (ca. 1480–1521) was a 39-year-old veteran of the Portuguese Discoveries. He’d served 8 years in India, fighting against Turks, Arabs, and Indian states. He played a key role in the capture of Malacca, a hub for Portuguese power in southeast Asia, and was wounded at the siege of Azemmour in Morocco. Despite all this service, he managed to annoy King Manuel I. There were rumors he went AWOL, had rustled cattle, and engaged in shady deals with the Moroccans. Unable to get a ship in Lisbon, he went to Spain, where his stories of Spice Island riches convinced Emperor Charles V to send him on a mission to reach Asia by sailing west—avoiding the Portuguese-controlled eastern routes. Now known as Ferdinand Magellan, he led the fleet into the Pacific as far as the Philippines, where he was speared to death in a battle with local warriors. What was left of the expedition sailed on. Only one of the five ships made it back to Spain, the first to sail around the globe. In 2019, the 500th anniversary of his voyage was marked by a brief tiff between Portugal and Spain over which country can claim the glory of his legacy.

In the years that followed, Portuguese navigators pushed down the West African coast looking for gold, ivory, spices, and slaves. By 1482, Diogo Cão reached the mouth of the Congo River. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias sailed past Africa’s southern tip: He called it the Cape of Storms, but the name was quickly changed to Cape of Good Hope to encourage further voyages. Itu berjaya. Vasco da Gama traded and raided up the coast of east Africa before reaching India in 1498. World trade would never be the same. Over the next 4 decades, Portuguese explorers moved into southeast Asia, up the coast of China, and eventually into Japan. Along the way they set up trading posts and colonies. Portugal grew rich by dominating East-West exchanges and forging the first global empire. But the Portuguese also destroyed cities reluctant to submit to their power and frequently massacred civilians.

There were setbacks. In the 1480s, King João II rejected repeated requests to finance the westward exploration plans of a Genovese seafarer named Christopher Columbus, who eventually claimed the New World for his Spanish sponsors. And King Manuel I took a dislike to veteran Portuguese sea dog Fernão de Magalhães. Piqued, he crossed the border with his plans to reach Asia by sailing west and ended up leading the Spanish fleet that became the first to sail around the world. Later historians called him Ferdinand Magellan.

The Portuguese also moved west. Six years after Spain and Portugal agreed to divide up the world with the 1492 Treaty of Tordesillas, Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in Brazil, which conveniently lies on the eastern Portuguese side of the dividing line.

A small arched building in the Algarve coastal town of Lagos has a grim past. It is reputed to be the site of Europe’s oldest African slave market, first used in the early 15th century. Early Portuguese settlers in Brazil began using captured natives as slaves, but as demands of sugar plantations and gold mines grew in the 17th and 18th centuries, more and more slaves were shipped from Africa. Slavery was abolished in Portugal itself in 1761, but it continued in its African colonies until 1869 and in Brazil until 1888, 66 years after the South American country’s independence. Historians estimate Portuguese vessels carried almost 6 million Africans into slavery.

Portugal’s Jewish Heritage

In 1497, King Manuel I, the monarch behind the golden age of Portugal’s Discoveries, married a Spanish princess, a political move designed to improve relations with the powerful neighbor. Spain’s condition: Portugal had to get rid of its thriving Jewish community, as Spain had done 5 years before. Manuel agreed, ordering all Jews to convert to Catholicism or leave. Many fled, finding refuge in the Ottoman Empire, North Africa, France, and the Netherlands, where they built Amsterdam’s splendid Portuguese Synagogue. Others stayed and became “New Christians.”

They were still not safe. In 1506, a riot over Easter led to the murder of up to 2,000 conversos in what became known as the Lisbon Massacre. Manuel I had some of the perpetrators executed, but 30 years later the state institutionalized persecution when it set up a Portuguese branch of the Inquisition, tasked with hunting down heretics—especially converts suspected of maintaining Jewish practices in secret. The Inquisition ordered almost 1,200 burned at the stake over the next 2 centuries and was only abolished in 1821. Nevertheless, some crypto-Jews managed to cling to their faith. A community in the remote village of Belmonte practiced in secret into the 1980s. There is now a small but open community there with their own rabbi.

Jews began returning to a more tolerant Portugal in the 19th century. During World War II, neutral Portugal became a haven for many fleeing the Nazis. Although dictator António Oliveira Salazar tried to prevent Jewish refugees arriving in 1940 as Hitler’s troops marched into France, the Portuguese consul in Bordeaux, Aristides de Sousa Mendes, defied orders and handed out visas, saving up to 30,000 lives. Salazar ruined his career and plunged his family into poverty, but Sousa Mendes is today regarded as a national hero.

President Mário Soares formally asked for forgiveness for past persecution in 1989. In 2015, Portugal’s parliament passed a law offering citizenship to the descendants of Jews expelled from the country. Today there are small Jewish communities, mostly in Lisbon, Porto, and Madeira Island, but recent genetic studies suggest that up to 20% of Portugal’s population may have Jewish ancestry.

