CVE-106 U.S.S. Permulaan Teluk - Sejarah

CVE-106 U.S.S. Permulaan Teluk - Sejarah



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Permulaan Teluk

Teluk Puget Sound, berhampiran Tacoma, Wash.

(CVE 106; dp. 11,373; 1. 677'1 "; b. 75 '; ew. 105'2";
dr. 32 '; s. 19 k .; cpl. 1,066; a. 2 5 "; cl. Permulaan
Teluk)

Commencement Bay (CVE-106) dilancarkan pada 9 Mei 1944 oleh Seattle Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash .; ditaja oleh Puan F. Eves; dan ditugaskan pada 27 November 1944, Kapten R. L. Bowman dalam arahan.

Commencement Bay dilaporkan di Seattle 1 Februari 1945 untuk bertugas sebagai kapal latihan di Puget Sound sehingga 2 Oktober. Selama ini dia melatih 545 pegawai dan 5.053 orang kru prasyarat untuk pengangkut pengiring saudara, dan memenuhi syarat 249 juruterbang dari lapan kumpulan udara dalam penerbangan dan pendaratan kapal terbang. Dia belayar dari Bremerton 21 Oktober 1945, dan tiba di Pearl Harbor 4 l November untuk latihan dan melakukan kelayakan pembawa sehingga belayar 27 November untuk Seattle dan Tacoma.

Setelah berkunjung ke Los Angeles dan San Pedro, dia kembali ke Tacoma 28 Januari, di mana dia tidak mendapat komisen sebagai cadangan 30 November 1946. Dia diklasifikasikan semula CVHE-106, 12 Jun 1955; dan AKV-37, 7 Mei 1959.


Permulaan USS Bay (CVE-105)

| modul = Kerjaya (Amerika Syarikat) Nama: USS Permulaan TelukPembina: Todd Pacific Shipyards Dilancarkan: 9 Mei 1944 Dilancarkan: 27 November 1944 Dilancarkan: 30 November 1946 Dikelaskan semula: Helikopter Carrier, CVHE-105, 12 Jun 1955
Kapal Kargo dan Feri Pesawat, AKV-37, 7 Mei 1959 Nasib: Dibatalkan suatu ketika selepas tahun 1971 | modul2 = Ciri-ciri umum Jenis kelas & amp: Permulaan Teluk-kelas pengiring kelas> Perpindahan: 10,900 tan panjang (11,100 & # 160t) & # 911 & # 93 Panjang: 557 & # 160ft (170 & # 160m) Rasuk: 75 & # 160ft (23 & # 160m) Draf: 30 & # 160ft 6 & # 160in ( 9.30 & # 160m) Dorongan: turbin berpacu 2-poros, 16,000 shp Kecepatan: 19 knot (22 & # 160mph 35 & # 160km / j) Pelengkap: 1,066Armament: • 2 × 5 & # 160in (130 & # 160mm) senapang (2 × 1)
• Senapang AA 36 × 40 mm Pesawat udara dibawa: 34 |> USS Permulaan Teluk (CVE-105) (cth-Teluk St. Joseph, kapal utama kelasnya, adalah kapal pengangkut dan kemudian kapal induk helikopter Tentera Laut Amerika Syarikat, yang kebanyakannya digunakan sebagai kapal latihan. Permulaan Teluk dilancarkan pada 9 Mei 1944 oleh Todd Pacific Shipyards, Tacoma, Washington yang ditaja oleh Puan F. Eves dan ditugaskan pada 27 November 1944, Kapten Roscoe Leroy Bowman sebagai ketua. Permulaan Teluk dilaporkan di Seattle 1 Februari 1945 untuk bertugas sebagai kapal latihan di Puget Sound sehingga 2 Oktober. Selama ini dia melatih 545 pegawai dan 5.053 orang kru prasyarat untuk pengangkut pengiring saudara, dan memenuhi syarat 249 juruterbang dari lapan kumpulan udara dalam penerbangan dan pendaratan kapal terbang. Dia belayar dari Bremerton 21 Oktober 1945, dan tiba di Pearl Harbor 4 November untuk latihan dan melakukan kelayakan pembawa sehingga belayar 27 November untuk Seattle dan Tacoma. Setelah berkunjung ke Los Angeles dan San Pedro, dia kembali ke Tacoma 28 Januari, di mana dia tidak mendapat komisen sebagai cadangan 30 November 1946. Dia dikelaskan semula CVHE-105, 12 Jun 1955 dan AKV-37, 7 Mei 1959.


SejarahLink.org

Bermula pada akhir 1880-an dan berlanjutan selama beberapa dekad, delta di mana Sungai Puyallup bertemu Teluk Permulaan dikeruk dan diisi untuk memenuhi keperluan perkapalan dan industri. Pada tahun 1908, Milwaukee Road, salah satu syarikat kereta api paling inovatif di negara ini tetapi kedatangan lewat ke Puget Sound, membina jalan kereta api sepanjang 1.500 kaki di seberang tanah delta rawa. Ini bertujuan untuk menghubungkan jalan raya Tacoma Eastern Railroad, yang telah dibeli oleh Jalan Milwaukee untuk mengangkut barang ke jalan utama transkontinental barunya, dan akses ke bekas depot penumpang Tacoma Eastern dan rumah barang yang dekat dengan pusat bandar. Diganggu dengan menetap tanah dan membusuk, trestle memerlukan penyelenggaraan dan pembaikan berterusan dan pada tahun 1937 diganti dengan rentang yang kemudian dikenal sebagai S-Curve Trestle (kadang-kadang disebut Tacoma Trestle). Ini juga memerlukan pembaikan yang kerap dan hampir keseluruhannya dibina semula pada tahun 1962. Menjelang tahun 1980 Jalan Milwaukee muflis dan telah menghentikan semua perkhidmatan kereta api di sebelah barat Montana. Pada tahun 2000, perkhidmatan kereta api komuter Sound Transit bermula antara Tacoma dan Seattle, dan pada tahun 2003 keretanya mula menggunakan S-Curve Trestle, berkongsi trek tunggal dengan Tacoma Rail. Pada tahun 2012, trestle telah ditentukan untuk memenuhi syarat untuk disenaraikan di Daftar Nasional Tempat Bersejarah, tetapi ia tidak dicalonkan atau disenaraikan. Ia dirobohkan pada tahun 2017 dan dijadwalkan untuk diganti dengan alas dua trek baru pada akhir tahun itu.

Sebelum dikeruk dan diisi untuk digunakan oleh industri dan perkapalan, delta tempat Sungai Puyallup bertemu Teluk Permulaan secara teratur dibanjiri oleh banjir dan ditutup dengan lumpur yang dibawa ke sungai dan di air pasang. Anggota Puyallup Tribe selama berabad-abad tinggal di beberapa kampung di sekitar teluk dan di tempat-tempat tersebar yang mencapai sejauh 15 batu di sungai. Tetapi delta itu sendiri tidak sesuai untuk kehidupan seharian, seperti yang dibuktikan oleh nama deskriptif Puyallups untuk beberapa bahagiannya - "tanah dibanjiri atau kering sesuai dengan arus" ("Laporan Sumber Budaya"). Bukti arkeologi terdekat dari sebuah perkampungan Orang Asli yang kekal, bermula kira-kira 2.000 tahun yang lalu, berasal dari sebuah lokasi yang terletak kira-kira satu batu di sebelah timur lokasi S-Curve Trestle di Jalan Milwaukee.

Syarikat Teluk British Hudson membuka Fort Nisqually pada tahun 1833 tetapi sedikit campur tangan dengan Puyallups, puas untuk melibatkan mereka dalam rangkaian perdagangan syarikat yang luas. Kedatangan semakin banyak peneroka tetap dan bukan India selepas tahun 1845 menyebabkan usaha memisahkan Puyallup dari sebahagian besar tanah mereka. Ini memuncak pada Perjanjian Medicine Creek tahun 1854, yang menurunkan suku ini untuk reservasi seluas 1.280 ekar. Ketika perang perjanjian meletus pada tahun berikutnya, banyak Puyallup bergabung dalam pertempuran menentang pemerintah, dan lebih dari 500 anggota suku dikumpulkan dan dikurung ke Pulau Squaxin di Puget Sound.

Kekayaan suku akan berubah lagi setelah perdamaian dipulihkan, dan perintah presiden pada tahun 1857 dan 1873 memperluas tempahan menjadi lebih dari 18.000 ekar. Sebahagian besar tanah ini kemudiannya akan dijual kepada bukan Orang Asli dalam urus niaga yang dalam banyak kes meragukan secara sah dan moral. Setelah bertahun-tahun berjuang, pada tahun 1989 suku tersebut menyelesaikan tuntutan tanahnya terhadap pemerintah persekutuan, Negara Washington, Kota dan Pelabuhan Tacoma, dan sejumlah perniagaan swasta dengan jumlah $ 162 juta.

