Kumpulan Pahlawan dari Bornu

Kumpulan Pahlawan dari Bornu


Idris Alooma: Raja Pahlawan Empayar Bornu

Hari ini, saya akan bercakap mengenai Idris Alooma (juga Idris Alaoma, atau Idris Alauma), satu-satunya Raja Bornu yang namanya telah bertahan dalam ujian masa. Artikel ini sudah lama tertangguh, kerana ia memberi tumpuan kepada kerajaan Bornu dan Kanem-Bornu.

Pemerintahan Idris Alooma & # 8217 adalah milik dinasti Sayfawa atau Sefuwa yang hebat yang memerintah kerajaan Bornu dari abad ke-16 dan ke-17. Mengikut Diwan al-salatin Bornu , Idris Alaoma adalah Raja Dinasti Sefawa ke-54, dan memerintah kerajaan Kanem-Bornu yang terletak di Chad, Kamerun dan Nigeria. Dalam banyak karya, dia dikenali dengan nama ibunya, Idris Amsami , iaitu Idris, anak kepada Amsa. Nama Alooma adalah kelayakan anumerta, dinamai tempat, Alo atau Alao , di mana dia dikebumikan. Dia dinobatkan sebagai raja pada usia 25-26 tahun. Mengikut Diwan , dia memerintah dari tahun 1564 hingga 1596. Dia meninggal semasa pertempuran di Baguirmi di mana dia cedera parah dan kemudian dikebumikan Tasik Alo , selatan Maiduguri sebenarnya, dengan demikian namanya Alooma .

Kumpulan pejuang Kanem-Bu pada tahun 1800-an

Idris adalah negarawan yang luar biasa, dan di bawah pemerintahannya, Kanem-Bornu menyentuh puncak kekuasaannya. Dia dikenang kerana ketenteraan, pembaharuan pentadbiran dan ketakwaan Islam. Kegemilangannya terutama diketahui oleh penulis sejarahnya Ahmad bin Fartuwa. Semasa pemerintahannya, Idris menghindari ibu kota Ngazargamu, lebih suka mendirikan istananya sejauh 5 km, berhampiran Yo sungai ( Komadugu Yobe ), di tempat yang dinamakan Gambaru . Tembok kota berwarna merah, mengarah ke seni bina baru menggunakan batu bata merah yang menjadi ciri pemerintahannya. Hingga hari ini, beberapa mural masih ada di Gambaru dan tingginya lebih dari 3m. Ini adalah sisa-sisa kerajaan yang berkembang. Idris Alooma dikenali dengan gelaran Kanuri Mai untuk raja.

Mahkamah Kanem-Bornu pada tahun 1700-an

Musuh utamanya adalah Hausa di sebelah barat, Tuareg dan Toubou di utara, Bulala di timur, dan Sao yang ditanam kuat di wilayah Bornu (dan akan dihancurkan oleh kempen ketenteraan Alooma). Satu puisi epik memuji kemenangannya dalam 330 perang dan lebih dari 1,000 pertempuran. Inovasinya termasuk menggunakan khemah tentera tetap dengan tembok, pengepungan kekal dan taktik bumi hangus di mana tentera membakar segala yang ada di jalan mereka, kuda perisai dan penunggang serta penggunaan unta Berber, perahu bot Kotoko, dan musketeer berpelindung besi yang dilatih oleh Uthmaniyyah penasihat tentera. Diplomasi aktifnya menampilkan hubungan dengan Tripoli, Mesir, dan Empayar Uthmaniyyah, yang menghantar 200 orang duta besar di seberang padang pasir ke mahkamah Alooma & # 8217 di Ngazargamu. Alooma juga menandatangani perjanjian bertulis atau gencatan senjata pertama dalam sejarah Chadian.

Alooma memperkenalkan sejumlah pembaharuan undang-undang dan pentadbiran berdasarkan kepercayaan agamanya dan undang-undang Islam. Dia menaja pembinaan banyak masjid dan melakukan ziarah ke Mekah, di mana dia mengatur agar sebuah asrama dapat digunakan oleh para jemaah dari kerajaannya. Seperti ahli politik dinamik yang lain, tujuan reformis Alooma mendorongnya untuk mencari penasihat dan sekutu yang setia dan kompeten, dan dia sering bergantung pada kasim dan hamba yang telah dididik di rumah-rumah yang mulia. Alooma selalu mendapatkan nasihat daripada dewan yang terdiri daripada ketua klan yang paling penting. Dia memerlukan tokoh politik utama untuk tinggal di mahkamah, dan dia memperkuat pakatan politik melalui perkahwinan yang sesuai (Alooma sendiri adalah anak seorang ayah Kanuri dan seorang ibu Bulala).

Peta empayar Kanem dan Kanem-Bornu

Kanem-Bornu di bawah Alooma kuat dan kaya. Pendapatan pemerintah berasal dari penghormatan (atau harta rampasan jika orang yang bersikap acuh tak acuh harus ditaklukkan) dan tugas dan penyertaan dalam perdagangan. Kerajaannya menjadi pusat salah satu rute paling mudah di seberang gurun Sahara. Banyak produk dikirim ke utara, termasuk natron (natrium karbonat), kapas, kacang kola, gading, bulu burung unta, minyak wangi, lilin, dan kulit, tetapi perdagangan yang paling menguntungkan adalah hamba. Import termasuk garam, kuda, sutera, gelas, musket, dan tembaga.


Wilayah yang sekarang dikenali sebagai Chad memiliki beberapa laman web arkeologi terkaya di Afrika. [2] Tengkorak hominid dijumpai oleh Michel Brunet, yang berusia lebih dari 7 juta tahun, yang tertua yang ditemui di mana sahaja di dunia ia diberi nama Sahelanthropus tchadensis. Pada tahun 1996 Michel Brunet telah menggali rahang hominid yang dinamakannya sebagai Australopithecus bahrelghazali, dan secara tidak rasmi dijuluki Abel. Ia bertarikh dengan menggunakan temu janji Radiometrik berasaskan Beryllium sebagai hidup. 3.6 juta tahun yang lalu.

Selama milenium ke-7 SM, bahagian utara Chad adalah sebahagian dari daratan yang luas, membentang dari Sungai Indus di timur hingga ke Samudera Atlantik di barat, di mana keadaan ekologi memihak kepada penempatan awal manusia. Seni batu dari gaya "Round Head", yang terdapat di wilayah Ennedi, telah bertarikh sebelum milenium ke-7 SM dan, kerana alat-alat yang dengannya batu-batu itu diukir dan pemandangan yang mereka gambarkan, mungkin merupakan bukti tertua di Sahara industri Neolitik. Banyak aktiviti membuat tembikar dan Neolitik di Ennedi bermula lebih lama daripada aktiviti di Lembah Nil di sebelah timur. [2]

Pada zaman prasejarah, Chad jauh lebih basah daripada sekarang, seperti yang dibuktikan oleh binatang permainan besar yang digambarkan dalam lukisan batu di wilayah Tibesti dan Borkou. [2]

Penyelidikan linguistik baru-baru ini menunjukkan bahawa semua pengelompokan bahasa utama Afrika di selatan Gurun Sahara (kecuali Khoisan, yang tidak dianggap sebagai kumpulan genetik yang sah), iaitu Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan dan Niger – Congo phyla, berasal dari zaman prasejarah di kawasan sempit antara Tasik Chad dan Lembah Nil. Asal-usul bangsa Chad, bagaimanapun, masih belum jelas. Beberapa laman web arkeologi yang terbukti hanya dikaji sebahagiannya, dan laman web lain yang berpotensi besar masih belum dipetakan. [2]

Pada akhir milenium 1 Masehi, pembentukan negeri bermula di Chad tengah di zon sahelian antara padang pasir dan savana. Selama hampir 1,000 tahun akan datang, negara-negara ini, hubungan mereka antara satu sama lain, dan kesannya terhadap orang-orang yang hidup dalam masyarakat tanpa kewarganegaraan di sepanjang wilayah mereka menguasai sejarah politik Chad. Penyelidikan baru-baru ini menunjukkan bahawa orang asli Afrika yang mendirikan negeri-negeri ini, tidak memindahkan kumpulan berbahasa Arab, seperti yang dipercayai sebelumnya. Walaupun begitu, pendatang, berbahasa Arab atau sebaliknya, memainkan peranan penting, bersama dengan Islam, dalam pembentukan dan evolusi awal negara-negara ini. [3]

Sebilangan besar negeri dimulai sebagai kerajaan, di mana raja dianggap ilahi dan dikurniakan kekuatan temporal dan spiritual. Semua negara bersifat militeristik (atau mereka tidak bertahan lama), tetapi tidak ada yang dapat berkembang jauh ke selatan Chad, di mana hutan dan lalat tsetse menyulitkan penggunaan pasukan berkuda. Penguasaan atas jalur perdagangan trans-Sahara yang melewati wilayah tersebut membentuk dasar ekonomi kerajaan-kerajaan ini. Walaupun banyak negeri naik dan turun, kerajaan yang paling penting dan tahan lama adalah Kanem-Bornu, Baguirmi, dan Ouaddai, menurut kebanyakan sumber bertulis (terutama catatan sejarah dan tulisan para pedagang dan pengembara Arab). [3] Chad - ERA EMPIRES, 900-1900 Masehi