INDEPENDENCE LOST & RESTORED In 1578, Portugal overreached. King Sebastião I, an impetuous 24-year-old, invaded Morocco. He was last seen charging into enemy lines at the disastrous Battle of Alcácer Quibir, where a large slice of the Portuguese nobility was wiped out. Sebastião had neglected to father an heir before he set off. An elderly great-uncle briefly took over, but he was a cardinal known as Henry the Chaste, so when he died in 1580, Portugal was left without a monarch. King Philip II of Spain decided he could do the job. His army marched in, crushed local resistance, seized a fortune in Lisbon, and extinguished Portuguese independence for the next 60 years.

The Iberian union made Philip ruler of the greatest empire the world had ever seen, controlling much of the Americas, a network of colonies in Asia and Africa, and European territories that included the Netherlands and half of Italy. Spanish rule strained Portugal’s old alliance with England: The Spanish Armada sailed from Lisbon, and Sir Francis Drake raided the Portuguese coast. By 1640, the Portuguese had had enough. While Spain was distracted fighting France in the 30 Years War, a group of nobles revolted and declared the Duke of Bragança to be King João IV. It took 28 years, but the Portuguese eventually won the War of Restoration. An obelisk in one of Lisbon’s main plazas commemorates the victory.

Meanwhile a new enemy, the Dutch, had seized some of Portugal’s overseas territories. Malacca and Ceylon (today’s Sri Lanka) were lost. Faced with such threats, João IV strengthened Portugal’s British alliance by marrying his daughter Catherine of Bragança to King Charles II. Her dowry included Tangiers and Mumbai. Perhaps more significantly for the British, she introduced them to marmalade and the habit of drinking hot water flavored with a new-fangled Asian herb they called tea. In return, the British named one of their North American settlements in her honor: Queens.

Fortunately for the Portuguese, they managed to hang on to Brazil through these turbulent times. At the end of the 17th century, huge gold deposits were found inland from São Paulo. The gold rush made King João V the richest monarch in Europe. He used it to build the vast palace at Mafra and to line baroque churches up and down the country with glimmering gilt carvings.

DISASTER & DECLINE On All Saints’ Day in 1755, churches were packed when Lisbon was struck by a great earthquake. The tremor was followed by a tsunami and raging fire. Much of the city was destroyed and up to 50,000 people are believed to have died. Reconstruction was led by Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, later Marquis of Pombal. He laid out Lisbon’s downtown, or Baixa, in the grid pattern of sturdy, four-story buildings that remains today, although the Gothic ruins of the Carmo Convent were left overlooking the city as reminder of the quake’s destructive force.

Pombal also battled to modernize the country. He curbed the powers of the Inquisition and expelled the Jesuit order. Foreign experts were brought in to expand industry and agriculture. Education and the military were reorganized.

Still, Portugal’s days as a great power were already long gone when French troops marched in as part of Napoleon’s grand design for European domination. The French met little resistance and the royal family fled to Rio de Janeiro. Harsh French rule, however, saw uprisings in Spain and Portugal. Eventually Portugal’s old ally was able to land troops in support, and after a long campaign, the Duke of Wellington led a combined British and Portuguese army that drove Napoleon’s forces back to France in 1814.

Portugal was much weakened. The decline was compounded when Brazil declared independence in 1822 and civil war broke out in the 1830s between the liberal King Pedro IV (also Emperor Pedro I of Brazil) and his conservative brother, Miguel I.

As Europe pushed ahead with industrialization in the 19th century, Portugal fell further behind, dogged by political instability and slipping into economic backwardness. Government debt mounted, pushing the state toward bankruptcy.

Unrest grew. In 1908, King Carlos I and his oldest son were assassinated in Lisbon’s Praça do Comércio. Two years later, Lisbon erupted in revolution, the monarchy was overthrown, and the last king, Manuel II, left for exile in London.

The change of regime did little to ease Portugal’s economic woes or political tensions. Over the next 16 years, there were no less than 49 governments. Portugal entered World War I in 1916 on the side of its old ally, Britain. Around 8,000 soldiers were killed fighting the Germans in France and Africa. Instability continued until a military coup in 1926 put an end to the first Republic.

DICTATORSHIP & DEMOCRACY The junta appointed António de Oliveira Salazar as finance minister in 1928. He became the dominant figure in Portugal’s 20th-century history, establishing a dictatorship that ruled with an iron hand for over 4 decades. Prime minister from 1932, Salazar constructed a Fascist-inspired regime, the Estado Novo, or New State. He brought some order to the economy and managed to keep Portugal neutral during World War II. Dissent was suppressed and censorship strict. A secret police force—the PIDE—spread fear opponents were jailed or worse.

In 1961, the regime was shaken by an Indian invasion of Goa, Daman, and Diu, Portugal’s last colonies in South Asia. That same year, pro-independence forces launched attacks in Angola, starting a war across Portugal’s African empire. Salazar struck back, dispatching ever more conscripts to fight rebel movements in Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau. Proportionally, Portugal suffered more casualties in the colonial wars than the U.S. in Vietnam. The fighting drained the economy and left Portugal internationally isolated. Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese emigrants fled poverty, oppression, and conscription, mostly to France, Switzerland, and Luxembourg.