Menunggu Keretapi

Masyarakat awal yang bukan asli di wilayah Puget Sound menggunakan jalan air untuk pengangkutan, seperti juga orang India. Perdagangan kapal uap pesisir yang berkembang maju, tetapi hubungan pengangkutan darat dengan seluruh negara, atau dalam hal ini di kalangan masyarakat tempatan, kurang. Untuk trek dan kereta api ini diperlukan jalan kereta api adalah ikutan yang diperlukan dari pengembangan industri Barat.

Laluan transkontinental pertama, kolaborasi antara jalan raya Union Pacific dan Central Pacific, telah selesai pada Mei 1869 dan menghubungkan California Utara dan Pantai Timur. Harapan melambung di Barat Laut dengan berita bahawa Pasifik Utara akan menyediakan pautan lintas benua ke Puget Sound. Pada tahun 1873 Tacoma diurapi terminal kereta api Puget Sound masa depan, keputusan yang menghancurkan penguat keyakinan Seattle. Bagi orang Tacomans, itu adalah kemenangan jangka pendek, dan bahkan itu sudah lama ditunda - Pasifik Utara mengambil masa 10 tahun penuh, hingga tahun 1883, untuk menyatukan garis transkontinental, dan sampai ke Tacoma masih memerlukan persimpangan feri kereta api Sungai Columbia di Kalama. Pada saat itu menjadi jelas bahawa Seattle akan menjadi pusat komersial Washington Barat, dan pada tahun 1887 Pasifik Utara telah memindahkan terminal-terminalnya ke utara ke kota di Teluk Elliott. Laluan benua lain, Great Northern, selesai meletakkan trek dari St Paul, Minnesota, ke Everett pada tahun 1893 dan melintasi garis dari sana ke selatan ke Seattle, dan ke Tacoma melalui trek yang disewa dari Pasifik Utara.

Walaupun beribu pejabat di tempat lain, Pasifik Utara dan Great Northern membina kemudahan penghantaran dan penyimpanan yang luas di Tacoma. Pekerjaan telah berlangsung sejak tahun 1887 untuk membuat tidelands Commencement Bay dapat digunakan untuk industri, dan jalan kereta api bergabung, mengeruk jalan air dan mengisi lahan basah yang rawa di daerah Pasifik Utara telah menamakan "New Tacoma." Selama bertahun-tahun, kawasan perindustrian dan pelabuhan yang besar telah dibuat yang meliputi dermaga, gudang, dan kemudahan lain yang diperlukan untuk mengendalikan barang dan bahan yang tiba dengan kereta api dan ditinggalkan dengan kapal, atau sebaliknya. Pembangunan industri secara radikal mengubah tanah lembap semula jadi delta Sungai Puyallup.

Kereta dan Trestles

Lokomotif awal abad ke-20 sering kali beratnya lebih dari 200 tan dan sering mengangkut berpuluh-puluh buah kenderaan muatan yang sangat banyak. Beribu-ribu jambatan dan trestles yang dibina untuk merapatkan jurang di medan harus mampu menampung berat dan kekuatan dinamik kereta yang melintasinya. Sebelum penggunaan keluli dan konkrit secara meluas, ketersediaan kayu dimensi besar yang siap digunakan menjadikan kayu sebagai bahan yang paling biasa digunakan, terutama untuk alas.

Trestles terdapat dalam dua jenis - bingkai dan cerucuk. Dalam rangka kerangka, lekukan individu (struktur menegak yang menyokong dasar jalan) duduk di alas yang siap, yang dengan sendirinya bersandar pada pijakan yang terbuat dari cerucuk atau batu. Kelebihan utama rangka rangka ialah ia dapat dibina hampir ke ketinggian apa pun. Kuda tiang lebih sesuai untuk lintasan rendah dan menjangkau kawasan yang lembut atau paya. Sokongan utama mereka digerakkan jauh ke tanah, tetapi dasar jalan jarang melebihi 35 kaki dari permukaan tanah.

S-Curve Trestle di Tacoma dibina sebagai tiang pancang, pilihan yang ditentukan oleh tanah lembut yang harus dilintasi. Tangkai tiang dapat dibangun dengan menggunakan sejumlah kayu yang digerakkan ke tanah pada sudut yang berbeza - cerucuk tengah atau cerucuk lurus ke bawah, dan tiang di kedua sisi condong ke dalam, menghasilkan bengkok berbentuk segitiga dengan pangkalan lebar. Tumpukan individu setiap bengkok saling berkaitan dengan pendakap sisi, dan bengkok sering dihubungkan antara satu sama lain dengan cara yang serupa.

Apabila semua cerucuk di bengkok didorong sedalam mungkin, puncaknya dipotong rata dan ditutup dengan balok kayu melintang yang besar. Beberapa tali pengikat yang berat (juga disebut "kord") kemudian diletakkan secara membujur di atas penutup, biasanya merangkumi sekurang-kurangnya dua bents, dan berperingkat. Ini menyokong ikatan kayu di mana rel besi di mana kereta api dilampirkan. Trestles mempunyai lekukan yang berdekatan, memastikan bahawa penyelesaian atau kegagalan satu, atau mungkin lebih banyak, tidak menjadikan keseluruhan struktur tidak stabil.

Slow March West di Milwaukee Road

Jalan Milwaukee dimulakan pada tahun 1847 di Wisconsin sebagai Syarikat Kereta Api Milwaukee dan Waukesha. Operasinya perlahan-lahan berkembang ke arah barat, tetapi selama lebih dari 50 tahun lintasan meluas tidak jauh dari North Dakota. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1905, jalan kereta api, yang disokong oleh kepentingan Rockefeller, memutuskan untuk membangun sistemnya untuk mencapai Puget Sound, dan ia akan menjadi jalur transkontinental terakhir yang akan disiapkan di Amerika. Secara rasmi disebut Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, jalan kereta api ingin merebut sebahagian dari perdagangan kayu balak dan produk kayu, dan pilihan Tacoma sebagai terminal baratnya dipengaruhi sebahagian besarnya oleh jarak bandar dengan operasi pembalakan utama. Pertimbangan lain adalah pelabuhan Teluk Commencement yang sangat baik dan fakta bahawa Great Northern dan Northern Pacific sudah mempunyai kawasan perairan Seattle yang terikat dengan baik.

Jalan Milwaukee segera menuju ke barat, membeli atau menyewa trek dari syarikat kereta api tempatan dan meletakkan landasan baru sendiri. Tujuannya adalah untuk membuat laluan sejauh 2.200 batu (diukur dari Chicago) ke Tacoma dan Seattle, dengan garis ke dua kota Puget Sound yang berpisah di Black River Junction. Kereta api harus melintasi lima pegunungan - Saddles, Belts, Rockies, Bitter Roots, dan Cascades. Lima puluh satu terowong diperlukan dan jumlah jambatan dan alur yang jauh lebih besar.

Setahun sebelum Jalan Milwaukee tiba, komuniti perniagaan Tacoma sibuk meningkatkan semangat tempatan. Pada bulan April 1908 Dewan Perniagaan dan Dewan Perdagangan di bandar ini mengeluarkan iklan halaman penuh di Majalah Sunset. Memetik peguam syarikat kereta api, ia berjanji:

"Rancangan Chicago, Milwaukee dan St. Paul memberikan pembangunan yang lebih besar di Tacoma daripada yang disangka oleh orang lain. Di sinilah perniagaan jalan raya akan selesai. Ibu pejabat perniagaan kapal uap syarikat akan berada di Tacoma dan bandar ini akan mempunyai terminal barat terbesar di jalan raya. "(" Tacoma Traffic Center. ").

Mencapai Tacoma

Dalam paparan kejuruteraan yang cemerlang dan pembinaan yang cekap, semua jurang dari Chicago ke Puget Sound dipenuhi hanya dalam tiga tahun. Pada 19 Mei 1909, lonjakan terakhir landasan kereta api transkontinental terakhir di negara ini dipacu dalam upacara rendah yang diadakan di sebelah barat Garrison, Montana. Keretapi ini pada mulanya beroperasi antara Tacoma dan Malden, dan kereta api penumpang pertama yang melintasi trestle berlepas dari Tacoma pada 14 Jun 1909. Perkhidmatan pengangkutan pertama juga bermula pada bulan Jun 1909, dan melalui perkhidmatan pengangkutan antara Chicago dan Tacoma bermula pada 4 Julai, 1909. Pada bulan Mei 1911, Jalan Milwaukee mula membawa penumpang sepanjang jarak dari Chicago ke Tacoma dan Seattle dengan keluli yang baru Olympian dan Orang Columbia kereta api. Kereta api itu menggunakan depot penumpang yang dibina oleh Tacoma Eastern Railroad di 26th Avenue dan A Street.