Kanem-Bornu Sunting

Empayar Kanem berasal pada abad ke-9 Masihi di timur laut Tasik Chad. Ahli sejarah bersetuju bahawa pemimpin negara baru adalah nenek moyang orang Kanembu. Menjelang akhir abad ke-11 raja Sayfawa (atau mai, gelaran penguasa Sayfawa) Hummay, masuk Islam. Pada abad berikutnya, para penguasa Sayfawa berkembang ke selatan ke Kanem, di mana ia akan meningkatkan ibu kota pertama mereka, Njimi. Perluasan Kanem memuncak selama pemerintahan Mai Dunama Dabbalemi yang panjang dan penuh semangat (sekitar 1221–1259). [4]

Menjelang akhir abad ke-14, perjuangan dalaman dan serangan luar telah merosakkan Kanem. Akhirnya, sekitar tahun 1396 penjajah Bulala memaksa Mai Umar Idrismi untuk meninggalkan Njimi dan memindahkan orang Kanembu ke Bornu di pinggir barat Tasik Chad. Dari masa ke masa, perkahwinan antara orang-orang Kanembu dan Bornu mencipta orang dan bahasa baru, Kanuri, dan mendirikan ibu kota baru, Ngazargamu. [4]

Kanem-Bornu memuncak semasa pemerintahan negarawan yang cemerlang Mai Idris Aluma (sekitar 1571-1603). Aluma dikenang kerana ketenteraan, pembaharuan pentadbiran, dan ketakwaan Islam. Pembaharuan pentadbiran dan kecemerlangan ketenteraan Aluma mengekalkan kerajaan hingga pertengahan abad ke-17, ketika kekuasaannya mulai pudar. Pada awal abad ke-19, Kanem-Bornu jelas merupakan sebuah kerajaan yang merosot, dan pada tahun 1808 pahlawan Fulani menaklukkan Ngazargamu. Bornu selamat, tetapi dinasti Sayfawa berakhir pada tahun 1846 dan Kerajaan itu sendiri jatuh pada tahun 1893. [4]

Baguirmi dan Ouaddai Sunting

Kerajaan Baguirmi, yang terletak di sebelah tenggara Kanem-Bournu, didirikan pada akhir abad ke-15 atau awal abad ke-16, dan mengadopsi Islam pada pemerintahan Abdullah IV (1568-98). Baguirmi menjalin hubungan anak sungai dengan Kanem-Bornu pada berbagai titik pada abad ke-17 dan ke-18, kemudian ke Ouaddai pada abad ke-19. Pada tahun 1893, sultan Baguirmi Abd ar Rahman Gwaranga menyerahkan wilayah itu ke Perancis, dan menjadi pelindung Perancis. [5]

Kerajaan Ouaddai, sebelah barat Kanem-Bornu, didirikan pada awal abad ke-16 oleh penguasa Tunjur. Pada tahun 1630-an, Abd al Karim menyerang dan mendirikan kesultanan Islam. Di antara penguasa yang paling berpengaruh selama tiga abad berikutnya adalah Muhammad Sabun, yang mengendalikan jalan perdagangan baru ke utara dan menetapkan mata wang pada awal abad ke-19, dan Muhammad Sharif, yang kempen ketenteraannya pada pertengahan abad ke-19 menangkis percubaan asimilasi dari Darfur, menakluki Baguirmi, dan berjaya menentang penjajahan Perancis. Namun, Ouaddai kehilangan kemerdekaannya kepada Perancis setelah perang 1909-1912. [5]

Orang Perancis pertama kali menyerang Chad pada tahun 1891, membangun kekuasaan mereka melalui ekspedisi ketenteraan terutama terhadap kerajaan-kerajaan Islam. Pertempuran kolonial yang menentukan untuk Chad dilancarkan pada 22 April 1900 di Pertempuran Kousséri antara pasukan Mejar Perancis Amédée-François Lamy dan pasukan panglima perang Sudan Rabih az-Zubayr. Kedua-dua pemimpin terbunuh dalam pertempuran itu.

Pada tahun 1905, tanggungjawab pentadbiran untuk Chad diletakkan di bawah gubernur jeneral yang ditempatkan di Brazzaville, ibu kota Afrika Khatulistiwa Perancis (FEA). Chad tidak memiliki status kolonial yang terpisah sehingga tahun 1920, ketika ia diletakkan di bawah seorang letnan-gabenor yang ditempatkan di Fort-Lamy (hari ini N'Djamena). [6]

Dua tema asas mendominasi pengalaman kolonial Chad dengan Perancis: ketiadaan dasar yang dirancang untuk menyatukan wilayah dan modenisasi yang sangat perlahan. Dalam skala keutamaan Perancis, koloni Chad berada di kedudukan paling bawah, dan orang Perancis menganggap Chad terutama sebagai sumber kapas mentah dan tenaga kerja yang tidak terlatih untuk digunakan di koloni yang lebih produktif di selatan. [6]

Sepanjang masa penjajahan, wilayah Chad yang besar tidak pernah ditadbir dengan berkesan: di Prefektur BET yang besar, segelintir pentadbir tentera Perancis biasanya membiarkan orang-orang bersendirian, dan di Chad tengah, pemerintahan Perancis hanya sedikit lebih kuat. Sebenarnya, Perancis berjaya memerintah dengan berkesan hanya di selatan. [6]

Semasa Perang Dunia II, Chad adalah koloni Perancis pertama yang bergabung kembali dengan Sekutu (26 Ogos 1940), setelah kekalahan Perancis oleh Jerman. Di bawah pentadbiran Félix Éboué, gabenor kolonial hitam pertama Perancis, sebuah kolum tentera, yang diperintahkan oleh Kolonel Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, dan termasuk dua batalion tentera Sara, bergerak ke utara dari N'Djamena (kemudian Fort Lamy) untuk melibatkan pasukan Paksi di Libya , di mana, dengan bekerjasama dengan Kumpulan Gurun Long Range Tentera Inggeris, mereka menangkap Kufra. Pada 21 Januari 1942, N'Djamena dibom oleh sebuah pesawat Jerman.

Setelah perang berakhir, pihak tempatan mula berkembang di Chad. Yang pertama dilahirkan adalah Parti Progresif Chadian radikal (PPT) pada bulan Februari 1947, yang awalnya diketuai oleh Gabriel Lisette yang lahir dari Panaman, tetapi dari tahun 1959 diketuai oleh François Tombalbaye. Kesatuan Demokratik Chadian (UDT) yang lebih konservatif ditubuhkan pada November 1947 dan mewakili kepentingan komersial Perancis dan sekumpulan pemimpin tradisional yang terdiri terutamanya dari golongan bangsawan Muslim dan Ouaddaïan. Konfrontasi antara PPT dan UDT lebih dari sekadar ideologi, ia mewakili identiti wilayah yang berbeza, dengan PPT mewakili selatan Kristian dan animis dan UDT utara Islam.

PPT memenangi pilihan raya pra-kemerdekaan Mei 1957 berkat francais yang sangat diperluas, dan Lisette memimpin pemerintahan Majlis Wilayah sehingga dia kehilangan suara keyakinan pada 11 Februari 1959. Setelah referendum mengenai autonomi wilayah pada 28 September 1958, Equatorial Perancis Afrika dibubarkan, dan empat negara penyusunnya - Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville), Republik Afrika Tengah, dan Chad menjadi anggota Komuniti Perancis secara autonomi dari 28 November 1958. Berikutan kejatuhan Lisette pada Februari 1959, pemimpin pembangkang Gontchome Sahoulba dan Ahmed Koulamallah tidak dapat membentuk pemerintahan yang stabil, oleh itu PPT sekali lagi diminta untuk membentuk pentadbiran - yang dilakukannya di bawah pimpinan François Tombalbaye pada 26 Mac 1959. Pada 12 Julai 1960 Perancis bersetuju Chad menjadi bebas sepenuhnya. [7] Pada 11 Ogos 1960, Chad menjadi negara merdeka dan François Tombalbaye menjadi presiden pertamanya.

Salah satu aspek yang paling menonjol dari peraturan Tombalbaye untuk membuktikan dirinya adalah otoriterisme dan ketidakpercayaannya terhadap demokrasi. Pada Januari 1962, dia melarang semua parti politik kecuali PPTnya sendiri, dan mulai segera menumpukan semua kuasa di tangannya sendiri. Perlakuannya terhadap lawan, nyata atau khayalan, sangat kasar, mengisi penjara dengan ribuan tahanan politik.

Yang lebih parah lagi adalah diskriminasinya yang berterusan terhadap wilayah tengah dan utara Chad, di mana para pentadbir Chadian selatan dianggap sombong dan tidak kompeten. Kebencian ini akhirnya meletus dalam pemberontakan cukai pada 1 November 1965, di Prefektur Guéra, menyebabkan 500 kematian. Setahun setelah kelahiran kelahiran Sudan Front Pembebasan Nasional Chad (FROLINAT), diciptakan untuk menggulingkan Tombalbaye dan penguasaan Selatan. Itu adalah permulaan perang saudara yang berdarah.

Tombalbaye terpaksa memanggil pasukan Perancis sementara cukup berhasil, mereka tidak sepenuhnya dapat mengatasi pemberontakan. Menjadi lebih beruntung adalah pilihannya untuk memutuskan hubungan dengan Perancis dan mencari hubungan persahabatan dengan Pemimpin Ikhwan Libya Gaddafi, mengambil sumber bekalan utama pemberontak.