Salazar suffered a stroke in 1968 and died 2 years later, but the regime limped on. On April 25, 1974, a group of war-weary officers staged a coup and the people of Lisbon rose up to support the troops. Flower sellers in Rossio square handed out spring blooms to the young soldiers and sailors, so the uprising was immortalized as the “Carnation Revolution.” Censorship was lifted, exiles returned, and political prisoners were released to joyous scenes.

The revolutionaries, however, faced enormous difficulties. The wars were ended and independence hastily granted to the African colonies. Portugal then had to organize the evacuation and integration of a million refugees fleeing the new nations. Investors retreated as radical leftists ordered the nationalization of banks, industry, and farmland. For a while the country looked like it would veer toward communism.

Then, in 1976, the first presidential elections brought a moderate, General António Ramalho Eanes, to office. Socialist Party leader Mário Soares was elected prime minister the same year. Together they steered Portugal on a proWestern course. It remained a loyal NATO ally and joined the European Union along with Spain in 1986. The previous year, Aníbal Cavaco Silva, leader of the center-right Social Democratic Party, won a landslide election on a pledge to free up the economy. The combined impact of EU membership and stable, business-friendly government led to an economic boom and rapid modernization. In 1999, Portugal handed Macau back to China, ending almost 600 years of overseas empire. Women’s rights made giant strides. The successful hosting of the EXPO [‘]98 World’s Fair in Lisbon symbolized Portugal’s emergence as a successful European democracy.

However, problems lay ahead. The rise of China and the EU’s inclusion of new members from Eastern Europe exposed the Portuguese economy to competition it was ill-equipped to handle. The global financial crisis of 2008 hit hard. As the economy tanked and debt soared, the government was forced in 2011 to seek a bailout from the EU and International Monetary Fund to stave off bankruptcy. In exchange for a 78€-billion rescue package, creditors demanded tough measures to bring state finances under control. The economy stabilized, but at a high cost in unemployment, cuts to public services, and increased poverty. After elections in November 2015, a new Socialist government was narrowly elected under Prime Minister António Costa, promising to ease up on austerity.

In July 2016, spirits received an enormous boost from the victory of Portugal’s national soccer team in the European championships. The first major success for a soccer-crazy nation triggered country-wide celebrations.

The last few years have seen an economic recovery fueled in a large part by tourism, which has taken off big time. An improved international financial climate has boosted exports and a thriving start-up scene has seen the emergence of strong new tech companies such as online fashion retailer Farfetch, which was valued at $5.8 billion when it was floated on the New York Stock Exchange in 2018. Symbolizing the economic comeback is the 2016 decision of Web Summit, the world’s biggest tech event to make Lisbon its home.

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Struggle for Royal Dominance 1211-1223

Pedro Perret/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

King Afonso II, son of the first King of Portugal, faced difficulties in extending and consolidating his authority over Portuguese nobles used to autonomy. During his reign he fought a civil war against such nobles, needing the papacy to intervene to aid him. However, he did institute the first laws to affect the whole region, one of which barred people from leaving any more land to the church and got him excommunicated.


Bailout exit

2014 May - Portugal exits international bailout without seeking back-up credit from its lenders.

2014 August - The government bails out the stricken lender Banco Espirito Santo - Portugal's largest private bank - to the tune of 3.9bn euros in order to avert a possible wider economic collapse.

2014 November - Interior Minister Miguel Macedo resigns in wake of corruption inquiry linked to allocation of fast-track residence permits, many of which have gone to foreigners willing to invest large sums in Portuguese property.

Former Socialist premier Jose Socrates is remanded in custody on suspicion of corruption, tax fraud and money laundering.

2015 January - The government approves rules allowing descendants of Jews who were expelled from the country centuries ago to claim Portuguese citizenship.

2015 March - The head of the tax collection authority resigns amid claims that he tried to shield the files of influential figures from scrutiny.

2015 November - Following inconclusive parliamentary elections, Socialist leader Antonio Costa forms centre-left government committed to relaxing some austerity measures.

2016 October - Former prime minister Antonio Guterres is appointed UN Secretary General.

2017 February - Portugal drops complaint to the EU over Spain's plan to build a nuclear waste storage facility which environmentalists fear could affect the River Tagus, which flows into Portugal. In return Spain agrees to share environmental information and organise consultations over the facility.


Sport and Games

Football is definitely the most popular sport in Portugal and also the most practised. The national team is amongst the higher-rated teams in both Europe and the world and many talented players like Ronaldo and Figo come from Portugal

Portugal also has a great tradition in athletics and has achieved remarkable performances in this sport as well as water sports like windsurfing, kayaking, sailing and kite surfing.

Amongst the older generation, traditional games like Jogo do Sapo (Toad Game) and Jogos de Queijos (Cheese Game) are a popular way to keep active. The traditional games are a friendly and cultural gathering where the main objective generally is to have fun.

There are also still some bullrings left in Portugal, but the passion for bullfighting is not as widespread as earlier or as with their Spanish neighbours.