Sebelum jalan utama ke Tacoma sampai ke Sungai Puyallup setelah berpisah di Black River Junction, ia berpisah lagi di Tacoma Junction. Satu set trek menuju barat laut ke Milwaukee Waterway di Commencement Bay, di mana kemudahan perkapalan syarikat itu telah dibina. Yang lain menyeberangi Sungai Puyallup dan terus hampir di sebelah barat menuju rumah api besar syarikat di tidelands yang dipenuhi dan depot penumpang Tacoma Eastern sekitar 2.000 kaki lebih jauh ke arah barat. Laluan melintasi kawasan paya rendah yang bermula berhampiran persimpangan jalan E 25th dan East K. Sebilangan besar ini telah dikeruk, diisi, dan dikembangkan pada tahun 1908, tetapi tanah tetap tidak stabil dan kurang padat dan trestle diperlukan untuk membawa kereta api melintasi. Berbanding dengan struktur lain di sepanjang jalan kereta api sejauh 2.200 batu, yang satu ini tidak akan terlalu tinggi dan tidak terlalu panjang, tetapi lokasinya di tanah yang tidak stabil, basah, dan tidak padat menjadikan pembinaan sukar dan menjejaskan kestabilan dan ketahanannya. Laporan kontemporari oleh Milwaukee Road menyatakan:

"Tanah di antara Jalan K dan G [kawasan yang akan dijangkau oleh trestle] sangat rawa dan penempatan yang besar dan penenggelaman telah terjadi di pengisian di tempat ini. Harta tanah sebagian besar ditutup dengan bangunan pada saat pembelian, yang dipindahkan atau dihancurkan dengan perbelanjaan yang besar. Ia perlu untuk menyusun semula jalan dan jalan penyeberangan dan membina semula trotoar, di mana mereka ditemui. Jalan di depan jalan raya dan trek pasukan diubah untuk menampung kemudahan tersebut "(" Laporan Inventori Bersejarah ") .

Trestle Jalan Asli Milwaukee

Terdapat sedikit maklumat yang tersedia mengenai perincian tepat dari jalan Milwaukee Road pada tahun 1908, tetapi telah digambarkan sebagai "serangkaian jambatan timbunan kayu dan kerangka kayu dan trek bertingkat tinggi" (Sullivan). Ia berlari dari dekat East K Street ke rumah api kereta api yang dibina pada masa yang sama di E 25th Street antara jalan East D dan East G. Trestle adalah rekod pembinaan binaan yang sukar dari tahun 1908 menyatakan bahawa di satu lokasi pekerja mengemudi cerucuk "mencapai penembusan 126 kaki dengan mengendarai tiga tiang 45 kaki, satu di atas yang lain, dan. Pada kedalaman itu timbunan masih turun pada kadar yang baik "(Sullivan).

Setelah selesai, trestle adalah mimpi buruk penyelenggaraan. Berat dan getaran kereta api yang melintasi rentang memaksa tiang penopang lebih dalam ke tanah, menyebabkan trek kendur. Untuk memburukkan lagi keadaan, kehadiran kelembapan tanah yang berterusan mendorong reput. Pembaikan dan penggantian yang hampir berterusan diperlukan untuk memastikan trestle beroperasi, dan pada pertengahan tahun 1930-an menjadi jelas kepada jalan kereta api bahawa yang terbaik adalah memulakannya dari awal lagi.

Trestle S-Curve Asal (1937)

Menjelang tahun 1937, kesan terburuk dari Kemelesetan Besar telah berkurang, jalan kereta api menikmati peningkatan lalu lintas barang dan penumpang, dan ketika perang menghampiri di Eropah, perairan Tacoma menjadi titik penghantaran penting bagi tentera AS dan Fort Lewis, yang terletak hanya beberapa batu ke selatan. Jalan Milwaukee memutuskan sudah waktunya untuk menggantikan Tacoma Trestle dengan jalan yang mempunyai ketinggian lebih tinggi dan sokongan yang lebih kuat. Tapak kayu terbuka yang baru akan panjangnya kira-kira 1,530 kaki, terletak di antara jalan E 25 dan E 26, dan membentang dari sekitar Jalan K Timur hingga jalan raya jalan raya Milwaukee di East G Street. Jarak yang tidak jauh dari landasan kereta api menuju ke selatan dan bercabang menuju ke Morton, Hoquiam, Raymond, dan Longview

Tiang besar digunakan, beberapa berukuran hingga 10 inci persegi dan panjang 85 kaki. Lekukan individu jaraknya kira-kira 16 kaki sepanjang sebahagian besar trestle, tetapi terdapat rentang 54 kaki yang tidak terganggu yang diperbuat daripada balok I keluli terpaku di lintasan Pasifik Utara antara jalan-jalan J dan K Timur (dikenali sebagai "penyeberangan kilang bir" ) dan jarak keluli 82 kaki yang serupa tetapi lebih panjang di mana trestle melintasi persimpangan berhampiran East G Street di hujung yang lain. Terdapat juga tiga lokasi di mana kayu berat digunakan untuk jarak jurang kurang dari 30 kaki.

Tiang-tiang yang digunakan untuk membangun bentunya adalah cemara Douglas, dan dalam kebanyakan kes didorong ke kedalaman 50 hingga 55 kaki. Terdapat 97 bents total, dari sembilan ketinggian yang berbeza untuk menampung permukaan tanah yang tidak rata. Konfigurasi enam tiang digunakan untuk kebanyakan bent, dengan dua tiang tengah digerakkan terus ke tanah dan empat tiang sisi, dua di kedua sisi, didorong pada sudut sehingga mereka menyandarkannya di bahagian atas. Lebar lekukan di dasar mereka berkisar antara 16 hingga 21 kaki. Dua bentunya hanya menggunakan lima timbunan, masing-masing menggunakan salah satu pusat. Lekukan individu berbeza dengan cara lain kecuali untuk dua bahagian jambatan keluli, ikatan landasan kereta api diletakkan di atas enam atau lapan balok kayu membujur (disebut "tali pengikat" atau "kord") yang bervariasi dalam ukuran mengikut lokasi, tetapi tidak pernah lebih kecil daripada 10 inci dengan 17 1/4 inci. Beberapa lekukan mempunyai empat pendakap silang pepenjuru dan dua yang melintang, yang lain hanya dua pepenjuru dan satu melintang tunggal.

Terdapat satu penyimpangan yang ketara dari jalan trestle asal. Kira-kira 200 kaki ke barat dari titik permulaannya di East K Street, struktur baru berpusing sedikit ke selatan dan mengekalkan penyimpangan ini sejauh kira-kira 500 kaki sebelum meluruskan. Diukur dari E 25th Street, yang sejajar dengan lintasan, lekukan menggerakkan rel kira-kira 30 kaki ke selatan jalan lurus. Ciri inilah yang menyebabkan struktur itu disebut S-Curve Trestle, walaupun dari udara memang "S" sangat santai. Sebab yang tepat untuk penyimpangan ini dari jalan yang lurus tidak dapat dilihat hari ini.

Kuda baru adalah peningkatan, tetapi tidak menyelesaikan masalah yang mendasari. Strukturnya terus mantap dan terus merosot, dan projek penggantian cerucuk besar diperlukan pada tahun 1947, 1958, dan 1960. Gegelung 1961 merosakkan dasar jalan antara benteng 11 dan 21. Pada tahun yang sama, Jalan Milwaukee menamatkan perkhidmatan penumpang di luar benua untuk menumpukan perhatian pada pengangkutan barang. Pada tahun 1962, 80 dari 97 bents S-Curve Trestle diganti, dan pekerjaan tambahan pada tahun 1976 menggantikan banyak tali pengikat dan rel kereta api.

Trestle S-Curve dirancang pada tahun 1937 untuk mengendalikan lokomotif yang lebih berat ketika digunakan. Lokomotif moden kedua-duanya lebih kecil dan menghasilkan daya dinamik yang lebih kecil dan getaran yang lebih sedikit daripada model lama. Ketika mesin yang lebih baru digunakan secara meluas, penumpukan tiang trestle berkurang, dan setelah pengubahsuaian besar pada tahun 1962, span bertahan dengan pemeliharaan yang lebih sederhana, walaupun reput kayu tetap menjadi masalah yang serius dan berkelanjutan.