Tetapi sementara dia telah melaporkan beberapa kejayaan melawan pemberontak, Tombalbaye mulai berkelakuan semakin tidak rasional dan brutal, terus mengikis persetujuannya di kalangan elit selatan, yang mendominasi semua posisi penting dalam tentera, pegawai negeri dan parti pemerintah. Akibatnya pada 13 April 1975, beberapa unit gendarmerie N'Djamena membunuh Tombalbaye semasa rampasan kuasa.

Rampasan kuasa yang menamatkan pemerintahan Tombalbaye mendapat sambutan yang bersemangat di N'Djamena. Jeneral selatan Félix Malloum muncul awal sebagai ketua yang baru junta.

Para pemimpin tentera yang baru tidak dapat mempertahankan populariti yang telah mereka perolehi melalui penggulingan Tombalbaye. Malloum membuktikan dirinya tidak dapat mengatasi FROLINAT dan pada akhirnya memutuskan satu-satunya peluangnya adalah untuk memerangi beberapa pemberontak: pada tahun 1978 dia bersekutu dengan pemimpin pemberontak Hissène Habré, yang memasuki pemerintahan sebagai perdana menteri.

Perbezaan pendapat dalam pemerintahan menyebabkan Perdana Menteri Habré mengirim pasukannya melawan tentera nasional Malloum di ibu kota pada bulan Februari 1979. Malloum digulingkan dari presiden, tetapi perang saudara yang terhasil di antara 11 puak yang muncul begitu meluas sehingga menjadikan pemerintah pusat sebahagian besarnya tidak berkaitan. Pada ketika itu, pemerintah Afrika lain memutuskan untuk campur tangan

Satu siri empat persidangan antarabangsa yang diadakan pertama di bawah tajaan Nigeria dan kemudian Organisasi Persatuan Afrika (OAU) berusaha untuk menyatukan puak-puak Chadian. Pada persidangan keempat, yang diadakan di Lagos, Nigeria, pada bulan Ogos 1979, Lagos Accord ditandatangani. Perjanjian ini membentuk pemerintahan peralihan sementara menunggu pilihan raya nasional. Pada bulan November 1979, Kerajaan Peralihan Perpaduan Nasional (GUNT) dibentuk dengan mandat untuk memerintah selama 18 bulan. Goukouni Oueddei, orang utara, diangkat sebagai presiden Kolonel Kamougué, orang selatan, Wakil Presiden dan Habré, Menteri Pertahanan. Gabungan ini terbukti rapuh pada Januari 1980, pertempuran kembali berlaku antara pasukan Goukouni dan Habré. Dengan bantuan dari Libya, Goukouni kembali menguasai ibu kota dan pusat bandar lain menjelang akhir tahun. Namun, pernyataan Goukouni pada Januari 1981 bahawa Chad dan Libya telah sepakat untuk bekerja untuk mewujudkan kesatuan yang lengkap antara kedua-dua negara yang menimbulkan tekanan antarabangsa yang kuat dan gesaan Goukouni untuk penarikan sepenuhnya kekuatan luar.

Pengunduran sebahagian Libya ke Jalur Aozou di utara Chad membuka jalan bagi pasukan Habré memasuki N'Djamena pada bulan Jun. Pasukan Perancis dan pasukan pengaman OAU yang terdiri daripada 3.500 tentera Nigeria, Senegal, dan Zairian (sebahagiannya dibiayai oleh Amerika Syarikat) tetap berkecuali semasa konflik.

Habré terus menghadapi tentangan bersenjata di berbagai bidang, dan kejam dalam penindasannya terhadap musuh yang disyaki, membantai dan menyiksa banyak orang selama pemerintahannya. Pada musim panas 1983, pasukan GUNT melancarkan serangan terhadap kedudukan pemerintah di Chad utara dan timur dengan sokongan besar Libya. Sebagai tindak balas kepada campur tangan langsung Libya, pasukan Perancis dan Zairia campur tangan untuk mempertahankan Habré, mendorong pasukan Libya dan pemberontak ke utara dari paralel ke-16. Pada bulan September 1984, pemerintah Perancis dan Libya mengumumkan perjanjian untuk penarikan bersama pasukan mereka dari Chad. Menjelang akhir tahun ini, semua tentera Perancis dan Zairian ditarik balik. Libya tidak menghormati perjanjian penarikan diri, dan pasukannya terus menguasai ketiga utara Chad.

Kumpulan komando pemberontak (Codos) di Chad selatan dipecah oleh pembunuhan beramai-ramai pemerintah pada tahun 1984. Pada tahun 1985 Habré berdamai sebentar dengan beberapa penentangnya, termasuk Front Demokratik Chad (FDT) dan Jawatankuasa Tindakan Penyelaras Majlis Revolusi Demokratik. Goukouni juga mulai bergerak menuju Habré, dan dengan sokongannya Habré berjaya mengusir pasukan Libya dari sebagian besar wilayah Chadian. Gencatan senjata antara Chad dan Libya diadakan dari 1987 hingga 1988, dan rundingan selama beberapa tahun berikutnya membawa kepada keputusan Mahkamah Keadilan Antarabangsa 1994 yang memberikan Chad kedaulatan ke atas jalur Aouzou, yang secara efektif mengakhiri pendudukan Libya.

Naik kuasa Edit

Namun, persaingan antara kumpulan Hadjerai, Zaghawa dan Gorane dalam pemerintahan berkembang pada akhir 1980-an. Pada bulan April 1989, Idriss Déby, salah seorang jeneral terkemuka Habré dan Zaghawa, membelot dan melarikan diri ke Darfur di Sudan, dari mana dia melakukan serangkaian serangan yang disokong Zaghawa ke Habré (seorang Gorane). Pada bulan Disember 1990, dengan bantuan Libya dan tidak ada tentangan dari tentera Perancis yang ditempatkan di Chad, pasukan Déby berjaya berarak ke N'Djamena. Setelah 3 bulan pemerintahan sementara, Déby's Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS) meluluskan piagam nasional pada 28 Februari 1991, dengan Déby sebagai presiden.

Selama dua tahun berikutnya, Déby menghadapi sekurang-kurangnya dua percubaan rampasan kuasa. Pasukan pemerintah bertempur dengan kuat dengan pasukan pemberontak, termasuk Gerakan Demokrasi dan Pembangunan, MDD, Jawatankuasa Kebangkitan Nasional untuk Perdamaian dan Demokrasi (CSNPD), Chadian National Front (FNT) dan Angkatan Bersenjata Barat (FAO), berhampiran Tasik Chad dan di selatan wilayah negara. Tuntutan Perancis sebelumnya untuk negara itu mengadakan Persidangan Nasional mengakibatkan pengumpulan 750 perwakilan yang mewakili parti politik (yang disahkan pada tahun 1992), pemerintah, kesatuan sekerja dan tentera untuk membincangkan penciptaan rejim demokratik pluralis.

Namun, kerusuhan berlanjutan, sebahagiannya disebabkan oleh pembunuhan orang awam secara besar-besaran di selatan Chad. CSNPD, yang dipimpin oleh Kette Moise dan kumpulan selatan lainnya mengadakan perjanjian damai dengan pasukan pemerintah pada tahun 1994, yang kemudiannya hancur. Dua kumpulan baru, Angkatan Bersenjata untuk Republik Persekutuan (FARF) yang diketuai oleh bekas sekutu Kette, Laokein Barde dan Front Demokratik untuk Pembaharuan (FDR), dan MDD yang disusun semula bertembung dengan pasukan pemerintah dari 1994 hingga 1995.

Pilihan raya pelbagai parti Edit

Perbincangan dengan lawan politik pada awal tahun 1996 tidak berjalan lancar, tetapi Déby mengumumkan niatnya untuk mengadakan pemilihan presiden pada bulan Jun. Déby memenangi pilihan raya presiden multi-parti pertama di negara ini dengan sokongan pada pusingan kedua dari ketua pembangkang Kebzabo, mengalahkan Jeneral Kamougue (pemimpin kudeta 1975 menentang Tombalbaye). Parti MPS Déby memenangi 63 daripada 125 kerusi pada pilihan raya perundangan Januari 1997. Pemerhati antarabangsa menyatakan banyak penyelewengan serius dalam proses pemilihan presiden dan perundangan.

Pada pertengahan tahun 1997, kerajaan menandatangani perjanjian damai dengan FARF dan kepemimpinan MDD dan berjaya memotong kumpulan tersebut dari pangkalan belakang mereka di Republik Afrika Tengah dan Kamerun. Perjanjian juga disepakati dengan pemberontak dari Front Nasional Chad (FNT) dan Gerakan untuk Keadilan Sosial dan Demokrasi pada Oktober 1997. Namun, perdamaian tidak lama, ketika pemberontak FARF bertempur dengan tentera pemerintah, akhirnya menyerah kepada pasukan pemerintah pada Mei 1998 Barde terbunuh dalam pertempuran itu, seperti ratusan orang selatan lain, kebanyakan orang awam.

Sejak Oktober 1998, pemberontak Gerakan Keadilan dan Demokrasi (MDJT) Chadian, yang dipimpin oleh Youssuf Togoimi hingga kematiannya pada bulan September 2002, telah bertempur dengan tentera pemerintah di wilayah Tibesti, yang mengakibatkan ratusan korban sipil, pemerintah, dan pemberontak, tetapi sedikit tanah menang atau kalah. Tidak ada oposisi bersenjata aktif yang muncul di daerah lain di Chad, walaupun Kette Moise, setelah posting senior di Kementerian Dalam Negeri, melakukan operasi lokal berskala kecil dekat Moundou yang ditekan dengan cepat dan ganas oleh pasukan pemerintah pada akhir tahun 2000.

Déby, pada pertengahan 1990-an, secara beransur-ansur memulihkan fungsi dasar pemerintahan dan mengadakan perjanjian dengan Bank Dunia dan IMF untuk melakukan reformasi ekonomi yang besar. Eksploitasi minyak di wilayah Doba selatan bermula pada bulan Jun 2000, dengan persetujuan Lembaga Bank Dunia untuk membiayai sebahagian kecil dari projek, Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development Project, yang bertujuan untuk mengangkut minyak mentah Chadian melalui saluran paip berkubur sepanjang 1000 km melalui Kamerun ke Teluk Guinea. Projek ini mewujudkan mekanisme unik untuk kerjasama Bank Dunia, sektor swasta, pemerintah, dan masyarakat sipil untuk menjamin bahawa pendapatan minyak di masa depan memberi manfaat kepada penduduk tempatan dan mengakibatkan pengurangan kemiskinan. Kejayaan projek ini bergantung pada pelbagai usaha pemantauan [8] untuk memastikan semua pihak mematuhi komitmen mereka. Mekanisme "unik" ini untuk pemantauan dan pengurusan hasil telah menghadapi kritikan hebat sejak awal. [9] Pelepasan hutang diberikan kepada Chad pada Mei 2001.

Déby memperoleh kemenangan 63% pada pusingan pertama yang salah pada pilihan raya presiden Mei 2001 setelah pemilihan perundangan ditangguhkan hingga musim bunga 2002. Setelah menuduh pemerintah melakukan penipuan, enam pemimpin pembangkang ditangkap (dua kali) dan seorang aktivis parti pembangkang terbunuh berikutan pengumuman keputusan pilihan raya. Namun, di sebalik dakwaan rasuah pemerintah, pilih kasih terhadap Zaghawas, dan penganiayaan oleh pasukan keselamatan, parti pembangkang dan serikat buruh menyeru mogok umum dan demonstrasi yang lebih aktif terhadap pemerintah tidak berjaya. Walaupun bergerak menuju reformasi demokratik, kuasa tetap berada di tangan oligarki etnik utara.

Pada tahun 2003, Chad mula menerima pelarian dari wilayah Darfur di Sudan barat. Lebih daripada 200,000 pelarian melarikan diri dari pertempuran antara dua kumpulan pemberontak dan milisi yang disokong pemerintah yang dikenali sebagai Janjaweed. Sejumlah insiden perbatasan menyebabkan Perang Chadian-Sudan.

Pengeluaran minyak dan peningkatan ketenteraan

Chad menjadi pengeluar minyak pada tahun 2003. Untuk mengelakkan kutukan sumber dan rasuah, rancangan terperinci yang ditaja oleh Bank Dunia telah dibuat. Rancangan ini memastikan ketelusan pembayaran, dan juga bahawa 80% wang dari eksport minyak akan dibelanjakan untuk lima sektor pembangunan keutamaan, dua yang paling penting adalah: pendidikan dan penjagaan kesihatan. Namun wang mula dialihkan ke arah tentera bahkan sebelum perang saudara meletus. Pada tahun 2006 ketika perang saudara meningkat, Chad meninggalkan rancangan ekonomi sebelumnya yang ditaja oleh Bank Dunia dan menambahkan "keselamatan negara" sebagai sektor pembangunan keutamaan, wang dari sektor ini digunakan untuk meningkatkan ketenteraan. Selama perang saudara, lebih dari 600 juta dolar digunakan untuk membeli jet pejuang, helikopter serangan, dan kapal induk berperisai.

Chad memperoleh antara 10 dan 11 bilion dolar dari pengeluaran minyak, dan dianggarkan 4 bilion dolar dilaburkan dalam tentera. [10]

Perang di Timur Edit

Perang bermula pada 23 Disember 2005, ketika pemerintah Chad mengisytiharkan keadaan perang dengan Sudan dan meminta warga Chad untuk menggerakkan diri mereka melawan "musuh bersama," [11] yang dilihat oleh pemerintah Chad sebagai Rali untuk Militan Demokrasi dan Liberty (RDL), pemberontak Chadian, yang disokong oleh pemerintah Sudan, dan militan Sudan. Militan telah menyerang kampung dan bandar di Chad timur, mencuri lembu, membunuh warga, dan membakar rumah. Lebih 200,000 pelarian dari wilayah Darfur di Sudan barat laut kini menuntut suaka di timur Chad. Presiden Chadian Idriss Déby menuduh Presiden Sudan Omar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir berusaha "mengguncang negara kita, menggerakkan rakyat kita ke dalam kesengsaraan, untuk menimbulkan kekacauan dan mengeksport perang dari Darfur ke Chad."

Serangan di bandar Chad Adre dekat sempadan Sudan menyebabkan kematian seratus pemberontak, seperti yang dilaporkan oleh setiap sumber berita selain CNN, atau tiga ratus pemberontak. Pemerintah Sudan dipersalahkan atas serangan itu, yang merupakan yang kedua di rantau ini dalam tiga hari, [12] tetapi jurucakap kementerian luar Sudan, Jamal Mohammed Ibrahim membantah adanya penglibatan Sudan, "Kami tidak melakukan eskalasi dengan Chad. Kami secara teknikal menolak pembabitan dalam urusan dalaman Chadian. " Serangan ini adalah serangan terakhir yang menyebabkan pengisytiharan perang oleh Chad dan kononnya penyebaran angkatan udara Chadian ke ruang udara Sudan, yang ditolak oleh pemerintah Chadian. [13]

Serangan ke atas N'Djamena dikalahkan pada 13 April 2006 dalam Pertempuran N'Djamena. Presiden di radio nasional menyatakan bahawa keadaan terkawal, tetapi penduduk, diplomat dan wartawan dilaporkan mendengar tembakan senjata api.

Pada 25 November 2006, pemberontak menawan kota timur Abeche, ibu kota Wilayah Ouaddaï dan pusat bantuan kemanusiaan ke wilayah Darfur di Sudan. Pada hari yang sama, kumpulan pemberontak yang terpisah Rally of Democratic Forces telah menawan Biltine. Pada 26 November 2006, pemerintah Chadian mengaku telah merebut kembali kedua-dua kota tersebut, walaupun pemberontak masih menuntut penguasaan Biltine. Bangunan kerajaan dan pejabat bantuan kemanusiaan di Abeche dikatakan telah dijarah. Pemerintah Chadian membantah amaran yang dikeluarkan oleh Kedutaan Perancis di N'Djamena bahawa sekumpulan pemberontak sedang melalui Prefektur Batha di pusat Chad. Chad menegaskan bahawa kedua-dua kumpulan pemberontak itu disokong oleh pemerintah Sudan. [14]

Skandal rumah anak yatim antarabangsa Edit

Hampir 100 kanak-kanak di pusat skandal antarabangsa yang menyebabkan mereka terdampar di rumah anak yatim di Chad timur terpencil pulang ke rumah setelah hampir lima bulan 14 Mac 2008. 97 kanak-kanak itu dibawa dari rumah mereka pada bulan Oktober 2007 oleh badan amal Perancis ketika itu yang tidak jelas. , Zoé's Ark, yang mendakwa mereka adalah anak yatim dari wilayah Darfur yang dilanda perang Sudan. [15]

Serangan pemberontak di Ndjamena Edit

Pada hari Jumaat, 1 Februari 2008, pemberontak, pakatan pembangkang pemimpin Mahamat Nouri, mantan menteri pertahanan, dan Timane Erdimi, keponakan Idriss Déby yang merupakan ketua kakitangannya, menyerang ibu kota Chad Ndjamena - bahkan mengelilingi Presiden Istana. Tetapi Idris Deby bersama pasukan pemerintah membalas. Pasukan Perancis melancarkan peluru untuk tentera pemerintah Chadian tetapi tidak mengambil bahagian aktif dalam pertempuran itu. PBB mengatakan bahawa sehingga 20,000 orang meninggalkan wilayah itu, berlindung di Cameroon dan Nigeria yang berdekatan. Ratusan orang terbunuh, kebanyakannya orang awam. Pemberontak menuduh Deby melakukan rasuah dan menggelapkan berjuta-juta pendapatan minyak. Walaupun banyak orang Chadia boleh berkongsi penilaian itu, pemberontakan nampaknya merupakan perebutan kekuasaan dalam kalangan elit yang telah lama menguasai Chad. Kerajaan Perancis percaya bahawa pembangkang telah berkumpul semula di timur ibu kota. Déby telah menyalahkan Sudan atas kerusuhan semasa di Chad. [16]

Intervensi wilayah Edit

Semasa era Déby, Chad campur tangan dalam konflik di Mali, Republik Afrika Tengah, Niger dan Nigeria. [ rujukan diperlukan ]

Pada tahun 2013, Chad menghantar 2000 orang tentera untuk membantu Perancis dalam Operasi Serval semasa Perang Mali. Kemudian pada tahun yang sama Chad mengirim 850 tentera ke Republik Afrika Tengah untuk membantu operasi pengaman MISCA, pasukan itu menarik diri pada April 2014 setelah tuduhan pelanggaran hak asasi manusia. [10]

Semasa pemberontakan Boko Haram, Chad berkali-kali menghantar tentera untuk membantu memerangi Boko Haram di Niger dan Nigeria.