Milwaukee Hilang Dari Jalan

Jalan Milwaukee mungkin bukan syarikat kereta api terbesar di negara ini, tetapi ia adalah salah satu yang paling inovatif. The Great Northern telah melancarkan taliannya melalui Cascade Tunnel seawal tahun 1909, tetapi pada akhir tahun 1916 Milwaukee Road memulakan elektrik yang lebih luas, bermula di Montana dan Idaho. Kerja untuk menyalurkan talian dari Othello, Washington, ke Tacoma bermula pada awal tahun 1917 dan diselesaikan pada bulan Mac 1920. Di Tacoma, landasan kereta api menggerakkan talian melintasi trestle ke stesen penumpangnya untuk kereta api penumpang, dan garis ke halaman relnya dan lokomotif di kawasan pasang surut.

Elektrikasi memerlukan perbelanjaan di muka yang besar tetapi menjimatkan wang dalam jangka panjang dengan menggunakan tenaga hidro yang banyak dan murah yang dihasilkan dari sungai sepanjang jalan dan diedarkan melalui pencawang yang dibina di landasan kereta api. Ia juga melindungi penumpang dari risiko sesak nafas terowong dari asap dan ekzos mesin wap dan diesel. Akhirnya, sejumlah 656 batu, lebih daripada satu perempat dari jalan Milwaukee Road ke barat, akan dijana elektrik - 440 batu antara Harlowton, Montana, dan Avery, Idaho (yang datang dalam talian pada awal 1917) dan 216 batu antara Othello di Timur Washington dan Tacoma (yang datang dalam talian pada tahun 1920). Gabungan, ia adalah perkhidmatan kereta api elektrik terpanjang di dunia. Tetapi tidak sampai tahun 1927, wayar overhead syarikat akhirnya sampai ke Seattle.

Antara penambahbaikan lain yang diperkenalkan atau yang awal diadopsi oleh Jalan Milwaukee adalah kereta penumpang berhawa dingin, kereta angkut sejuk untuk mudah rosak, kereta api penumpang berkelajuan tinggi, dan penggunaan penghantaran kontena. Jalan kereta api mengalami masalah secara finansial selama sebagian besar keberadaannya, tetapi berjalan lancar selama tahun-tahun pasca-Perang Dunia II dan hingga tahun 1950-an. Dengan pertumbuhan perjalanan udara, perkhidmatan penumpang di kebanyakan landasan kereta api mengalami kerugian, dan pada tahun 1961 Milwaukee Road berhenti membawa penumpang di Tacoma / Seattle-to-Chicago. Syarikat itu akan menghabiskan sebahagian besar dua dekad berikutnya untuk mencuba perniagaan rel kereta api melalui penggabungan atau penjualan. Sebagai sebahagian daripada usaha ini, penyelenggaraan yang diperlukan ditangguhkan untuk menjadikan kunci kira-kira lebih menarik.

Menjelang tahun 1970 tren di antara jalan kereta api menuju ke arah penyatuan yang lebih besar, dan tahun itu Great Northern dan Northern Pacific bergabung ke Burlington Northern, membawa skala ekonomi dan kelebihan daya saing yang lain. Namun, sebagai syarat untuk persetujuan penggabungan, Jalan Milwaukee memperoleh akses ke Portland, dan untuk sementara waktu, ia mendapat keuntungan dari peningkatan lalu lintas barang. Malangnya, tahun-tahun penyelenggaraan yang ditangguhkan tidak lama lagi. Rel kereta api dan landasan di mana kereta api mula gagal, memerlukan kelajuan yang lebih perlahan dan sering menyebabkan kelewatan. Jadual penghantaran menjadi lebih nasihat daripada yang sebenarnya, dan pengirim melarikan diri. Derailments menjadi sangat kerap semasa mantra yang sangat buruk, bahagian-bahagian garis utama melalui Montana rata-rata satu kegelisahan sehari. Di beberapa landasan, terutama di pergunungan, kereta api dapat berjalan tidak lebih cepat dari 10 m.p.h. Peralatan yang rosak sering diparkir dan bukannya dibaiki. Akhirnya, pada 19 Disember 1977, Jalan Milwaukee, kekurangan peralatan, lebih sedikit wang, dan dibebani dengan ribuan batu landasan yang merosot dan ribuan tan peralatan yang sudah berusia atau rosak, mengajukan permohonan penyusunan semula dengan mahkamah kebankrapan persekutuan di Chicago.

Prosiding kebankrapan itu panjang dan diperdebatkan. Kesatuan, pengirim, dan masyarakat di sepanjang jalan kereta api menolak permintaannya untuk menutup operasi baratnya. Tetapi pada 31 Januari 1980, Suruhanjaya Perdagangan Antar Negara memilih untuk membenarkan Jalan Milwaukee berjalan jauh dari semua garis antara Miles City, Montana, dan Seattle-Tacoma. Perkhidmatan berhenti dalam sebulan, dan aset kereta api di barat Montana habis dijual sedikit demi sedikit atau hanya ditinggalkan. Sea-Land Services Inc., sebuah syarikat perkapalan besar, berakhir dengan banyak harta tanah dan kemudahan Commencement Bay kereta api.

Ketika syarikat itu akhirnya muncul dari kebankrapan, ia adalah garis hanya Midwest, dan bahkan ini hilang pada tahun 1985, diambil alih oleh Soo Line. Jalan lama Milwaukee yang bertingkat tidak lagi dan tidak akan pernah lagi, tetapi S-Curve Trestle yang telah dibina di Tacoma hampir 50 tahun sebelumnya masih berdiri. Kota Tacoma akhirnya mengambil alih itu, dan pada tahun 1998 sistem Rel Tacoma mula menggunakan trestle sebagai sebahagian dari garis Divisi Gunungnya.

Helo ke Sound Transit

Sejarah usaha yang panjang dan rumit untuk membuat sistem transit massa serantau terletak di luar ruang lingkup esei ini. Cukuplah mengatakan bahwa setelah bertahun-tahun kontroversi, perdebatan, dan permulaan yang salah, pada bulan September 1993, daerah Snohomish, Pierce, dan King menubuhkan Regional Transit Authority (RTA). Pada bulan Oktober 1994, pihak berwenang mengadopsi Rencana Transit Daerah, hanya untuk melihat rancangan itu dijatuhkan oleh pemilih pada bulan Mac berikutnya. Terdapat lebih dari satu dekad perancangan dan kajian, dan pada bulan Mei 1996 pihak berkuasa mencuba lagi, mengusulkan "Sound Move," rancangan 10 tahun untuk menghubungkan Everett, Seattle, Tacoma, dan titik-titik di antara kereta api komuter. Pada bulan Ogos 1996, RTA mengadopsi nama "Transit Suara" untuk seluruh sistem dan "Sounder" untuk perkhidmatan kereta api komuter wilayah yang dirancang. Rancangan itu akhirnya mendapat persetujuan pemilih dalam pilihan raya November 1996.

Syarikat Weyerhaeuser mengambil alih sebahagian besar jalan Milwaukee Road yang muflis berhampiran Commencement Bay, termasuk S-Curve Trestle. Pada akhir 1990-an, trek tersebut dijual ke Tacoma Public Works, yang kemudiannya membuat perjanjian dengan Tacoma Rail untuk penggunaan dan pemeliharaan saluran terakhir, dan kemudiannya akan berkongsi trek dan trestle dengan kereta api Sounder Transit. Pada 18 September 2000, kereta api komuter pertama yang dijadualkan antara Tacoma dan Seattle meninggalkan platform sementara yang terletak di sebelah barat stesen Tacoma Amtrak di Portland Avenue. Sebuah kereta api kedua berangkat setengah jam kemudian, dan kedua-dua laluan terbalik untuk perjalanan pulang ke Tacoma. Jumlah penumpang pada hari pertama adalah sekitar 1,100.

Ketika lalu lintas kenderaan untuk perjalanan pagi dan malam semakin buruk, populariti kereta api komuter Sounder bertambah. Pada tahun 2002 kereta api ketiga ditambahkan ke dalam jadwal dan pada bulan September 2003 Stesen Tacoma Dome dibuka di Freighthouse Square, di mana gudang lama Milwaukee Road telah dipelihara. Menjelang 2012, dengan Lakewood ditambahkan sebagai perhentian tambahan, jalur Sounder South ke Pierce County telah berkembang menjadi 10 perjalanan pergi balik sehari (termasuk lima dari stesen Lakewood) yang berjalan setiap 20 minit dan membawa rata-rata 10.500 penumpang pada hari kerja.