Pada bulan Ogos 2018, pejuang pemberontak Majlis Komando Tentera untuk Keselamatan Republik (CCMSR) menyerang pasukan pemerintah di utara Chad. Chad mengalami ancaman dari para jihadis yang melarikan diri dari konflik Libya. Chad pernah menjadi sekutu Barat dalam memerangi militan Islam di Afrika Barat. [17]

Pada Januari 2019, setelah 47 tahun, Chad memulihkan hubungan diplomatik dengan Israel. Perkara itu diumumkan semasa lawatan ke N'Djamena oleh Perdana Menteri Israel Benjamin Netanyahu [18]

Pada April 2021, tentera Chad mengumumkan bahawa Presiden Idriss Déby telah meninggal dunia akibat cedera akibat pertempuran dengan pemberontak di utara negara itu. Idriss Deby memerintah negara ini selama lebih dari 30 tahun sejak tahun 1990. Juga diumumkan bahawa sebuah majlis ketenteraan yang diketuai oleh anak lelaki Déby, Mahamat Idriss Déby seorang jeneral empat bintang berusia 37 tahun, akan memerintah selama 18 bulan akan datang. [19] [20]


Politik

Alauma II, Mai (raja) Bornu sekarang

Politik Bornu berlaku dalam kerangka monarki demokratik yang bersatu, berparlimen. Raja semasa, Alauma II, adalah ketua negara.

Parlimen unicameral, yang disebut Majelis Bornu, bertanggung jawab untuk meluluskan undang-undang, mengadopsi belanjawan negara, dan menjalankan kawalan pemerintah eksekutif melalui wakilnya yang dipilih, Perdana Menteri - saat ini Simplice Sarandji.


7. Miyamoto Musashi

Miyamoto Mushashi adalah, tanpa keraguan, pendekar pedang terbaik yang pernah hidup. Apa yang Melankomas lakukan dengan penumbuk, Musashi lakukan dengan pedang. Throughout his life he was never once defeated in combat. It got to the point where Miyamoto was so good at giving people katana enemas that he just up and stopped using swords altogether, though he didn’t stop sword fighting.

For the rest of his life Musashi, accepted (and roundly defeated) all challenges using a simple wooden sword. Basically, he was like Ryu from Ninja Gaiden when controlled by someone really awesome. Musashi split open more heads than a thousand B-movie gorefests, and he did it all while being a travelling warrior poet. That’s just straight-up pimping.


When the Zaghawa (people of Kanem) arrived in the area around Lake Chad, they found independent walled-cities states from the Sao civilization, a civilization which had flourished around the 6th century, with its center around the Chari river, south of Lake Chad. The Zaghawa adopted some of the Sao customs, but fight among the two lasted from the 7th century until the 16th. The conquest of Kanem by the Zaghawa was done under the Duguwa dynasty which was started by King Sef (also known as Saif… some people eager to change African history state that the Zaghawa were from Yemen… but we all know that they were local people) about 700 CE . The dynasty, Sayfawa or Sefuwa, is named for King Dugu , one of Sef’s sons, who was ruling about 785 CE . Abandoning their nomadic lifestyle, the Zaghawa established a capital at N’Jimi (meaning “south” — the location of this town is still unknown, but it is believed to be around Lake Fitri). Under the rule of Dugu, Kanem expanded to become an empire. The Zaghawa kings, called maï , were regarded as divine and belonged to a ruling establishment known as the Magumi . They were recognized for a great amount of horses. Kanem’s expansion peaked during the reign of Maï Dunama Dabbalemi ( ca. 1221-59 ) and extended northward into the Fezzan region (Libya), westward into Kano (Nigeria), eastward to Ouaddaï (or Wadai), and southward into the Adamawa grasslands (Cameroon). They converted to islam around the 11th century CE.

Group of Kanem-Bu warriors in the 1800s

By the end of the 14th century, internal struggles and external attacks had torn Kanem apart. Between 1376 and 1400 , six Maïs reigned, but were killed by foreign invaders. Finally, around 1396 the Bulala invaders forced the once strong Sayfawa dynasty to abandon Njimi and move to Bornu on the western edge of Lake Chad. Around 1472 , Maï Ali Dunamami fortified the Bornu state, and established the capital at Ngazargamu, which had more fertile lands. Over time the inter-marriage between the Kanembu and the Borno people created a new people, the Kanembu, and a language called Kanuri .

The Kanem-Bornu empire peaked during the reign of Maï Idris Alooma (ca. 1571 – 1603 ) who is remembered for his great military and diplomatic skills. His main adversaries were the Hausa to the west, the Tuareg and Toubou to the north, and the Bulala to the east. One epic poem tells of his victories in 330 wars , and over 1,000 battles . He was a true military genius, and some of his innovations included the use of fixed military camps (with walls), permanent sieges, and “scorched earth” tactics, armored horses and riders, the use of Berber camels, of skilled Kotoko boatmen, and of iron-helmeted musketeers trained by Turkish military advisers. He had very strong diplomatic ties with Tripoli, Egypt, and the Ottoman empire, which at some point sent a 200-member ambassadorial party across the desert to Alooma’s court in Ngazargamu. The state revenues came from tribute from vassal states, trans-saharan trade route, and slave trade. Many products such as cotton, natron (sodium carbonate), kola nuts, ivory, ostrich feathers, perfume, was, and hides were exported north via the Sahara desert.

Map of the Kanem and Kanem-Bornu empires

By the end of the 17th century, the empire started declining, and by the 18th century, it only extended westward into the land of the Hausa. By the early 19th century, the declining empire could not sustain the advance from the fulani warriors of Usman Dan Fodio who proclaimed the jihad war against the non-muslims.


Idris Alooma: Warrior King of the Bornu Empire

Today, I will be talking about Idris Alooma (also Idris Alaoma , or Idris Alauma ), the only Bornu King whose name has survived the test of time. This article is long overdue, as it focuses on the Bornu and Kanem-Bornu empires.

Idris Alooma’s reign belonged to the great Sayfawa or Sefuwa dynasty which ruled the Bornu empire from the 16th and 17th centuries. Mengikut Diwan al-salatin Bornu , Idris Alaoma was the 54th King of the Sefawa dynasty , and ruled the Kanem-Bornu empire located in modern-day Chad, Cameroon and Nigeria. In many works, he is known by his mother’s name, Idris Amsami , i.e. Idris, son of Amsa . Nama Alooma is a posthumous qualificative, named after a place, Alo atau Alao , where he was buried. He was crowned king at the age of 25-26 . Mengikut Diwan , he ruled from 1564 to 1596 . He died during a battle in the Baguirmi where he was mortally wounded he was later buried in Lake Alo , south of the actual Maiduguri, thus the name Alooma .

Group of Kanem-Bu warriors in the 1800s

Idris was an outstanding statesman, and under his rule, the Kanem-Bornu touched the zenith of its power. He is remembered for his military skills, administrative reforms and Islamic piety. His feats are mainly known through his chronicler Ahmad bin Fartuwa . During his reign, Idris avoided the capital Ngazargamu, preferring to set his palace 5 km away, near the Yo river ( Komadugu Yobe ), in a place named Gambaru . The walls of the city were red , leading to a new architecture using red bricks characteristic of his reign. To this day, some murals still exist in Gambaru and are over 3m tall . These are vestiges of a flourishing empire. Idris Alooma was known by the Kanuri title of Mai for king.

Kanem-Bornu court in the 1700s

His main adversaries were the Hausa to the west, the Tuareg and Toubou to the north, the Bulala to the east, and the Sao who were strongly implanted in the Bornu region (and will be decimated by Alooma’s military campaigns). One epic poem extols his victories in 330 wars and more than 1,000 battles . His innovations included the employment of fixed military camps with walls, permanent sieges and scorched earth tactics where soldiers burned everything in their path, armored horses and riders as well as the use of Berber camels, Kotoko boatmen, and iron-helmeted musketeers trained by Ottoman military advisers. His active diplomacy featured relations with Tripoli, Egypt, and the Ottoman Empire, which sent a 200-member ambassadorial party across the desert to Alooma’s court at Ngazargamu. Alooma also signed what was probably the first written treaty or ceasefire in Chadian history.

Alooma introduced a number of legal and administrative reforms based on his religious beliefs and Islamic law. He sponsored the construction of numerous mosques and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he arranged for the establishment of a hostel to be used by pilgrims from his empire. As with other dynamic politicians, Alooma’s reformist goals led him to seek loyal and competent advisers and allies, and he frequently relied on eunuchs and slaves who had been educated in noble homes. Alooma regularly sought advice from a council composed of heads of the most important clans. He required major political figures to live at the court, and he reinforced political alliances through appropriate marriages (Alooma himself was the son of a Kanuri father and a Bulala mother).

Map of the Kanem and Kanem-Bornu empires

Kanem-Bornu under Alooma was strong and wealthy. Government revenue came from tribute (or booty if the recalcitrant people had to be conquered) and duties on and participation in trade. His kingdom was central to one of the most convenient routes across the Sahara desert. Many products were sent north, including natron (sodium carbonate), cotton, kola nuts, ivory, ostrich feathers, perfume, wax, and hides, but the most profitable trade was in slaves. Imports included salt, horses, silk, glass, muskets, and copper.


10 of the Greatest Ancient Warrior Cultures You Should Know About

Ilustrasi oleh Angus McBride.

Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal September 8, 2016

The episodes of war and human conflicts are persistent when it comes to the rich tapestry of history. And in such a vast ambit of wanton destruction and death, there have been a few civilizations, tribes and factions that had accepted warfare as an intrinsic part of their culture. So without further ado, let us take a gander at ten of the incredible ancient warrior cultures that pushed forth the ‘art of war’ (or rather the art of dealing with war) as an extension of their social system.

Note 1 – In this list, we are NOT implying the ten greatest ancient warrior cultures, but rather implying ten OF THE greatest ancient warrior cultures (before Common Era). Preference for choosing the said cultures is partly based on their variant geographical power-centers.

Note 2 – The list doesn’t reflect the cultures’ successes in battles or wars, but it pertains to how they perceived the scope of war or conflict (from a social perspective).

1) The Akkadian Warrior (circa 24th century – 22nd century BC) –

Akkadian archer wielding a composite bow, while being protected by an infantryman.

Circa 2334 BC, the Akkadians carved up the first known all-Mesopotamian empire, thereby momentously uniting the speakers of both Sumerian and Akkadian. In fact, by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, the Akkadians managed to create a culturally syncretic scope (that encompassed a melting pot of different ethnicity and city-states), which ultimately paved the way for the emergence of Akkadian as the lingua franca of Mesopotamia for many centuries to come. However, beyond just cultural affiliations with the advanced Sumerians, the Akkadians also adopted (and loaned) many of the military systems and doctrines of their Mesopotamian brethren.

One example of such ‘transmission’ of military ideas relates to how the Akkadians probably fought in a phalanx-like formation long before the Greeks (as did the soldiers of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash). This tactic in itself alludes to how the soldiers of Akkad must have been disciplined and trained, thus hinting at their professional status, as opposed to most ancient armies. Beberapa steles also showcase how the Akkadians (and their preceding Sumerians) made use of the armored cloak – a panoply that probably consisted of a leather skin (or cloth) reinforced with metal discs and helmets for further protection in brutal melee combats.

But the practical superiority of the Akkadian (and Sumerian) warrior culture must have related to the use of wheels – an invention that not only allowed for more complex logistical support but also heralded the development of chariots, the ponderous heavy shock weapons of the Bronze Age. Moreover, Sargon of Akkad, possibly the first known military dictator of an empire, implemented the use of composite bows in his otherwise lightly-armed citizen army. Historically, the effective range and punch of such powerful bows (in the hands of skilled archers) surely must have given the Akkadians the military advantage over their Sumerian neighbors – many of whom still relied on javelins.

2) The Hittite Warrior (1600 BC – 1178 BC) –

The Hittite chariots (on right) clashing with the Egyptians at the Battle of Kadesh (circa 1274 BC). Illustration by Adam Cook.

Almost 3,700 years ago, a power rose in central Anatolia thus effectively making its presence felt in the ancient Near-Eastern world. Historians term the realm as the Kingdom of Hatti, and its inhabitants are known as the Hittites. By late 14th century BC, the Hittites probably controlled the most powerful empire of the Bronze Age, with their dominions stretching all the way across Anatolia to touch the Aegean Sea, while being complemented on the east with their expansions into Syria (and finally even Mesopotamia) with the defeat of their longtime rivals, the Mitanni.

Interestingly enough, the martial culture of the Hittites was often represented by their kings who were also the commanders-in-chief of their armies. In essence, kingship was intrinsically tied to the display of martial prowess and commanding capability on the battlefields and as such the kings were expected to prove themselves in battles.

Because of such an ingrained cultural aspect, the future candidates (for kingship and other elite political roles) were often trained in warfare skills from their childhood. To that end, much like warlords, many of the Hittite kings led their troops in the thick of the battle and possibly even engaged in melee combat with the enemy. However, in most practical scenarios, the ruler probably donned his role as a commander and directed his troops from protected vantage points.

As for the composition of their armies, most of the Hittite infantrymen were lightly armed with spears and rudimentary shields. But much like other contemporary powers (of both Near East and the Mediterranean) the elite section of the Hittite army was composed of chariots. In that regard, by the time of the momentous Battle of Kadesh (circa 1274 BC), the Hittites probably ‘modified’ their chariot-based tactics by placing three men on the vehicle (as opposed to two men).

And while this made the chariot more ponderous, it was compensated by the extra protection offered by a shield-bearer who guarded the other two armed with throwing spears and bow-and-arrows. This technique, though risky, might have been instrumental in shattering the first division of their Egyptian foes, thus providing the Hittites with the initiative in the encounter.

3) The Spartan Warrior (circa 9th century BC – 192 BC) –

According to Xenophon, the crimson robes and bronze shields carried by the Spartans were mandated by their legendary lawgiver Lycurgus.

An ancient warrior culture that has often been exaggerated in our popular media, the Spartans nevertheless espoused their brand of rigorous military institutions. In fact, the Spartans (or Lakedaimonians) maintained the only full-time army in all of ancient Greece, while their social structures were geared towards producing hardy soldiers from ordinary citizens. One prime example of such a military-oriented scope obviously pertains to the terkilan – the Spartan regimen for boys that combined both education and military training into one exacting package.

The terkilan was mandated for all male Spartans from the age of 6 or 7 when the child grew up to be a boy (paidon). This meant leaving his own house and parents behind and relocating to the barrack to live with other boys. Interestingly, one of the very first things that the boy learned in his new quarters was the pyrriche, a sort of dance that also involved the carrying of arms. This was practiced so as to make the Spartan boy nimble-footed even when maneuvering heavy weapons. Along with such physical moves, the boy was also taught exercises in music, the war songs of Tyrtaios, and the ability to read and write.

By the time, the boy grew up to be 12, he was known as the meirakion or youth. Suffice it to say, the rigorous scope was notched up a level with the physical exercises increased in a day. The youth also had to cut his hair short and walk barefooted, while most of his clothes were taken away from him. The Spartans believed that such uncompromising measures made the pre-teen boy tough while enhancing his endurance levels for all climates (in fact, the only bed he was allowed to sleep in the winter was made of reeds that had been plucked personally by the candidate from the River Eurotas valley).

Added to this stringent scope, the youth was intentionally fed with less than adequate food so as to stoke his hunger pangs. This encouraged the youth to sometimes steal food and on being caught, he was punished – not for stealing the food, but for getting caught. And finally, on turning eighteen, he was considered as an adult and a soldier of the Spartan society but was still prohibited from entering a marketplace to talk with his fellow adults till the age of 30. In consideration of all these strict rules, Plutarch once observed that the only rest that a Spartan got from training for war was during the actual war.

4) The Assyrian Warrior (Neo-Assyrian Empire 900 BC – 612 BC) –

The Assyrians were known for using imposing siege weapons and towers. Ilustrasi oleh Angus McBride.

In a conventional sense, when we talk about Assyria, our notions pertain mostly to what is known as the Neo-Assyrian Empire (or the Late Empire) that ruled the largest empire of the world up till that time, roughly existing from a period of 900-612 BC. To that end, many historians perceive Assyria to be among the first ‘superpowers’ of the Ancient World. But as the dictum suggests – ‘when the going gets tough, the tough get going’.

In that regard, Assyria’s rise to power was ironically fueled by the land’s initial vulnerability, since it was beset on all sides by enemies including nomadic tribes, hill folks, and even proximate competing powers. And to protect their rich and plump grain-lands, the Assyrians systematically devised an effective and well organized military system (from circa 15th century BC) that could cope with the constant state of aggression, conflicts, and raids (much like the Romans).

Over time, the reactionary measures translated into an incredibly powerful military system that was inherently tied to the economic well-being of the state. And the once-defenders now turned into aggressors. So in a sense, while the Assyrians formulated their ‘attack is the best defense’ strategies, the proximate states became more war-like, thus adding to the list of enemies for the Assyrians to conquer. Consequently, when the Assyrians went on a war footing, their military was able to absorb more ideas from foreign powers, which led to an ambit of evolution and flexibility (again much like the later Romans). These tendencies of flexibility, discipline and incredible fighting skills (that ranged from chariots, archers to siege tactics) became the hallmark of the Assyrian warrior culture that triumphed over most of the powerful Mesopotamian kingdoms in Asia by 8th century BC.

This is what historian Simon Anglim had to say about the ancient warrior culture of the Assyrians –

…regime supported by a magnificent and successful war machine. As with the German army of World War II, the Assyrian army was the most technologically and doctrinally advanced of its day and was a model for others for generations afterwards. The Assyrians were the first to make extensive use of iron weaponry [and] not only were iron weapons superior to bronze, but could be mass-produced, allowing the equipping of very large armies indeed.

5) The Scythian Warrior (circa 7th century – 3rd century BC) –

The Scythians modified some elements of the conventional corselet by arranging the metal (or leather) bits in a ‘fish scale’ like pattern. Ilustrasi oleh Angus McBride.