Keluar dengan yang Lama, yang Baru dan yang Baru

Keretapi komuter Sounder yang licin beroperasi hampir sepenuhnya di trek yang telah lama berjalan lebih lama daripada Sound Transit, termasuk set tunggal di atas S-Curve Trestle. Seiring dengan meningkatnya populariti perjalanan kereta api dan jumlah kereta api dan lintasan, trestle memerlukan penyelenggaraan berterusan dan menjadi hambatan untuk lalu lintas kereta api. Pada tahun 2008, pengundi meluluskan pengundian "Suara Transit 2", yang merangkumi pendanaan untuk trestle baru, yang dianggarkan berharga $ 62 juta (pada tahun 2014 dolar). Rancangan asal meminta pembinaan dilaksanakan pada tahun 2023, tetapi geran bernilai $ 10 juta dari Jabatan Perhubungan A.S. memindahkan anggaran tarikh siap ke 2017.

Dalam penilaian yang dikeluarkan pada bulan Disember 2012, Jabatan Arkeologi dan Pemeliharaan Sejarah negeri menetapkan bahawa S-Curve Trestle layak untuk disenaraikan di Daftar Nasional Tempat Bersejarah, membalikkan sekurang-kurangnya dua kesimpulan sebelumnya. Walaupun telah dibangun kembali secara meluas sejak tahun 1937, trestle mempertahankan penampilan yang hampir sama, dan pada tahun 2012, bahkan kerja pengubahsuaian besar tahun 1962 berusia 50 tahun. Penemuan kepentingan sejarah didasarkan pada "hubungan trestle dengan corak pembangunan dan pertumbuhan luas Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pasifik dan hubungannya dengan membantu pergerakan barang ke dan dari Tacoma." Itu juga ditentukan untuk menjadi "sumber yang merangkumi ciri khas dari jenisnya RR trestle. Dan reka bentuknya tidak biasa dibandingkan dengan sumber lain yang serupa di seluruh negeri" (Surat, Houser to Paul).

Walaupun terdapat penemuan ini, trestle itu tidak dicalonkan atau disenaraikan. Memelihara trestle lama tidak dapat dilaksanakan secara ekonomi dan praktikal dan pada tahun 2014 fasa reka bentuk projek penggantian sedang dijalankan. S-Curve Trestle yang bersejarah telah dirobohkan pada tahun 2017 dan penggantiannya, jambatan landasan berkembar, akan siap pada akhir tahun ini.

Kereta api tacoma Rail, S-Curve Trestle, Tacoma, 17 Jun 2006

Foto oleh Steve Carter, Courtesy SteveCarterPhotography.com

Transit Bunyi Lebih baik kereta api komuter, S-Curve Trestle, Tacoma

Delta Sungai Puyallup di Commencement Bay, Mount Rainier dari jarak jauh, Tacoma, ca. 1885

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Washington (2013.0.194)

Peta, Teluk Permulaan dan khabar angin, pengembangan awal, Tacoma, 1888

Berdasarkan Kajian Pantai dan Geodetik Amerika Syarikat

Perkembangan awal, Dataran surut Teluk Permulaan, Tacoma, 1891

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Negeri Washington (2013.0.196)

Iklan promosi Dewan Perniagaan dan Lembaga Perdagangan Tacoma untuk Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, Majalah Sunset, 1908

Marker, lonjakan terakhir, Milwaukee Road Pacific Division, berhampiran Garrison, Montana, 19 Mei 1909

Kesopanan Majalah Milwaukee Road

Pekerja dan pegawai kereta api Jepun, upacara "lonjakan terakhir" Milwaukee Road, berhampiran Garrison, Montana, 19 Mei 1909

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Montana

Rumah api Milwaukee Road, Tacoma, 1909

Kesopanan Berita Keretapi & Laut

Jurulatih penumpang, depot North Bend, ca. 1910

Iklan, Jalan Milwaukee, The Seattle Times, 27 Mei 1911

Depot penumpang Old Milwaukee Road (kiri), bekas depot Tacoma Eastern, jalan 25 dan A, Tacoma, 2 Mei 1912

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Negeri Washington (2006.0.263)

Kawasan pengangkutan terminal Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, Tacoma, 1918

Foto oleh Asahel Curtis, Koleksi Khas UW dengan hormat (CUR1379)

Depot Milwaukee Road, E 11th dan Milwaukee Way, Tacoma, 1954

Kesopanan Majalah Milwaukee Road

Kereta api sutera Chicago Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad, ca. 1921

Dengan hormat MOHAI (1983.10.2199.1)

Dok Milwaukee Road, gudang, Tacoma, ca. 1936

Decal, Jalan Milwaukee Olympian kereta api penumpang, Chicago ke Tacoma, ca. 1925

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Negeri Washington (2007.8.1)

Decal, Jalan Milwaukee Olympia Hiawatha kereta api penumpang, ca. 1947

Dengan hormat Persatuan Sejarah Negeri Washington (1997.1.237)

Poster Olympia Hiawatha di Milwaukee Road, ca. 1952

Transit Bunyi Lebih baik kereta api komuter, S-Curve Trestle, Tacoma

Drawing, typical six-pile bent, S-Curve Trestle, Tacoma, 1981


Commencement Bay-kenderaan pengiring kelas

The Commencement Bay-class escort aircraft carriers were the last class of escort carriers built for the US Navy in World War II.

  • 10,900 long tons (11,100 t) standard
  • 24,100 long tons (24,500 t) full load
  • 525 ft (160 m) wl
  • 557 ft 1 in (169.80 m) oa
  • 75 ft (23 m)
  • 105 ft 2 in (32.05 m) flight deck
  • 2 × 5"/38 caliber guns (1 × 2)
  • 36 × 40 mm Bofors gun (3 × 4, 12 × 2)
  • 20 × 20 mm Oerlikon cannons

The ships were based on the Maritime Commission type T3 Tanker hull, which gave them a displacement of approximately 23,000 tons and a length of 557 feet (170 m). Unlike most earlier escort carrier classes, which were laid down as something else and converted to aircraft carriers mid-construction, the Commencement Bays were built as carriers from the keel up. Their general layout was similar to the Sangamon-class escort carriers, but some of the Sangamon's engineering shortcomings were addressed.

They entered service late in World War II – USS Commencement Bay launched on 9 May 1944 – so most of them saw little or no operational service. Thirty-three of them were ordered but many were cancelled prior to completion. Nineteen saw commissioned service in the US Navy, four were broken up on the ways at the end of the war, two were accepted from the builders, but never commissioned and the remainder were cancelled before being laid down.

After the war they were seen as potential helicopter, anti-submarine, or auxiliary (transport) carriers, and a number of ships served in these roles during the Korean War. The oncoming jet age ended their careers, as the ships were no longer large enough to safely carry the much larger jet aircraft of the late 1950s, and all units were out of service or reclassified by 1960.


CVE-106 U.S.S. Commencement Bay - History

A bay of Puget Sound, near Tacoma, Wash.

(CVE 106 dp. 11,373 1. 677'1" b. 75' ew. 105'2"
dr. 32' s. 19 k. cpl. 1,066 a. 2 5" cl. Permulaan
Bay)

Commencement Bay (CVE-106) was launched 9 May 1944 by Seattle Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash. sponsored by Mrs. F. Eves and commissioned 27 November, 1944, Captain R. L. Bowman in command.

Commencement Bay reported at Seattle 1 February 1945 for duty as a training ship in Puget Sound until 2 October. During this time she trained 545 officers and 5,053 men of precommissioning crews for sister escort carriers, and qualified 249 pilots of eight air groups in carrier takeoffs and landings. She sailed from Bremerton 21 October 1945, and arrived at Pearl Harbor 4 l November for training and to conduct carrier qualifications until sailing 27 November for Seattle and Tacoma.

After visits to Los Angeles and San Pedro, she returned to Tacoma 28 January, where she was placed out of commission in reserve 30 November 1946. She was reclassified CVHE-106, 12 June 1955 and AKV-37, 7 May 1959.


SejarahLink.org

On May 31, 1919, Pierce County voters approve the "comprehensive scheme" of development prepared for the newly formed Port of Tacoma by consulting engineer Frank J. Walsh. The Port, which was created in a November 1918 vote, will inaugurate shipping at its first pier on March 25, 1921. Over the next nine decades, the Port of Tacoma will become a leading container port, serving as a "Pacific Gateway" for trade between Asia and the central and eastern United States as well as the Northwest, and handling most of the maritime commerce between Alaska and the lower 48 states. With ample room to expand on the tideflats fronting the deep waters of Commencement Bay, the Port will develop multiple waterways accommodating the largest ocean-going cargo ships and will create efficient intermodal transportation connections between ships and road or rail, often right on the dock.