When it comes to the popular history of nomadic groups, tribes (and super-tribes) like Huns and Mongols have had their fair share of coverage in various mediums, ranging from literary sources to even movies. However, hundreds of years before the emergence of mixed-Huns, Turkic and Mongolic groups, the Eurasian steppes were dominated by an ancient Iranic people of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists.

These ‘horse lords’ dwelt on a wide swathe of the landmass known as Scythia since antiquity. Epitomizing the very dynamic scope of the nomadic lifestyle – covering an impressive spectrum from workmanship to warfare, they were thus known as the Scythians, the master horsemen, and archers of Iron Age.

And while the ‘Scythian Age’ only corresponded to the period between 7th century to 3rd century BC, the remarkable impression left behind by these warrior people was evident from the historic designation of (most of) Eurasian steppes as Scythia (or greater Scythia) even thousands years after the rise and decline of the nomadic group. Now a part of this legacy had to do with the incredible military campaigns conducted by the Scythians from the very beginning of their ‘brush’ with the global stage.

In fact, even during their earlier ascendancy, the Scythian warrior society was audacious enough to go into war with the sole superpower of the Mesopotamian region – Assyria. Now while Assyrian sources mostly keep mum about some of the presumed Scythian victories over them, it is known that one particular Assyrian monarch Esarhaddon was so desperate to secure peace with these Eurasian nomads that he even offered his daughter in marriage to the Scythian king Partatua. As for the effect of Scythian invasions on the realms of the Middle East, a biblical prophet summed up the baleful nature of the ferocious ‘horse lords’ from the north –

They are always courageous, and their quivers are like open grave. They will eat your harvest and bread, they will eat your sons and daughters, they will eat your sheep and oxen, they will eat your grapes and figs.

Oddly enough, while the socio-political effects of the Scythian incursions in the Middle East can be comprehended to some degree from contemporary (or near-contemporary) sources, historians are still mystified by the logistical and organizational capacity of the military of these nomads from the distant steppes. But it can be hypothesized that like most nomadic societies, the majority of the adult population was liable for military service (including some of the younger women or Amazons). Now the tactical advantage of such a scope translated to how the bulk of the early Scythians had mounted warriors – mostly lightly armored with leather jackets and rudimentary headgear.

Carrying weapons such as arrows, javelins, and even darts, the hardiness, mobility and unorthodox fighting methods espoused by these throngs of horsemen seemingly countered the more ‘sedentary’ battle tactics of the wealthy Mesopotamian civilizations. Furthermore, the light troops were backed up by a core force of heavily-armored shock cavalry that was usually commanded by the local princes – and they took to the battlefield for the killing blow after the perplexed enemy was both ‘softened’ by the projectiles and harassed by zig-zag maneuvers.

6) The Celtic Warrior (circa 6th century BC – mid 1st millennium AD) –

Celts were often lightly armored. Ilustrasi oleh Angus McBride.

As opposed to the more specific cultures mentioned in this list, the Celts rather represent various population groups that lived in different parts of Europe (and even Asia and Africa) after the late Bronze Age. Now in spite of their ambit of diverse tribes, the Celts spoke pretty much the same language, while also showcasing their definitive art styles and military tendencies for the most part of their history. Pertaining to the latter scope, the ancient Celtic warrior had the reputation of fearlessness and ferocity – qualities that were conducive to many close-combat scenarios. Suffice it to say, the Celts served as mercenaries in various parts of the known world, ranging from colonies in Anatolia to the service of the Ptolemaic ‘Pharaohs’ of Egypt.

As for the history of the Celtic armies, they made their presence felt in the Mediterranean theater when the Gauls led by their king Bran (Brennus), sacked Rome in 390 BC. The Celts even managed to plunder the sacred site of Delphi in Greece in 290 BC, on their way to Asia Minor. Mirroring the sense of dread, this is what Polybius had to say about the fierce Celtic warriors, circa 2nd century BC –

The Romans…were terrified by the fine order of the Celtic host, and the dreadful din, for there were innumerable horn -blowers and trumpeters, and…the whole army were shouting their war-cries…Very terrifying too were the appearance and the gestures of the naked warriors in front, all in the prime of life and finely built men, and all in the leading companies richly adorned with gold torcs and armlets.

Interestingly enough, while the popular notion of a Celtic warrior is often limited to the physically imposing infantryman brandishing his shield and sword, a few ancient accounts also talk about other types of Celtic soldiers and formations. For example, Julius Caesar described how some of his Gaulish foes used light chariots with impressive maneuvering skills on the battlefield. And even more than two centuries before Caesar’s time, Hannibal made use of heavy Celtic cavalrymen who were instrumental in dismantling their Roman counterparts in the Battle of Cannae.

7) The Dacian Warrior (513 BC – first mentioned by Herodotus early 2nd century AD, Trajan’s war with Dacians) –

A Dacian (on the right) vs. a Roman. Credit: Jason Juta

Trajan engaged the war with hardened soldiers, who despised the Parthians, our enemy, and who didn’t care of their arrow blows, after the terrible wounds inflicted by the curved swords of the Dacians.

This was the rhetoric uttered by Marcus Cornelius Fronto (in Principia Historiae II), and the statement pretty much sums up the presumably devastating effect of the Dacian ‘specialty’ weapon of falx. An Indo-European people, related to the Thracians, the Dacians inhabited the regions of the Carpathian mountains (mostly encompassing modern-day Romania and Moldova).

Interestingly enough, from the cultural perspective, they were influenced by the urbanized Hellenic neighbors to their south, the Celtic invaders from their west and the nomadic Scythians from the Eurasian steppes – thus leading to a unique admixture of martial traditions that was pronounced in their warrior culture.

Now from the archaeological perspective, the skilled Getae-Dacian craftsmen showcased their penchant for furnishing iron weapons, as is evident from the profusion of iron reduction furnaces found across the ancient lands inhabited by the people, circa 300-200 BC. Intriguingly, beyond the weapons manufacturing scope of the Dacians, there was a social angle to the warrior society of these people, aptly represented by the aforementioned falx – a scythe-like weapon that curved ‘inwards’ sharply at the tip.

In that regard, these scythes, with their ability to puncture both helmets and shields, probably had their origins in rudimentary agricultural tools used by the farmers. So simply put, the dual nature of this weapon-type rather mirrors the dual role played by the ordinary folks of the Dacian society who frequently had to don the mantle of soldiers and protectors.

They were also complemented by the perceived upper-classes of the Dacians society – men who were allowed to wear caps and keep long beards. Dedicating most of their time in pursuit of martial activities, the Dacian elite provided the warriors who filled the role of tribal warlords, officers and even reputable divisions within the army (often wearing Sarmatian style scale mail and hardy Thracian helmets, while being equipped with the deadly falx and smaller sica). Moreover, there is also evidence of Dacian priests who used weapons like bows and spears in their rituals, thus suggesting how warfare was an intrinsic part of the Dacian culture.

8) The Roman Warrior (the ancient Roman Republic and Empire, 509 BC – 395 AD) –

Roman legionaries led by a centurion. Illustration by Peter Dennis. Credit: Warlord Games Ltd.

To talk about the ancient Romans in merely three paragraphs is indeed a fool’s errand. Nevertheless, as most history aficionados would know, the Romans in their greatest extent (circa 117 AD, the year of Emperor Trajan’s death) controlled the largest empire in the ancient world, stretching from Spain to Syria and Caucasus, and from North African coasts and Egypt to the northern confines of Britain. These conquests were all the more impressive considering Rome’s initial beginning (circa 9th-8th century BC) as a backwater region that was inhabited by cattle rustlers who made their camps and rudimentary dwellings among the hills and the swamplands.

Suffice it to say, the impressive conquests all over Europe, Asia and Africa were fueled by the ancient Roman warrior culture (and doctrine) that was based on sheer discipline and incredible organizational depth. This was complemented by the inherent Roman ability to adapt and learn from other military cultures.

Pertinent examples would include the initial Roman armies that were composed of ‘hoplites’ inspired by the Greeks of Magna Graecia. But over time they adopted maniples that were possibly influenced by other Italic people (and contemporary social conditions). Finally, this organizational scope gave way to legionaries, an ancient Roman equivalent of professional soldiery that was inspired by a mix of foreign influences, including that of Celts and Spaniards.

However, the greatest of Roman strengths probably pertained to their unflinching capacity to make ‘comebacks’ from balefully disastrous scenarios – because of a unique combination of (societal) logistics and warrior culture. A pertinent example relates to how the Battle of Cannae (a single encounter in 216 BC) possibly snatched away a significant chunk of the Roman male population. In terms of sheer numbers, the bloody day probably accounted for over 40,000 Roman deaths (the figure is put at 55,000 by Livy 70,000 by Polybius), which equated to about 80 percent of the Roman army fielded in the battle!

The male population of Rome in 216 BC is estimated to be around 400,000 and thus the Battle of Cannae possibly resulted in the deaths of around 1/10th – 1/20th of the Roman male population (considering there were also allied Italic casualties). So objectively, from the numerical context, the Romans lost anywhere between 5-10 percent of their male population in their bloodiest encounter for a single day. And yet they were ultimately victorious in the Second Punic War.

9) The Parthian Warrior (247 BC – 224 AD) –

Parthian cataphracts charging the Romans at the Battle of Carrhae (circa 53 BC).

The Parthians amalgamated the military tendencies of their nomadic brethren (like the Scythians) and the cultural legacy of the Achaemenid Persians. The result was a feudal society in the ancient times that was headed by powerful clans who maintained their political presence while granting autonomy to many urban and trading centers throughout the kingdom. As a consequence, the Parthian army was dominated by mounted warriors (an effect of their nomadic origins), with the core composed of the famed cataphracts dan clibanarii – heavily armored horsemen mounted atop Nisean chargers. These chosen retinues of the nobles were often accompanied by a multitude of lightly-armed horse-archers.

At times, especially during periods of a protracted war with the Romans, the Parthians also fielded infantry – though they were usually of mixed variety, with preference given to the hardy hill-folks from northern Persia, who were often supplemented by the poorly armed urban militia.

In essence, the military of the Parthians mirrored the armies of Europe during the early middle-ages, where the military (and political) leadership was focused on heavily armed mounted warriors, while the rest of the army played a rather supporting role. And these feudal orientations actually allude to the warrior culture ingrained in Parthian military norms, where the ‘knightly’ armored horsemen epitomized the crème de la crème of the Persian society – a cultural legacy carried forth by the future Sassanians.

And since we brought up the conflict of the Parthians with the Romans, the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC) can be counted among the first instances when the Romans came across the might of heavy cavalry, which was certainly a departure from infantry-dominated European battlefields of the ancient era. In terms of figures, the Romans had seven legions along with seven thousand auxiliary forces and a thousand Gallic crack cavalrymen which came to around a total of 45,000 to 52,000 men. On the other hand, the Parthians had around a total of 12,000 soldiers with at least 9,000 of them being horse archers recruited from Saka and Yue-Chi people, and 1,000 being cataphracts (super-heavy cavalry).

The battle in itself proved the superiority in the mobility of the Parthian horsemen, as they unleashed a hail of arrows upon the constrained formations of the legionary forces. Yang terakhir coup de grace was delivered by 1,000 tightly-packed cataphracts atop their mighty Nicean chargers – when they broke the ranks of the disarrayed Romans, who were already afflicted by the elusive horse archers of the steppes. Unsurprisingly, the unexpected defeat had long drawn repercussions, with the Romans (and later Eastern Romans) in time adopting many of the shock cavalry tactics of their eastern neighbors.

10) The Lusitanian Warrior (circa 2nd century BC) –

Paulus Orosius, the Gallaecian Catholic priest, called the Lusitanian hero Viriatus ‘Terror Romanorum’.

Unlike the other ancient warrior cultures mention in this list, the Lusitani (Lusitanians) preferred special tactics used during protracted conflicts, which entailed the very concept of ancient guerrilla warfare. Roughly occupying most of modern Portugal (south of Douro river) along with the central provinces of Spain, the Lusitani were a part of the Celt-Iberian group.

And quite oddly, unlike their Gallic neighbors or even kingdoms from across the Mediterranean Sea, the Lusitanian tribes were never warlike in the proper sense of the word. However, they did show their military acumen and even might, when provoked – as was the case during the Hispanic Wars and the campaigns of Lusitanian hero Viriatus against Rome. It is estimated that the Romans and their Italic allies lost around an astronomical 200,000 soldiers during the 20-year period of war between 153-133 BC!

And even beyond figures, it was the unique essence of unconventional warfare that really made the ancient Celt-Iberians stand out from their contemporaries. As Polybius had noted – the Hispanic Wars were different because of their unpredictability, with Lusitanians and other Celt-Iberians adopting the tactic of ‘consursare‘ (which is sometimes described as ‘lack of tactics’) that involved sudden advancements and confusing retreats in the heat of the battle. Their warrior society also followed a cult of the trim physique, with body slimness being rather accentuated by wearing wide yet tight belts around the waist!

Moreover, many of Lusitani young warriors were known to be the ‘desperados’ of ancient times because of their penchant for gathering riches through robberies. And herein lied their cultural ability to conduct armed encounters even during times of peace. As Greek historian Diodorus Siculus said –

There is a custom characteristic of the Iberians, but particularly of the Lusitans, that when they reach adulthood those men who stand out through their courage and daring provide themselves with weapons, and meet in the mountains. There they form large bands, to ride across Iberia gathering riches through robbery, and they do this with the most complete disdain towards all. For them the harshness of the mountains, and the hard life they lead there, are like their own home and there they look for refuge…

Rujukan Buku: The Spartan Army (By Nicholas Secunda) / The Ancient Assyrians (By Mark Healy) / The World of the Scythians (By Renate Rolle) / Cannae: Hannibal’s Greatest Victory (By Adrian Goldsworthy) / Rome and her Enemies (Editor Jane Penrose)

And in case we have not attributed or misattributed any image or artwork, please let us know via the ‘Contact Us’ link, provided both above the top bar and at the bottom bar of the page. To that end, given the vast ambit of the internet and with so many iterations of the said image (and artwork) in various channels, social media, and websites it sometimes becomes hard to track down the original artist/photographer/illustrator.


A Countdown Through History’s Most Elite and Deadly Warriors

The Janissaries were forced to swear allegiance to the Sultan and to live a celibate life. Wikimedia Commons.

6. The Janissaries were Europe&rsquos first standing army, hired by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire to protect him and forced to live a life of sacrifice and celibacy

Up until the 14 th century, there were no real standing armies in Europe instead, men would just be called up to fight as and when a king or lord needed them. Once a war was over, the men returned to their normal life. The Janissaries changed all this. They were not only the first modern standing army in all of Europe, they were also some of the most-disciplined soldiers the world had ever seen. Attached to the Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, they were subject to strict rules and regulations, making them reliable bodyguards and formidable opponents on the field of battle.

The Janissary unit was established towards the end of the 14 th century. The Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Murad I, ordered that a group of Christian men taken as prisoner of war be converted to Islam and then serve as his personal soldiers. He was so impressed with the results of his little project that he ordered that it be repeated. So, whenever they got the opportunity, troops of the Ottoman Empire would take young Christian boys, usually from the Balkans region, make them convert, and then train them as soldiers.

Following on from the reign of Murad I, the unit grew in size and in strength. The Janissaries became known as the Sultan&rsquos most reliable fighting unit. They were known for their bravery and their speed. In a battle or siege, they would wait for the frontline troops to pierce a hole in the enemy&rsquos defenses and then they would attack, swarming in and showing no mercy with their bows or muskets. Such a tactic was particularly effective during the siege of Constantinople in 1453, and it also enabled the Ottoman Empire to defeat the Egyptian Mamluks &ndash themselves an elite group of warriors &ndash in 1467.

To maintain their discipline, Janissaries were forbidden from taking romantic partners. They were forced to live a life of celibacy. Moreover, they were expected to devote their lives, and their deaths, to the Sultan himself. In return, they were granted elevated status in the Empire, along with good pay and other benefits. Despite the celibacy rule, many regular soldiers and then civilians wanted to be part of the unit. By 1826, Sultan Mahmud II, anxious that the corps had forgotten its original purpose, had it disbanded. To make sure it was finished for good, he had more than 6,000 Janissaries executed.


The transcendence of a military culture to a military ‘caste&rsquo is a very subtle transition, but if one needs a definition of a military caste to work with, then look no further than the Samurai. When observance of the rituals of military culture become interchangeable with the rituals of religion, and when military regalia and weaponry became an artistic statement in themselves, then that is a military caste &ndash and that remains very much the methodology of the Samurai.

Samurai, as just about everyone knows, originated in Japan, and today forms the bedrock of the nation&rsquos political and business elite. The origins of Samurai can be traced to the Japanese ‘Heian Period&rsquo, between 794 and 1185 CE, during which time the term simply described the private armies of wealthy landowners. The word ‘Samurai&rsquo translates roughly to ‘Those Who Serve&rsquo, and early Samurai were no more than a group of armed retainers with simple and violent tendencies.

As was the case with the Mamluk, however, it was not long before a kind of group cohesion began to develop, gradually elevating the Samurai towards something a bit more than the sum of its parts. By the 12th century, the power balance in Japan began to shift away from the imperial court towards the heads of dispersed families and clans, and this inevitably led to war. Between 1180 and 1185, what was known as the ‘Gempei War&rsquo was fought. All that we need to know about this is that it projected a particularly gifted Samurai warlord, Minamoto Yoshitsune, to political power.

Japan then effectively became an hereditary military dictatorship, under a system of government known as a ‘Shogun&rsquo. Under numerous Shogun dynasties, the institution of Samurai became a virtual knighthood of privileged elites, practising a stylized and heavily ritualized system of military and combat discipline. Into the equation, at about the same time, came Zen Buddhism, the essential ideological elements of which blended very well with Samurai. Austerity and simple ritual, along with a belief that salvation comes from within, quickly became the center of Samurai expression.

As its essential symbol, the Samurai sword gained great symbolic relevance, far beyond its utility as an implement of war. The honor of a Samurai resides in his sword, and the artistic accomplishment in the production of an individual sword is of no less importance.

From this higher form of martial expression came the code of ‘Bushido&rsquo. Bushido is the defining moral code of Samurai, and of the Shinto region. Shinto is a wholly Japanese religion emphasizing the veneration of nature, of ancestors and great historic heroes, and the divinity of the Emperor.

Samurai, therefore, morphed over centuries from a band of hired enforcers to a finely tuned military culture that still holds dear its treasured rituals and artefacts, and adheres religiously to tradition.


Tonton videonya: 11 PAHLAWAN NASIONAL ASAL SULAWESI SELATAN