Second Try Succeeds

Longshoremen, business leaders, and politicians from Tacoma were prominent in the ranks of reformers who in 1911 won passage of Washington's Port District Act, authorizing local voters to form public port districts to acquire and improve harbor facilities necessary to retain and expand maritime trade and commerce. But a year later, when proponents placed on the November 1912 ballot a proposal to create a public Port of Tacoma encompassing all of Pierce County, the measure was narrowly defeated. City voters supported the proposal, but many rural residents feared that a port would only benefit urban businesses.

In 1918, as the Tacoma waterfront hummed with activity generated by World War I, port proponents tried again. W. H. Paulhamus, a state senator and president of the Puyallup and Sumner Fruit Growers' Canning Company, gained rural support by arguing that a public port could build a cold-storage building on the waterfront, making it easier for farmers to preserve and ship their produce. Steamship company executives and other businessmen advocated for the port measure, as did the Tacoma Daily Ledger and longshore union members.

This time voters across Pierce County were convinced and they approved creation of the Port of Tacoma on November 5, 1918. Edward Kloss, Charles W. Orton, and Chester Thorne were elected port commissioners. They hired engineer Frank J. Walsh to create the "comprehensive scheme of harbor improvement" that the Port District Act required. Under the law, county voters had to approve both the harbor plan and the bonds that the Port would have to sell to fund construction.

Planning and Building

Walsh prepared a plan for harbor development on 240 acres of land along the Middle Waterway, where he recommended that the port's first two piers be built. The port commission placed the plan, and a measure authorizing the sale of $2.5 million in bonds to fund it, on the ballot for May 31, 1919. Voters approved both measures by fairly wide margins. However, support for the port bonds was weaker outside Tacoma, and it was several days before it was clear that the bond measure had barely, by a few hundred votes, surpassed the required 60 percent threshold.

Construction began on March 25, 1920, and exactly one year later the Edmore arrived at the newly finished Pier 1 to take on the first cargo shipped from the Port of Tacoma. Port business grew so quickly that within a year the commissioners approved a 300-foot extension of Pier 1. By 1923 Pier 2 was completed. During the 1920s, the Port's cargo tonnage doubled. By the end of the decade, at least 25 steamship lines made regular stops in Tacoma.

The Port Commission worked throughout the decade to build the promised cold-storage plant that had helped persuade voters to approve the port. The plant opened in 1931. In the meantime, voters in 1928 approved a new port bond issue allowing construction of a grain elevator that began operation in 1930.

Depression and War

When the Depression hit Tacoma's waterfront, cargo tonnage dropped sharply. Tacoma's maritime commerce rebounded somewhat after Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) became president. Roosevelt's New Deal reforms gave unions more clout than they previously had. When employers refused collective bargaining, longshore and other shipping-industry unions shut down ports on the entire West Coast in the great waterfront strike of 1934. Federal arbitration settled the strike in favor of the longshore union, creating the union hiring hall that still exists. Although significant, the hiring hall victory did not directly affect the Tacoma longshore locals, which were fully closed shop even before the strike, the only large longshore unions on the coast to enjoy that distinction.

The Depression slowed the Port's development until the 1939 state legislature gave public ports new powers to develop industrial sites. Port of Tacoma commissioners were among the first to take advantage of the new authority, setting up an Industrial Development District south of 11th Street between Hylebos Creek and Milwaukee Way. The Port began to recruit tenants, but World War II put the project on hold.

Like so much else, the Tacoma waterfront was largely given over to the military effort from 1942 to 1945. Thousands of troops from nearby Fort Lewis were dispatched to the Pacific theater from Port of Tacoma piers. Longshoremen were busier than during the Depression, but not all found full-time work, due in part to the fact that Seattle took the lion's share of the region's army and navy business. Increased mechanization on the docks also reduced the number of longshore workers needed, as the military spent freely on new equipment like forklifts and larger cranes.

A Key Advantage

After the war ended in 1945, the Port, like the rest of the country, faced a rocky transition back to a civilian economy. With the massive war mobilization over, waterfront manufacturing declined sharply. Maritime trade fell by 90 percent in 1946, to well below pre-war levels. The Port of Tacoma Commission responded to the nationwide downturn by renewing its interrupted efforts to attract manufacturers to the Industrial Development District it had established before the war. But even after Purex, Concrete Technology, Stauffer Chemical, and Western Boat Building all set up shop in the Industrial District, the port had not returned to pre-war business levels.

In the early 1950s, the commissioners embarked on further improvements to attract more development. They dredged the Industrial Waterway, located on the tideflats between the Puyallup River and Hylebos Creek and Waterway, to accomodate larger ships. In 1955, the commission hired Tibbetts-Abbett-McCarthy-Stratton (TAMS) to prepare a detailed comprehensive plan for future port development. The study proposed making maximizing a key competitive advantage: The Port of Tacoma's significant acreage on the deep waters of Commencement Bay was one of the few locations in Puget Sound where industry had direct access to deep water. The TAMS plan called for the Port to extend and widen the Industrial (later Blair) Waterway and Hylebos Waterway and construct ship-turning basins adjacent to the Industrial District at the ends of the lengthened waterways.

Mechanization and Modernization

In 1957, Tacoma longshore workers ended a 20-year rift by voting to affiliate with the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU), headed by Harry Bridges (1901-1990). As ILWU members, Tacoma workers were parties to the Mechanization and Modernization Agreement that Bridges and the ILWU negotiated with West Coast shipping and stevedoring management. The agreement gave employers freedom to introduce both "mechanization" (labor-saving machinery) and "modernization" (work rules requiring greater efficiency) in return for a commitment of no layoffs and a guaranteed 35 hours of work (or pay) per week.

The agreement opened the way for employers to take advantage of two new, more efficient cargo-loading methods being developed during the 1950s. Bulk ships carrying large cargos of loose material like grain or ore were loaded and unloaded by large hoses that sucked or blew the material from ship to storage or vice versa. Container ships allowed most other cargo to be loaded into a large box (20 or 40 feet long) at the factory or warehouse, hauled by truck or train to the dock, and lifted aboard ship by crane.

Bulk and container ships were not yet common on the Tacoma waterfront when the agreement was ratified in 1961, but signs of change at the port were clear as dredging cranes and landfill reshaped the tideflats while warehouses and manufacturing shops were constructed for newly arriving businesses. Kaiser Aluminum reopened the aluminum smelter it had originally constructed on the tideflats in 1941.

New Leadership

In 1964, the port commission hired Ernest L. "Roy" Perry as general manager. He served until 1976, completing the expansion of the Blair and Hylebos Waterways called for in the TAMS plan and bringing the Port of Tacoma into the container age. The Port built new warehouses and piers for container cargo at Terminal 4 near the mouth of Blair Waterway and at Terminal 7 on Sitcum Waterway. The Port of Tacoma entered the container business in 1970, when the first container crane was built at Terminal 7.

Two prominent alumina domes -- sometimes termed the "original Tacoma domes" -- were also built at Terminal 7, to store ore for use at the Kaiser smelter. Pierce County Terminal was constructed at the head of Blair Waterway, where large amounts of storage space allowed the terminal to handle special cargo like locomotives, military equipment, and logs the terminal also served as the first major center for the growing number of automobiles imported from Asia through Tacoma.

In 1968 Perry increased the Port's investment in industrial property by acquiring 500 acres in Frederickson, an unincorporated area of Pierce County 13 miles south of the port's Commencement Bay terminals. Over the years Frederickson has developed as a major industrial center.

During the 1970s, Tacoma continued to be a major exporter of forest products, as it had been since its founding. Two new export facilities were built in 1972 and 1973: Blair Terminal, with two berths for log exports, was followed by Weyerhaeuser's $4.5 million, 25-acre wood-chip facility on Blair Waterway. In 1975, the Port significantly increased its capacity to handle another leading export, grain, by building the Continental Grain Terminal, with a capacity of three million bushels, on Commencement Bay north of downtown Tacoma.

Rapid Growth

Worldwide trade increased at record rates in the 1970s, much faster than its growth in prior decades. Growth was particularly rapid at the Port of Tacoma, much of it in trade with Pacific Rim countries, whose share of Washington state trade rose steadily. After 1979, when the 30-year American trade embargo was lifted, the People's Republic of China joined Japan, Taiwan, and Korea as major trading partners for the Port of Tacoma. By 1982, the Port had tripled tonnage moved and quadrupled revenues over the levels of a decade earlier.

The Port of Tacoma's domestic trade also increased exponentially in the 1970s. Local 23 longshoremen worked with Port management to convince Totem Ocean Trailer Express (TOTE), a leading shipper to Alaska, to move its operations from Seattle to Tacoma. TOTE's first ship began calling at Terminal 7 in 1976 and the company added a second vessel in 1977.

The Port of Tacoma helped pioneer a new phase in trade and transportation history in 1981 when it opened its North Intermodal Yard, the first dockside railyard on the West Coast, located on the main port peninsula between the docks of Terminal 7 on Sitcum Waterway and Terminal 4 on Blair Waterway. The success of the Port's pioneering intermodal connection led to expansions and upgrades of the North Intermodal Yard throughout the 1980s. The Port also opened the South Intermodal Yard, immediately across E 11th Street from Sitcum Waterway, and the new intermodal connections helped fuel the Port of Tacoma's rapid growth during the 1980s. In subsequent decades, the Port built new dockside intermodal yards in conjunction with two new terminal projects, Washington United Terminals and Pierce County Terminal.

New Arrivals

After the giant container line Sea-Land announced in 1983 that it would move from Seattle to Tacoma, the Port designed and built the $44 million Sea-Land Terminal on Sitcum Waterway, and constructed a new terminal for TOTE's Alaska service to make room for the Sea-Land container terminal. Within weeks after Sea-Land's first ship docked in 1985, another large container shipping company, the Danish line Maersk, arrived. (In 1999, Maersk bought Sea-Land's international shipping business, creating Maersk Sealand, the world's largest container shipping operation, which remained a major shipper from Tacoma until moving to Seattle in 2009.)

In 1988, K Line, from Japan, became the third large container line in three years to begin serving Tacoma. The additional container ships brought further growth to the Port's intermodal yards. In 1987, the old United Grain Terminal, one of the Port's earliest projects (which closed after the larger Continental Grain facility opened), was demolished to allow expansion of the North Intermodal Yard to handle the increase in container traffic K Line would bring.

The Port continued to grow as the 1990s opened. In 1991, another major container shipper, Taiwan's Evergreen Line, began serving the Port's Terminal 4. The new arrival helped the port reach the one-million-container mark that year for the first time in its history. Before the Port could develop the upper Blair Waterway to handle the increasing number of cargo ships, a replacement had to be found for the Blair Bridge, which carried E 11th Street over the waterway. The drawbridge opening of 150 feet, more than adequate when the bridge was built in the 1950s, was too small for the giant container ships of the late twentieth century. In 1997, the replacement route via State Route 509 was opened, allowing the Blair Bridge to be removed and unlocking the upper Blair Waterway for development.

That same year Hyundai Merchant Marine entered a 30-year lease for the first container terminal to be built on the upper Blair Waterway. Opened in 1999 and named Washington United Terminals (WUT), the facility included the Hyundai Intermodal Yard. Container volumes set records in four of the next seven years, increasing by 62 percent overall.

Transition and Progress

The Tacoma tideflats' transition away from large manufacturing continued as the Kaiser Aluminum smelter, which had at its peak employed hundreds of workers, closed in 2000 due to increasing power costs and the effects of a long strike. Although the loss of jobs hurt the local economy at the time, the 96-acre Kaiser property soon became a key part of the Port's future development plans.

The attacks that occurred on September 11 had lasting effects on the Port as on the rest of the world. Beginning in 2002, the Port of Tacoma, along with other ports in Puget Sound and around the country, received federal grants to test and upgrade security at the ports and to improve "supply chain security" from the point of origin abroad to the final U.S. destination.

The Port's plans for expansion on upper Blair Waterway received a major boost in 2003, when Evergreen Line agreed to lease a new container terminal to be built at the head of the waterway, replacing the old Pierce County Terminal that had handled bulk cargo. Until then, some container shippers had doubts about the accessibility of the two-mile-long waterway, but with Evergreen in place others soon expressed interest. The new 171-acre, $210 million Pierce County Terminal and Intermodal Yard, which the Port built for Evergreen over the next two years, was the largest construction project in Port history.

In October 2003, the Port opened the $40 million, 146.5-acre Marshall Avenue Auto Facility, which could store and process nearly 20,000 vehicles at a time. Two months later, the one-millionth Mazda imported through the port drove off a transport ship at Blair Terminal and made its way to the Marshall Avenue facility.

The year 2005 brought a chain reaction of new terminal openings. In January, Evergreen Line moved to the newly opened Pierce County Terminal. In July, the new Husky Terminal, at Evergreen's former Terminal 4 location, doubled the presence of K Line at Tacoma. And in October, the Port completed the Olympic Container Terminal, an expansion of K Line's prior home at Terminal 7.

Facing the Future

The three new terminals, and continued increases in imports from Asia, especially China, led to two more record-setting years: volume topped two million containers for the first time in 2005 and rose further to set an all-time record in 2006. After that, Tacoma's container volumes declined, with the sharpest drop being from 2008 to 2009, as world-wide cargo traffic slumped due to the recession following the collapse of the U.S. housing bubble. The economic downturn also caused the Port to put some plans for expansion on hold. In 2007, when the Port and NYK Line of Japan entered an agreement for NYK to begin service to Tacoma in 2012, the plan was to construct a new container terminal on the east side of Blair Waterway. Those plans were altered and now call for NYK ships to use an existing terminal when they begin calling in 2012. By late 2010 and the start of 2011, container traffic appeared to be rebounding, as existing shippers increased service, with K Line bringing new, larger ships to Tacoma and Evergreen resuming routes it had suspended during the downturn.

Meanwhile, the Port continued to plan for the future. As it readied property for development when the economy improved, the Port proceeded with major environmental projects, including clean up of former industrial sites and wetland restoration along its waterways, planning to spend nearly $40 million by 2015. In 2010, the Port of Tacoma became the first in the Pacific Northwest to provide shore power for cargo vessels. The shore power plug installation at the TOTE terminal allows TOTE cargo ships to shut off their diesel engines while docked, reducing emissions by as much as 90 percent.

More than 90 years after its creation by the voters of Pierce County, the Port of Tacoma continues to transform the landscape of Commencement Bay and the economy of the region and to play a major role in international and domestic trade.

Persatuan Pelabuhan Awam Washington

Longshore strade drivers, Port of Tacoma

Map of Port of Tacoma showing Port's terminals, intermodal yards, and waterways (from left: Puyallup River, Sitcum Waterway, Blair Waterway, and Hylebos Waterway with aquatic habitat to right), Tacoma, ca. 2008

Edward Kloss, Charles W. Orton, and Chester Thorne, first Port of Tacoma Commissioners, 1918

Frank J. Walsh Master Plan for Port of Tacoma, 1918

Pacific Coast Steamship Company's Edmore, first ship to call at Port of Tacoma, March 25, 1921

United Grain Terminal (foreground) and cold storage facility (background), Port of Tacoma, 1930s

Todd-Pacific Shipyard (center), and Port of Tacoma piers (upper left), Commencement Bay, 1940s

Dredging Blair Waterway, Port of Tacoma, Tacoma, 1966

Totem Ocean Trailer Express "roll on/ roll off" vessel serving Alaska, docked at Terminal 7, Port of Tacoma, ca. 1977

Bulk vessel loading grain at Cargill Continental Grain Terminal, Port of Tacoma

The Sunrise delivers two Hitachi container cranes for Sea-Land's Port of Tacoma terminal, December 1984

Dredging for construction of Port of Tacoma's Pierce County Terminal, Tacoma, December 18, 2002

First Evergreen Marine Corporation ship to call at new Pierce County Terminal, Port of Tacoma, December 22, 2004

The Yang Ming Heights berthed at Olympic Container Terminal, Port of Tacoma, ca. 2005


Puget Sound Wastewater Carries Emerging Contaminants

A new study of emerging contaminants entering Puget Sound in wastewater plant effluent found some of the nation’s highest concentrations of these chemical compounds, and detected many in fish at concentrations that may affect their growth or behavior.

The study by scientists from NOAA Fisheries’ Northwest Fisheries Science Center and the University of Washington tested for 150 of the contaminants and detected 81 of the compounds in wastewater flowing into Puget Sound estuaries. They include pharmaceuticals such as the antidepressant Prozac and the diabetes medication metformin, personal care products such as antibacterial compounds from soap and industrial chemicals.

The study also examined juvenile Chinook salmon and Pacific staghorn sculpin, both fish native to Puget Sound, and found 42 of the emerging compounds in their tissue. Some of the compounds such as fluoxetine (also known as Prozac), the diabetes drug metformin and the antibacterial compound triclosan were present in fish tissues at levels that may be high enough to adversely affect their growth, reproduction, or behavior.

“There’s also the problem of not knowing how these chemicals act in fish when they are found together as a mixture,” said James Meador, a NOAA Fisheries research scientist and lead author of the research published this week in the journal Environmental Pollution. “Mixtures such as these may result in responses that occur at lower concentrations than single compounds alone.”

The research did not examine the potential effects on human health of consuming fish from Puget Sound, and it is unknown if these levels of emerging contaminants detected in fish could affect people.

The study funded in large part by the Washington Department of Ecology examined wastewater plant effluent, estuary water, and fish found in the Puyallup River estuary in Tacoma’s Commencement Bay, Sinclair Inlet in Bremerton, and the Nisqually River estuary near Tacoma. The Nisqually estuary was included as a reference site because it does not have a major wastewater treatment plant and has been used historically as a reference site for toxicity studies. Unexpectedly, they found that fish and water in the Nisqually estuary also contained high concentrations of some emerging compounds.

The study also noted that the relatively high pH of seawater often makes the contaminants more bioavailable and therefore more likely to be absorbed by marine fish compared to fish in freshwater, Meador said.

The researchers noted that since the two major wastewater treatment plants they examined in the Puyallup and Sinclair Inlet discharged a total of 71 million liters per day, “it is possible that a substantial load of potentially harmful chemicals are introduced into streams and nearshore marine waters daily.” If the two wastewater plants sampled in the study are representative of others around Puget Sound, the researchers calculated that nearly 300 pounds of the emerging contaminants likely enter Puget Sound every day.

“When you add it all up, you get millions of gallons of effluent discharging into these estuaries,” Meador said. “This is right in the area where juvenile salmon and other fish are feeding and growing.”


Our Newsletter

Product Description

USS Commencement Bay CVE 105

"The Bay Wake"

World War II Cruise Book

Bring the Cruise Book to Life with this Multimedia Presentation

This CD will Exceed your Expectations

A great part of Naval history.

You would be purchasing the USS Commencement Bay cruise book during World War II. Each page has been placed on a CD for years of enjoyable computer viewing. The CD comes in a plastic sleeve with a custom label. Every page has been enhanced and is readable. Rare cruise books like this sell for a hundred dollars or more when buying the actual hard copy if you can find one for sale.

This would make a great gift for yourself or someone you know who may have served aboard her. Usually only ONE person in the family has the original book. The CD makes it possible for other family members to have a copy also. You will not be disappointed we guarantee it.

Some of the items in this book are as follows:

  • Commissioning 1944
  • Shakedown training
  • Navy Day
  • San Pedro Pearl Harbor Tacoma
  • Group Photos all Divisions and air groups
  • Sports and recreation
  • Shipboard entertainment
  • Ships picnics and parties
  • Liberty Call

Over 210 Photos on 79 Pages.

Once you view this CD you will know what life was like on this Escort Aircraft Carrier during World War II.

Additional Bonus:

  • 22 Minute Audio " American Radio Mobilizes the Homefront " WWII (National Archives)
  • 22 Minute Audio " Allied Turncoats Broadcast for the Axis Powers " WWII (National Archives)
  • 6 Minute Audio of " Sounds of Boot Camp " in the late 50's early 60's
  • Other Interesting Items Include:
    • The Oath of Enlistment
    • The Sailors Creed
    • Core Values of the United States Navy
    • Military Code of Conduct
    • Navy Terminology Origins (8 Pages)
    • Examples: Scuttlebutt, Chewing the Fat, Devil to Pay,
    • Hunky-Dory and many more.

    Mengapa CD bukan buku cetak?

    • The pictures will not be degraded over time.
    • Self contained CD no software to load.
    • Thumbnails, table of contents and index for easy viewing reference.
    • View as a digital flip book or watch a slide show. (You set the timing options)
    • Back ground patriotic music and Navy sounds can be turned on or off.
    • Viewing options are described in the help section.
    • Bookmark your favorite pages.
    • The quality on your screen may be better than a hard copy with the ability to magnify any page.
    • Full page viewing slide show that you control with arrow keys or mouse.
    • Designed to work on a Microsoft platform. (Not Apple or Mac) Will work with Windows 98 or above.

    Personal Comment from "Navyboy63"

    The cruise book CD is a great inexpensive way of preserving historical family heritage for yourself, children or grand children especially if you or a loved one has served aboard the ship. It is a way to get connected with the past especially if you no longer have the human connection.

    If your loved one is still with us, they might consider this to be a priceless gift. Statistics show that only 25-35% of sailors purchased their own cruise book. Many probably wished they would have. It's a nice way to show them that you care about their past and appreciate the sacrifice they and many others made for you and the FREEDOM of our country. Would also be great for school research projects or just self interest in World War II documentation.

    We never knew what life was like for a sailor in World War II until we started taking an interest in these great books. We found pictures which we never knew existed of a relative who served on the USS Essex CV 9 during World War II. He passed away at a very young age and we never got a chance to hear many of his stories. Somehow by viewing his cruise book which we never saw until recently has reconnected the family with his legacy and Naval heritage. Even if we did not find the pictures in the cruise book it was a great way to see what life was like for him. We now consider these to be family treasures. His children, grand children and great grand children can always be connected to him in some small way which they can be proud of. This is what motivates and drives us to do the research and development of these great cruise books. I hope you can experience the same thing for your family.

    If you have any questions please send us an E-mail prior to purchasing.

    Buyer pays shipping and handling. Shipping charges outside the US will vary by location.

    Check our feedback. Customers who have purchased these CD's have been very pleased with the product.

    Be sure to add us to your !

    Thanks for your Interest!


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    This CD is for your personal use only

    Copyright © 2003-2010 Great Naval Images LLC. Hak cipta terpelihara.


    FOLLOWUP: One more delay for SW Yancy reopening

    June 18, 2021 4:54 pm
    | 5 COMMENTS
    | West Seattle news | West Seattle traffic alerts

    The long-closed stretch of SW Yancy Street near the West Seattle Health Club will not reopen tomorrow as most recently promised. Word from Transitional Resources, the nearby nonprofit whose supportive-housing project is the reason for the closure: “The concrete is all poured on Yancy Street, but the City Inspector is not allowing the road to open until Tuesday.” It has been closed for almost three months initial word was that the road work mostly involved drainage improvements.


    CVE-106 U.S.S. Commencement Bay - History

    (Celebrating 16 Years in Business)

    (Not just a photo or poster but a work of art!)

    These reproduction prints represent various time periods and themes. Many are vintage WWII prints.

    Print size is 8"x10" ready for framing. The matte is printed right on the canvas. You can frame as shown or add your own matte. These canvas prints are made to order. They usually ship within two days of order placement.

    This would make a nice gift and a great addition to any collection or Navy memory. Would be fantastic for decorating the home or office wall.

    The watermark "Sample Print" will NOT be on your print.

    This image is printed on Archival-Safe Acid-Free canvas using a high resolution printer and should last many years. It is also sprayed with a clear UV finish for extra protection.

    Canvas offers a special and distinctive look. The canvas print does not need glass thereby enhancing the appearance of your print by eliminating glare.

    We guarantee you will not be disappointed with this item or your money back. In addition, we will replace the canvas print unconditionally if you damage your print. You would only be charged for shipping and handling plus $5.00.

    ****WE SHIP WITHIN 24 HOURS OF PAYMENT****

    Navy Heritage
    Merchant Marines
    Build Fight in the Seabees
    Cadets for Naval Aviation
    Wish I could Join Waves
    Sub Spotted Let Em Have It
    Submarine Service
    Become a Nurse
    Don't Let Me Down
    Sailor and his Girl
    Because Someone Talked
    Be a Marine Free a Marine
    Admiral Halsey
    Join Navy Free World
    American Fighting Forces
    Fight Lets Go! Join Navy
    Don't Read History Make It
    US Naval Aviation
    Coast Guard Men
    Navy Day October 27th
    Travel Navy USS Miller
    Old Salt of the Sixth Fleet
    Become a Naval Officer
    Remember December 7th
    Tough Job Still Ahead
    Viet Nam Who Served
    Spearhead of Victory
    Avenge December 7th
    Sub Clear for Action
    He's Getting Signal Are You?
    Girl He Left Behind. Shes a Wow
    We Can Do It!
    Let's Hit Em
    Philadelphia Navy Birthplace
    US Marines First to Fight
    America Fights for Liberty
    Peace Through Strength
    Corsairs Billboard Sign
    The Kill
    Spider and The Fly
    MacArthur Returns
    Old Salts 1880's
    Seabees Build and Fight
    I Want You Now
    Young Men Wanted (1908)
    Wish I Were a Man

    Copyright © 2003-2016 Great Naval Images LLC. Hak cipta terpelihara.

    Great Naval Images LLC

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    Tonton videonya: USS independence LCS-2laju mcm lipas terbang